This Survey is published on the responsibility of the Economic and Development Review Committee of the OECD, which is charged with the examination of the economic situation of member countries.

The economic situation and policies of the Netherlands were reviewed by the Committee on 21 January 2016. The draft report was then revised in the light of the discussions and given final approval as the agreed report of the whole Committee on 9 February 2016.

The Secretariat’s draft report was prepared for the Committee by Rafal Kierzenkowski, Sanne Zwart and Gabor Fulop under the supervision of Pierre Beynet. Research assistance was provided by Gabor Fulop and Secretarial assistance was provided by Sylvie Ricordeau. The Survey also benefitted from external consultancy work (Aleksandra Paciorek).

The previous Survey of the Netherlands was issued in April 2014.

  
Basic statistics of the Netherlands, 2014
(Numbers in parentheses refer to the OECD average)1

LAND, PEOPLE AND ELECTORAL CYCLE

Population (million)

16.9

Population density per km²

407.7

(34.9)

Under 15 (%)

17.0

(18.1)

Life expectancy (years, 2013)

81.4

(80.5)

Over 65 (%)

17.5

(16.0)

Men

79.5

(77.8)

Foreign-born (%, 2013)

11.6

Women

83.2

(83.1)

Latest 5-year average growth (%)

0.5

(0.6)

Latest general election

September 2012

ECONOMY

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Value added shares (%)

In current prices (billion USD)

880.8

Primary sector

1.8

(2.5)

In current prices (billion EUR)

662.9

Industry including construction

21.2

(26.8)

Latest 5-year average real growth (%)

0.5

(1.9)

Services

77.0

(70.7)

Per capita (000 USD PPP)

48.1

(39.3)

GENERAL GOVERNMENT Per cent of GDP

Expenditure

46.2

(42.7)

Gross financial debt

80.9

(118.7)

Revenue

43.9

(38.5)

Net financial debt

43.7

(76.1)

EXTERNAL ACCOUNTS

Exchange rate (EUR per USD)

0.753

Main exports (% of total merchandise exports)

PPP exchange rate (USA = 1)

0.814

Machinery and transport equipment

26.8

In per cent of GDP

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.

17.2

Exports of goods and services

82.9

(53.8)

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

16.9

Imports of goods and services

71.5

(49.8)

Main imports (% of total merchandise imports)

Current account balance

10.6

(0.0)

Machinery and transport equipment

28.6

Net international investment position

54.9

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

21.1

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.

12.3

LABOUR MARKET, SKILLS AND INNOVATION

Employment rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

73.1

(65.7)

Unemployment rate, Labour Force Survey (age 15 and over) (%)

7.4

(7.3)

Men

78.2

(73.6)

Youth (age 15-24, %)

12.8

(15.1)

Women

68.1

(57.9)

Long-term unemployed (1 year and over, %)

2.7

(2.5)

Participation rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

79.0

(71.2)

Tertiary educational attainment 25-64 year-olds (%, 2013)

33.9

(33.3)

Average hours worked per year

1 425

(1 770)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (% of GDP, 2013)

2.0

(2.4)

ENVIRONMENT

Total primary energy supply per capita (toe)

4.3

(4.1)

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion per capita (tonnes, 2013)

9.3

(9.6)

Renewables (%)

4.6

(9.1)

Water abstractions per capita (1 000 m3,2012)

0.6

Fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, μg/m3, 2013)

16.8

(13.8)

Municipal waste per capita (tonnes, 2013)

0.5

(0.5)

SOCIETY

Income inequality (Gini coefficient, 2013)

0.278

(0.308)

Education outcomes (PISA score, 2012)

Relative poverty rate (%, 2013)

7.9

(10.9)

Reading

511

(496)

Median equivalised household income (000 USD PPP, 2010)

24.9

(20.4)

Mathematics

523

(494)

Public and private spending (% of GDP)

Science

522

(501)

Health care, current expenditure

11.1

(8.9)

Share of women in parliament (%, December 2015)

36.4

(27.7)

Pensions (2011)

6.4

(8.7)

Net official development assistance (% of GNI)

0.64

(0.37)

Education (primary, secondary, post sec. non tertiary, 2012)

3.8

(3.7)

Better life index: www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org

1. Where the OECD aggregate is not provided in the source database, a simple OECD average of latest available data is calculated where data exist for at least 29 member countries.

Source: Calculations based on data extracted from the databases of the following organisations: OECD, International Energy Agency, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Inter-Parliamentary Union.