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Coping with Emigration in Baltic and East European Countries

image of Coping with Emigration in Baltic and East European Countries

The Baltic countries have experienced sustained emigration over the past decade, contributing to population decline and a loss of working-age population. The impact of this emigration is felt strongly in the labour market, the general economy and in social developments. How can countries deal with the impact of high levels of emigration? How to attract back emigrants? How best to benefit from the financial, social and human capital developed abroad? The Baltic countries are not alone in addressing these challenges, and this volume brings together the recent experience of Poland and Romania, as well as a wide range of OECD countries, in developing new policies to cope with emigration.

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The social and economic impact of emigration on Lithuania

This chapter examines migration flows from Lithuania, historically a country with significant emigration. The changing characteristics of this migration since 1990 and their relationship to economic conditions in Lithuania and EU accession are examined. The distinction between declared and undeclared migration is explored. The impact of the 2008-11 economic crisis on migration is described, including its impact on return migration and choice of destination country. The chapter examines the changing characteristics of emigrants, in terms of their age and family situation as well as their education level and employment status. The effect of remittances is discussed, and the chapter concludes with a review of policy responses in Lithuania.

English

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