Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Part 1

Summary, principles and use

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The Nordic countries have collaborated in setting guidelines for dietary composition and recommended intakes of nutrients for several decades through the joint publication of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). The 5th edition, the NNR 2012, gives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for nutrient intakes, but more emphasis than in earlier editions has been put on evaluating scientific evidence for the role played by dietary patterns and food groups that could contribute to the prevention of the major dietrelated chronic diseases. A Nordic perspective has been accounted for in setting the recommendations. The NNR 2012 has used an evidencebased and transparent approach in assessing associations between dietary patterns, foods and nutrients and specific health outcomes. Systematic reviews (SRs) form the basis for the recommendations of several nutrients and topics, while a less stringent update has been done for others. SRs and individual chapters have been peer reviewed. The draft chapters were also subject to an open public consultation. The present publication contains three parts: a summary of the recommendations, background and principles for the derivation of DRVs and use of the NNR. The documentation of the scientific basis for individual nutrients and topics will be included in a subsequent publication.



Intake of vitamins and minerals in the Nordic countries

If a diet provides enough food to cover the energy requirements, complies with the ranges for distribution of energy from macronutrients, is varied and includes food from all food groups, the requirements for practically all nutrients will be covered. Exceptions might be vitamin D, iron, iodine and folate in subgroups of the population. The nutrient density of average diets in the Nordic countries is presented in Table 1. Data are calculated from recent national dietary surveys. Some of the pronounced differences may be explained by different dietary patterns (i.e. consumption of fish), levels of micronutrients added to foods (vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, iron and iodine) or differences in soil and composition of fertilizers (selenium). There may also be significant differences caused by the various survey methods and calculation procedures, e.g. recipes and correction for losses in cooking. Contributions to intakes of vitamins and minerals from supplements are not included.


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