Coping with Emigration in Baltic and East European Countries

image of Coping with Emigration in Baltic and East European Countries

The Baltic countries have experienced sustained emigration over the past decade, contributing to population decline and a loss of working-age population. The impact of this emigration is felt strongly in the labour market, the general economy and in social developments. How can countries deal with the impact of high levels of emigration? How to attract back emigrants? How best to benefit from the financial, social and human capital developed abroad? The Baltic countries are not alone in addressing these challenges, and this volume brings together the recent experience of Poland and Romania, as well as a wide range of OECD countries, in developing new policies to cope with emigration.



Matching the skills of return migrants to labour market needs in Poland

The chapter looks at the phenomenon of recent return migration to Poland with special emphasis on the labour market performance of returnees. The chapter examines the post-2004 migration in terms of its characteristics, including the extent to which it has been temporary migration, and assesses the share of the population with migration experience. Differences between migrants and those without migration experience are examined, and a distinction is made returning migrants who left before or after 2004. The impact of migration experience on labour market outcomes is examined, including in terms of unemployment and entrepreneurial activity, and some explanation for this impact is provided. The chapter concludes with a discussion of policies to support returning migrants and lessons from these programmes.


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