International Migration Outlook 2008

image of International Migration Outlook 2008

This edition focuses on the employment situation of immigrants. For the first time, this report presents a “scoreboard” of labour-market integration of immigrants, as well as an analysis of wage differentials between immigrants and the native-born.

The publication also examines the new laws governing immigrants’ entry, stay and access to the labour market. The selective recruitment of immigrants according to labour market needs is described, as are measures to facilitate the integration of immigrants. International cooperation to improve border control and to combat irregular migration is analysed in detail.

Two special chapters analyse topical issues. The first addresses the management of migration of lower-skilled workers and reviews the different types of existing temporary and permanent programmes. Special attention is devoted to the issue of illegal employment of  foreigners and to regularisation programmes.  The second chapter presents an in-depth study of return migration and looks at its impact on the economic development of sending countries.

A dynamic link (StatLink) is provided for each table and graph. It directs the user to a web page where the corresponding data are available in Excel® format.


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Migration from and to Bulgaria appears to have increased markedly in 2006 and 2007 in light of Bulgaria’s accession to the European Union on 1 January 2007. However, the impact on outflows has been somewhat more limited than expected. Emigration had already accelerated following the liberalisation of the visa regimes for Bulgarian citizens since 2001. Postaccession labour migration from Bulgaria has mainly concentrated in the Southern European countries Spain, Italy and Greece – in spite of the fact that none of these countries have fully opened their labour market to Bulgarian nationals. There are some indications, however, that many of the Bulgarian nationals concerned were already in these countries prior to accession.

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