This Survey is published on the responsibility of the Economic and Development Review Committee of the OECD, which is charged with the examination of the economic situation of member countries.

The economic situation and policies of Hungary were reviewed by the Committee on 30 March 2016. The draft report was then revised in the light of the discussions and given final approval as the agreed report of the whole Committee on 13th April 2016.

The Secretariat’s draft report was prepared for the Committee by Jens Høj and Gabriel Machlica from the OECD secretariat, and Edit Huszár, seconded from the Hungarian Ministry of the National Economy, under the supervision of Pierre Beynet. Statistical research was provided by Taejin Park with general administrative support provided by Anthony Bolton. The previous Survey of Hungary was issued in January 2014.

Information about the latest as well as previous Surveys and more information about how Surveys are prepared is available at www.oecd.org/eco/surveys.

  
Basic Statistics of the Hungary, 2014
(Numbers in parentheses refer to the OECD average)a

Land, people and electoral cycle

Population (million)

9.8

Population density per km2

105.8

(34.9)

Under 15 (%)

14.4

(18.1)

Life expectancy (years, 2013)

75.7

(80.5)

Over 65 (%)

17.6

(16.0)

Men

72.2

(77.8)

Foreign-born (%, 2013)

4.5

Women

79.1

(83.1)

Latest 5-year average growth (%)

-0.4

(0.6)

Latest general election

April 2014

Economy

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Value added shares (%)

In current prices (billion USD)

139.4

Primary sector

4.5

(2.5)

In current prices (billion HUF)

32 373

Industry including construction

31.2

(26.9)

Latest 5-year average real growth (%)

1.3

(1.9)

Services

64.4

(70.6)

Per capita (000 USD PPP)

24.9

(39.0)

General Government

Per cent of GDP

Expenditure

49.5

(42.3)

Gross financial debtb

99.0

(114.4)

Revenue

47.3

(38.5)

Net financial debtb

71.3

(72.6)

External Accounts

Exchange rate (HUF per USD)

232.2

Main exports (% of total merchandise exports)

PPP exchange rate (USA = 1)

132.0

Machinery and transport equipment

54.1

In per cent of GDP

Manufactured goods

10.5

Exports of goods and services

88.7

(53.8)

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.

10.4

Imports of goods and services

81.5

(49.8)

Main imports (% of total merchandise imports)

Current account balance

2.3

(0.0)

Machinery and transport equipment

44.5

Net international investment position

-65.2

Manufactured goods

13.6

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

12.1

Labour market, skills and innovation

Employment rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

61.8

(65.7)

Unemployment rate, Labour Force Survey (age 15 and over) (%)

7.7

(7.3)

Men

67.8

(73.6)

Youth (age 15-24, %)

20.4

(15.0)

Women

55.9

(57.9)

Long-term unemployed (1 year and over, %)

3.8

(2.5)

Participation rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

67.0

(71.2)

Tertiary educational attainment 25-64 year-olds (%, 2013)

22.5

(33.3)

Average hours worked per year

1 858

(1 770)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (% of GDP, 2013)

1.4

(2.4)

Environment

Total primary energy supply per capita (toe)

2.3

(4.1)

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion per capita (tonnes, 2013)

4.0

(9.6)

Renewables (%)

8.5

(9.1)

Water abstractions per capita (1 000 m3,2012)

0.6

Fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, μg/m3, 2013)

15.8

(13.8)

Municipal waste per capita (tonnes, 2013)

0.4

(0.5)

Society

Income inequality (Gini coefficient)c

0.288

(0.308)

Education outcomes (PISA score, 2012)

Relative poverty rate (%)c

10.1

(10.9)

Reading

488

(496)

Median equivalised household income (000 USD PPP, 2010)

9.3

(20.4)

Mathematics

477

(494)

Public and private spending (% of GDP)

Science

494

(501)

Health care, current expenditure (2013)

7.4

(8.9)

Share of women in parliament (%, November 2015)

10.1

(27.8)

Pensions (2011)

10.5

(8.7)

Net official development assistance (% of GNI)

0.11

(0.36)

Education (primary, secondary, post sec. non tertiary, 2012)

2.6

(3.7)

Better life index: www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org

a) Where the OECD aggregate is not provided in the source database, a simple OECD average of latest available data is calculated where data exist for at least 29 member countries.

b) 2013 for the OECD aggregate.

c) 2012 for the OECD aggregate.

Source: Calculations based on data extracted from the databases of the following organisations: OECD, International Energy Agency, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Inter-Parliamentary Union.