This Survey is published on the responsibility of the Economic and Development Review Committee of the OECD, which is charged with the examination of the economic situation of member countries.

The economic situation and policies of Italy were reviewed by the Committee on 11 January 2017. The draft was revised in the light of the discussions and given final approval as the agreed report of the whole Committee on 24 January 2017.

The Secretariat’s draft report was prepared for the Committee by Mauro Pisu and Paula Garda under the direct supervision of Patrick Lenain and Asa Johansson, and the general supervision of Alvaro Pereira and Robert Ford. Statistical research assistance was provided by Damien Azzopardi and Milenko Fadic and administrative support by Brigitte Beyeler and Raquel Paramo.

The Survey also benefitted from contributions by Dan Andrews, Silvia Appelt, David Bartolini, Piet Battiau, Fabio Berton, Bert Bryce, Joanne Caddy, Flippo Cavassini, Thomas Dannequin, Emma Duchini, Michael Hewetson, Nick Johnstone, Christine Lewis, Giorgia Maffini, Fabio Manca, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Marco Marchese, Dirk Pilat, Sebastian Schich, Kevin Shoom, Raffaele Trapasso, Mariagrazia Squicciarini, Litsa Vavakis, Gert Wehinger, Juan Yermo.

The previous Survey of Italy was issued in February 2015.

  
Basic statistics of Italy, 2015 or latest year available
(Numbers in parentheses refer to the OECD average)a

LAND, PEOPLE AND ELECTORAL CYCLE

Population (million)

61.2

Population density per km2

206.0

(36.8)

Under 15 (%)

14.0

(18.3)

Life expectancy (years)

83.2

(80.5)

Over 65 (%)

17.9

(13.6)

Men

80.7

(77.8)

Foreign-born (%)

9.5

Women

85.6

(83.1)

Latest 5-year average growth (%)

0.4

(0.6)

Latest general election

February 2013

ECONOMY

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Value added shares (%)

In current prices (billion USD)

1 821

Primary sector

2.2

(2.5)

In current prices (billion EUR)

1 642

Industry including construction

23.5

(26.4)

Latest 5-year average real growth (%)

-0.6

(1.8)

Services

74.2

(71.1)

Per capita (000 USD PPP)

36.1

(40.1)

 

GENERAL GOVERNMENT

Per cent of GDP

Expenditure

50.4

(41.9)

Gross financial debt

159.6

(115.2)

Revenue

47.8

(39.0)

Net financial debt

132.6

(75.7)

EXTERNAL ACCOUNTS

Exchange rate EUR per USD

0.90

Main exports (% of total merchandise exports)

PPP exchange rate (USA = 1)

0.75

Machinery and transport equipment

35.2

In per cent of GDP

Manufactured goods

18.5

Exports of goods and services

30.0

(28.8)

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

17.9

Imports of goods and services

27.0

(28.5)

Main imports (% of total merchandise imports)

Current account balance

2.19

(0.13)

Machinery and transport equipment

24.2

Net international investment position

-25.4

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

16.3

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s;

15.3

LABOUR MARKET, SKILLS AND INNOVATION

Employment rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

56.3

(66.2)

Unemployment rate, Labour Force Survey (age 15 and over) (%)

12.1

(7.0)

Men

65.5

(74.1)

Youth (age 15-24, %)

40.3

(14.0)

Women

47.2

(58.5)

Long-term unemployed (1 year and over, %)

6.9

(2.2)

Participation rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

65.0

(71.3)

Tertiary educational attainment 25-64 year-olds (%)

17.5

(33.6)

Average hours worked per year

1 725

(1 766)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (% of GDP)

1.3

(2.4)

ENVIRONMENT

Total primary energy supply per capita (toe)

2.5

(4.1)

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion per capita (tonnes)

5.6

(9.5)

Renewables (%)

17.5

(9.6)

Water abstractions per capita (m3)

898

(819)

Fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, μg/m3)

18.3

(14.0)

Municipal waste per capita (kilogrammes)

483

(516)

SOCIETY

Income inequality (Gini coefficient)

0.325

(0.308)

Education outcomes (PISA score, 2015)

Relative poverty rate (%)

13.3

(11.2)

Reading

485

(493)

Ratio of incomes of the top 10% vs. bottom 10%

11.4

(9.6)

Mathematics

490

(490)

Public and private spending (% of GDP)

Science

481

(493)

Health care, current expenditure

9.1

(8.9)

Share of women in parliament (%)

31.0

(28.6)

Pensions

16.8

(9.1)

Net official development assistance (% of GNI)

0.21

(0.39)

Education (primary, secondary, post sec. non tertiary)

3.0

(3.7)

 

Better life index: www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org

a. Where the OECD aggregate is not provided in the source database, a simple OECD average of latest available data is calculated where data exist for at least 29 member countries.

Source: Calculations based on data extracted from the databases of the following organisations: OECD, International Energy Agency, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Inter-Parliamentary Union.