Health at a Glance 2023

OECD Indicators

image of Health at a Glance 2023

Health at a Glance provides a comprehensive set of indicators on population health and health system performance across OECD members and key emerging economies. These cover health status, risk factors for health, access to and quality of healthcare, and health system resources. Analysis draws from the latest comparable official national statistics and other sources.

Alongside indicator-by-indicator analysis, an overview chapter summarises the comparative performance of countries and major trends. This edition also has a special focus on digital health, which measures the digital readiness of OECD countries’ health systems, and outlines what countries need to do accelerate the digital health transformation.

English Also available in: French

Pharmaceutical research and development

Pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) is funded via a mix of private and public sources. Governments typically fund basic and early-stage research through budget allocations, research grants and public ownership of research and higher education institutions. The pharmaceutical industry funds R&D across all phases and most pre‑registration clinical trials, but mostly contributes to translating and applying knowledge to develop products, with some support from R&D subsidies or tax credits. In 2021, governments in 35 OECD countries for which data are available, collectively budgeted USD 69 billion for health-related R&D. While this figure goes beyond pharmaceuticals, it understates total government support, as it excludes most tax incentives and funding for higher education and publicly owned enterprises. About two‑thirds of this was spent in the United States (USD 45 billion), which also spent the most as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) (Figure 9.9). Since 2010, government-allocated budgets for health-related R&D have increased by 45%.

English Also available in: French


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