Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2015

Settling In

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This joint publication by the OECD and the European Commission presents the first broad international comparison across all EU and OECD countries of the outcomes for immigrants and their children, through 27 indicators organised around five areas: Employment, education and skills, social inclusion, civic engagement and social cohesion (Chapters 5 to 12). Three chapters present detailed contextual information (demographic and immigrant-specific) for immigrants and immigrant households (Chapters 2 to 4). Two special chapters are dedicated to specific groups. The first group is that of young people with an immigrant background, whose outcomes are often seen as the benchmark for the success or failure of integration. The second group are third-country nationals in the European Union, who are the target of EU integration policy.

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Immigrants' health status and their health care

Health is integral to wellbeing and affects the degree and manner of engagement with society as a whole. Healthier immigrants are able to work and earn more and can build broader social networks. Fuller integration in turn improves health outcomes, as immigrants increasingly have the ability to seek health care when needed.Socio-demographic characteristics such as gender and age, participation in risky behaviour (e.g. drinking alcohol or smoking), and living and working conditions are among the most important determinants of health. As immigrants generally have to be in good health to be able to migrate, they tend to be healthier than non-migrants – the so-called healthy migrant effect, which fades with the length of residence, however.The quality of life in the country of origin, the migration process itself, and working and living conditions in the host country also affect health outcomes. Some migrant groups, such as refugees, are particularly vulnerable and may be more prone to certain diseases or mental disorders. The migratory experience itself can cause stress, which may affect migrants’ health outcomes in different ways down the line, depending on socio-economic and health conditions in the home country and how well they settle in the host country. Nutritional habits in the country of origin may also affect health outcomes in the medium-to-long term. Age, educational attainment, and income, too, are important determinants of health.This chapter analyses self-reported health () and the lack of medical treatment () both among immigrants and the native-born. Data-related issues are discussed in Data limitations at the end of this chapter.

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