Chapter 1. Country dashboards

The aim of this chapter is to show a set of key indicators to compare performance across countries in each of the following dimensions:

  • Health status

  • Risk factors for health

  • Quality of care

  • Health care resources

For each dimension, a set of 4-5 indicators is presented in the form of country dashboards. The indicators are selected based on their policy relevance, but also on data availability and interpretability. Indicators where coverage is highest are therefore prioritised.

In order to assess comparative performance across countries, each country is classified for every indicator based on how they compare against the income group-specific median. Therefore, countries significantly above/below their respective group will be classified as better/worse than average (▲/▼), with the remaining countries classified as close to the average (⦿). This applies to all indicators, with a caveat for the dashboard on health care resources: given the nature of the indicators presented, whereas they cannot be classified as better or worse performance, the arrows simply imply that the values are significantly higher or lower than the median. The dashboard on quality of care does not split the countries across income groups due to data coverage limitations.

Methodology

In order to allow for cross-country comparisons of performance, countries are split according to their income group (high income, upper-middle income, lower-middle and low income). The central tendency measures presented, for all indicators and income groups, are medians.

In order to classify countries as “better than”, “close to”, or “worse than” the central tendency of any indicator, a measure of statistical dispersion is needed to compute the reasonable range for values close to the central tendency value, with anything above or below classified accordingly. The preferred measure is the Median Absolute Deviation (MAD), since it is a robust measure that is both more efficient and less biased than a simple standard deviation when outliers are present.

Countries are classified as “better than median” if they lie above the median + 1 MAD, “worse than median” if they lie below the median – 1 MAD, and “close to the median” if they lie within ± 1 MAD from the median.

Health status

The five indicators used to compare health status are life expectancy at birth for males (2016), life expectancy at birth for females (2016), survival to age 65 for males (2016), survival to age 65 for females (2016), and under age 5 mortality rate per 1 000 live births (2016).

Table 1.1. Dashboard on health status

▲ Better than ⦿ Close to ▼ Worse than

group-specific central tendency

Country

LE (M) at birth

LE (F) at birth

Survival to age 65 (M)

Survival to age 65 (F)

Under age 5 mortality rate

In years

In years

%

%

Per 1 000 live births

High income

80.6

84.9

88.8

93.9

3.4

Australia

81

84.8

⦿

89.5

93.6

3.7

⦿

Brunei Darussalam

75.3

77.6

83.6

88.2

9.9

Hong Kong, China

81.2

86.8

89.3

⦿

94.4

2.5

Japan

81.1

⦿

87.1

88.3

⦿

94.1

⦿

2.7

⦿

Korea, Rep.

79.5

85.6

⦿

87.0

94.3

3.4

⦿

Macau, China

78.4

82.8

90.2

95.9

New Zealand

80.5

⦿

84

⦿

88.5

⦿

92.0

5.4

Singapore

80.8

⦿

85

⦿

89.6

93.6

⦿

2.8

⦿

Upper-middle income

72.5

77.7

74.5

86.0

11.0

China

75

77.9

⦿

83.5

87.8

9.9

⦿

Fiji

67.1

73.1

64.9

78.3

22.0

Malaysia

73.2

⦿

77.6

⦿

76.5

⦿

86.2

8.3

Thailand

71.8

⦿

79.3

72.6

⦿

85.8

⦿

12.2

⦿

Lower-middle & low income

67.3

71.6

67.2

77.2

30.6

Bangladesh

71.1

74.4

73.0

79.2

⦿

34.2

⦿

Cambodia

67.3

⦿

71.2

⦿

67.3

⦿

76.6

⦿

30.6

⦿

India

67.4

⦿

70.3

⦿

66.8

⦿

74.7

43.0

Indonesia

67.3

⦿

71.4

⦿

67.1

⦿

76.5

⦿

26.4

⦿

Korea, DPR

67

⦿

74

⦿

20.0

Lao PDR

64.2

67.4

65.0

⦿

71.8

63.9

Mongolia

65.7

⦿

74.2

58.6

78.6

⦿

17.9

Myanmar

64.6

68.9

63.3

⦿

72.8

50.8

Nepal

68.8

⦿

71.6

⦿

71.4

78.1

⦿

34.5

⦿

Pakistan

65.7

⦿

67.4

67.6

⦿

72.4

78.8

Papua New Guinea

63.6

68.3

58.8

68.8

54.3

Philippines

66.2

⦿

72.6

⦿

61.6

77.9

⦿

27.1

⦿

Solomon Islands

69.7

72.7

⦿

72.4

78.8

⦿

25.8

⦿

Sri Lanka

72.1

78.5

73.1

87.8

9.4

Viet Nam

71.7

80.9

73.1

88.0

21.6

⦿

Risk factors

The five indicators used to compare risk factors are the age-standardised prevalence estimates for daily tobacco smoking among persons aged 15 and above (2015), recorded alcohol consumption in litres per capita among persons aged 15 and above (2015), the share of population with access to basic sanitation (2015), the share of population with access to basic drinking water (2015) and the prevalence of overweight among adolescent (crude estimates, 2016).

Table 1.2. Dashboard on risk factors for health

▲ Better than ⦿ Close to ▼ Worse than

group-specific central tendency

Country

Smoking

Alcohol consumption

Access to basic sanitation

Access to basic drinking water

Adolescents overweight

% of daily smokers

Liters per capita

% population

% population

% population aged 10-19 years

High income

14.7

 

6.8

100

100

25.0

Australia

13.4

⦿

9.7

100

⦿

100

⦿

33.1

Brunei Darussalam

13.2

1.0

96

100

⦿

25.1

⦿

Hong Kong, China

14.9

⦿

2.8

96

100

⦿

 

Japan

19.1

7.6

⦿

100

⦿

99

⦿

12.7

Korea, Rep.

22.1

9.3

⦿

100

⦿

100

⦿

24.9

⦿

Macau, China

25.1

6.1

⦿

100

⦿

 

New Zealand

14.6

⦿

8.7

⦿

100

⦿

100

⦿

38.2

Singapore

13.3

1.8

100

⦿

100

⦿

21.2

⦿

Upper-middle income

17.1

4.0

95

96

25.3

China

22.4

5.8

⦿

75

96

⦿

25.2

⦿

Fiji

14.9

2.3

⦿

96

⦿

94

33

Malaysia

17.4

⦿

0.5

100

96

⦿

25.3

⦿

Thailand

16.9

⦿

6.4

95

⦿

98

20.4

Lower-middle & low income

18.7

2.1

59

88

11.4

Bangladesh

20.4

⦿

47

⦿

97

8.4

Cambodia

15.5

⦿

2.1

⦿

49

⦿

75

10.4

⦿

India

10.5

3.1

⦿

44

88

⦿

6.3

Indonesia

33.6

68

⦿

90

⦿

14.2

Korea, DPR

3.4

⦿

77

100

 

Lao PDR

25.1

5.4

80

⦿

12.5

⦿

Mongolia

22.2

5.8

59

⦿

83

⦿

16.7

Myanmar

16.2

⦿

0.7

⦿

65

⦿

68

10.7

⦿

Nepal

17.6

⦿

0.3

46

⦿

88

⦿

7

Pakistan

10.3

⦿

58

⦿

89

⦿

9.2

⦿

Papua New Guinea

31.1

0.9

⦿

19

37

30.6

Philippines

18.9

⦿

4.5

75

91

⦿

12

⦿

Solomon Islands

1.0

⦿

31

64

23.6

Sri Lanka

9.9

2.4

⦿

94

92

12

⦿

Viet Nam

18.7

⦿

4.1

78

91

⦿

8.6

Quality of care

The five indicators used to compare quality of care are the five-year net survival rate for breast cancer, cervical cancer and colon cancer among persons aged 15 and above (2014), and vaccination rates for diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP3) and measles (MCV) among children aged around 1 (2016).

Table 1.3. Dashboard on quality of care

▲ Better than ⦿ Close to ▼ Worse than

central tendency

Country

Breast cancer

Cervical cancer

Colon cancer

DTP3

MCV

Five-year survival rate

Five-year survival rate

Five-year survival rate

Coverage (%)

Coverage (%)

Median

83.2

66.1

59.7

96

95

Australia

89.5

66.4

⦿

70.7

94

⦿

95

⦿

Bangladesh

 

 

 

97

⦿

94

⦿

Brunei Darussalam

 

 

 

99

98

⦿

Cambodia

 

 

 

90

81

China

83.2

⦿

67.6

⦿

57.6

⦿

99

99

Fiji

 

 

 

99

94

⦿

Hong Kong, China

83.3

⦿

65.8

⦿

56.4

⦿

 

 

India

66.1

59.0

38.9

88

88

Indonesia

 

 

 

79

76

Japan

89.4

71.4

67.8

99

96

⦿

Korea, DPR

96

⦿

99

Korea, Rep.

86.6

⦿

77.3

71.8

98

⦿

98

⦿

Lao PDR

 

 

 

82

76

Macau, China

 

 

 

 

 

Malaysia

65.0

57.1

55.9

⦿

98

⦿

96

⦿

Mongolia

76.1

 

 

99

98

⦿

Myanmar

 

 

 

90

91

⦿

Nepal

 

 

 

87

83

New Zealand

87.6

⦿

67.4

⦿

64.0

⦿

92

92

⦿

Pakistan

 

 

 

72

61

Papua New Guinea

 

 

 

72

70

Philippines

 

 

 

86

80

Singapore

80.3

⦿

63.4

⦿

61.7

⦿

97

⦿

95

⦿

Solomon Islands

 

 

 

99

99

Sri Lanka

 

 

 

99

99

Thailand

68.7

53.9

47.0

99

99

Viet Nam

 

 

 

96

⦿

99

Health care resources

The four indicators used to compare health care resources are health expenditure per capita in USD international (2015), the share of out-of-pocket spending in total current health spending (2015), the per capita expenditure on pharmaceuticals in USD international (2015) and the number of hospital beds per 1 000 population (2016).

Table 1.4. Dashboard on health care resources

▲ Better than ⦿ Close to ▼ Worse than

group-specific central tendency

Country

Health spending

Out-of-pocket

Pharma spending

Beds per 1 000 population

USD international per capita

Share of health spending

USD international per capita

Number

High income

3 605.7

19.6

564.8

3.3

Australia

4 491.6

19.6

⦿

616.8

⦿

3.8

⦿

Brunei Darussalam

2 083.4

6.0

 

2.8

⦿

Hong Kong, China

 

 

 

4.0

⦿

Japan

4 405.1

13.1

⦿

792.5

13.1

Korea, Rep.

2 556.0

36.8

512.8

⦿

12.0

Macau, China

 

 

 

2.5

New Zealand

3 530.1

⦿

 

 

2.7

⦿

Singapore

3 681.3

⦿

31.6

232.7

1.8

Upper-middle income

686.2

26.9

189.9

2.2

China

762.2

⦿

32.4

⦿

332.8

5.4

Fiji

331.4

21.4

⦿

47.1

2.3

⦿

Malaysia

1 063.9

36.7

 

1.3

Thailand

610.2

⦿

11.8

 

2.1

⦿

Lower-middle & low income

223.7

50.9

59.9

1.2

Bangladesh

88.0

71.8

42.9

⦿

0.8

⦿

Cambodia

209.6

⦿

59.4

⦿

64.8

⦿

0.8

⦿

India

237.7

⦿

65.1

 

0.7

Indonesia

369.3

48.3

⦿

 

1.2

⦿

Korea, DPR

 

 

 

14.3

Lao PDR

165.8

⦿

45.4

⦿

23.4

1.5

⦿

Mongolia

469.6

39.3

⦿

60.6

⦿

7.0

Myanmar

267.2

⦿

73.9

111.5

0.9

⦿

Nepal

150.6

⦿

60.4

⦿

59.1

⦿

1.2

⦿

Pakistan

134.4

⦿

66.5

32.2

0.6

Papua New Guinea

98.6

5.8

 

 

Philippines

322.8

53.5

⦿

137.8

0.5

Solomon Islands

173.0

⦿

3.3

25.6

1.4

⦿

Sri Lanka

353.1

38.4

 

3.8

Viet Nam

334.3

43.5

⦿

66.9

⦿

2.6

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