Executive summary

A key component of the transparency pillar of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) minimum standards is the obligation for all large multinational enterprise groups (MNE Groups) to file a Country-by-Country (CbC) report. The Action 13 Report (Transfer Pricing Documentation and Country-by-Country Reporting) provides a template for these MNE Groups to report annually, and for each tax jurisdiction in which they do business, the amount of revenue, profit before income tax and income tax paid and accrued, as well as the number of employees, stated capital, retained earnings and tangible assets. MNE Groups should also identify each entity within the group doing business in a particular jurisdiction and provide an indication of the business activities each entity engages in. In 2018, for the first time, tax authorities around the world received information on large foreign-headed MNE Groups which was not previously available, enabling them to grasp the structure of the businesses while enhancing their risk assessment capacity.

In general, the Ultimate Parent Entity (UPE) of an MNE Group will prepare and file its CbC report with the tax administration in its jurisdiction of tax residence. That tax administration will automatically exchange the CbC report with the tax administration in each jurisdiction listed in the CbC report as being a place in which the MNE Group has a Constituent Entity resident for tax purposes. This will be carried out under an International Agreement (such as the Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (MAAC), a Double Tax Convention (DTC) or a Tax Information Exchange Agreement (TIEA) permitting automatic exchange of information (AEOI). A Qualifying Competent Authority Agreement (QCAA) that sets out the operational details of the exchange of CbC reports will also need to be in place.

As one of the four BEPS minimum standards, the Country-by-Country reporting (CbCR) requirements contained in the 2015 Action 13 Report are subject to peer review in order to ensure timely and accurate implementation and thus safeguard the level playing field. All members of the Inclusive Framework on BEPS commit to implementing the Action 13 minimum standard and to participating in the peer review, on an equal footing. The peer review process focuses on three key elements of the minimum standard: (i) the domestic legal and administrative framework, (ii) the exchange of information (EOI) framework and (iii) the confidentiality and appropriate use of CbC reports.

Implementation of CbC Reporting is well underway as the peer review process evidences: over 90 jurisdictions have now introduced an obligation for relevant MNE Groups to file a CbC report in their domestic legal framework.

This is the third annual peer review for the Action 13 minimum standard. It covers 131 jurisdictions which provided legislation and /or information relating to the implementation of CbC Reporting.

For each jurisdiction, the review covered the domestic legal and administrative framework, the exchange of information framework and measures in place to ensure the confidentiality and appropriate use of CbC reports.

The key findings of the third annual peer review are as follows:

  • Domestic legal and administrative framework: Over 90 jurisdictions have a domestic legal framework for CbC reporting in place. In addition, a number of jurisdictions have final legislation approved that is awaiting official publication. In this peer review report, 41 jurisdictions have received a general recommendation to put in place or finalise their domestic legal or administrative framework and 34 jurisdictions received one or more recommendations for improvements to specific areas of their framework.

  • Exchange of information framework: In total 76 jurisdictions have multilateral or bilateral competent authority agreements in place.

  • Confidentiality: Of the jurisdictions included in this review, 78 have undergone an assessment by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes (the Global Forum) concerning confidentiality and data safeguards in the context of implementing the AEOI standard and did not receive any action plan. In contrast, 10 jurisdictions are currently working on an action plan issued by the Global Forum as a consequence of its review.

  • Appropriate use: 82 jurisdictions have provided detailed information, enabling the Inclusive Framework to obtain sufficient assurance that measures are in place to ensure the appropriate use of CbC reports.

A number of Inclusive Framework members are not included in this peer review report, either because they joined the Inclusive Framework after 1 December 2019 (at which point it was too late to incorporate them into the current peer review process) or they opted out of the peer review in accordance with the peer review terms of reference. Jurisdictions opting out of the peer review are required to confirm that they do not have any resident entities that are the UPE of an MNE group above the consolidated revenue threshold and that they will not require local filing of CbC reports. Members of the Inclusive Framework that are not included in this peer review report are:

  • Albania

  • Burkina Faso

  • Cook Islands

  • Honduras

  • Montenegro

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis.

The peer review of the Action 13 minimum standard is an annual process. Work will continue to monitor the implementation and operation of CbC reporting by members of the Inclusive Framework and to highlight progress made by jurisdictions to address recommendations that have been made.


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The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

Note by Turkey
The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”.

Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union
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