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International Migration Outlook 2008

image of International Migration Outlook 2008

This edition focuses on the employment situation of immigrants. For the first time, this report presents a “scoreboard” of labour-market integration of immigrants, as well as an analysis of wage differentials between immigrants and the native-born.



The publication also examines the new laws governing immigrants’ entry, stay and access to the labour market. The selective recruitment of immigrants according to labour market needs is described, as are measures to facilitate the integration of immigrants. International cooperation to improve border control and to combat irregular migration is analysed in detail.



Two special chapters analyse topical issues. The first addresses the management of migration of lower-skilled workers and reviews the different types of existing temporary and permanent programmes. Special attention is devoted to the issue of illegal employment of  foreigners and to regularisation programmes.  The second chapter presents an in-depth study of return migration and looks at its impact on the economic development of sending countries.



A dynamic link (StatLink) is provided for each table and graph. It directs the user to a web page where the corresponding data are available in Excel® format.





 

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Italy

Permanent immigration to Italy continues to be significant and largely employment based. Labour immigration is subject to annual numerical limits (“quotas”) applied to employer requests for foreign workers. These quotas have been raised over the past few years to meet forecasted demand. In both 2006 and 2007 the quotas were set at 170 000, twice the 2005 figure. About 520 000 applications for permits were made in 2006, when employers filed requests through the post office. The government later decided to accept all applications, but administrative delays meant that most applications were not considered until the end of 2006, when Romanian and Bulgarian citizens became exempt from the procedure. Excluding Romanian and Bulgarian citizens, as well as incomplete and duplicate applications, the actual number of applications approved was about 253 000. The 2007 quotas contained a larger number of reserved set-asides than the previous year.

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