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International Migration Outlook 2018

image of International Migration Outlook 2018

The 2018 edition of International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and some non member countries, and looks at the evolution of the labour market outcomes of immigrants in OECD countries, with a focus on the migrants’ job quality and on the sections and occupations in which they are concentrated. It includes two special chapters on the contribution of recent refugee flows to the labour force and on the illegal employment of foreign workers. It also includes country notes and a statistical annex.

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Estonia

Net migration in Estonia in 2016 was positive for the third year in a row. According to Statistics Estonia, 14 800 persons immigrated to and 13 800 persons emigrated from Estonia in 2016, making net migration slightly more than 1 000. Most of the migrants were Estonian citizens (48% of immigrants and 66% of emigrants). Net migration of Estonian nationals was negative. As of 2016, Statistics Estonia calculates external migration based on a residency index: a person’s transition from resident to non-resident is emigration and the opposite is immigration (excluding birth or death). As a result, recorded migration flows have increased and must be taken into account when comparing 2016 migration data with those of previous years. Estonian external migration statistics now better reflect reality, even though the country of origin and destination of many immigrants and emigrants remains unknown.

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