This Survey is published on the responsibility of the Economic and Development Review Committee of the OECD, which is charged with the examination of the economic situation of member countries.

The economic situation and policies of Germany were reviewed by the Committee on 29 February 2016. The draft report was then revised in the light of the discussions and given final approval as the agreed report of the whole Committee on 15 March 2016.

The Secretariat’s draft report was prepared for the Committee by Andrés Fuentes Hutfilter, Andreas Kappeler, Naomitsu Yashiro and by Dorothee Schneider, who was seconded from the German Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy, under the supervision of Andreas Wörgötter. Eun Jung Kim and Giovanni Maria Semeraro provided research assistance. Heloise Wickramanayake formatted and produced the layout. The previous Survey of Germany was issued in May 2014.

Information about the latest as well as previous Surveys and more information about how Surveys are prepared is available at www.oecd.org/eco/surveys.

  
Basic statistics of Germany, 2014
(Numbers in parentheses refer to the OECD average)a

LAND, PEOPLE AND ELECTORAL CYCLE

Population (million)

80.9

Population density per km2

226.5

(34.9)

Under 15 (%)

13.1

(18.1)

Life expectancy (years, 2013)

80.9

(80.5)

Over 65 (%)

20.9

(16.0)

Men

78.6

(77.8)

Foreign-born (%, 2013)

13.0

Women

83.2

(83.1)

Latest 5-year average growth (%)

-0.2

(0.6)

Latest general election

September 2013

ECONOMY

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Value added shares (%)

In current prices (billion USD)

3.879.7

Primary sector

0.7

(2.5)

In current prices (billion EUR)

2.919.8

Industry including construction

30.3

(26.8)

Latest 5-year average real growth (%)

2.0

(1.9)

Services

69.0

(70.7)

Per capita (000 USD PPP)

46.5

(39.3)

 

GENERAL GOVERNMENT

Per cent of GDP

Expenditure

44.2

(42.7)

Gross financial debtb

82.1

(114.4)

Revenue

44.5

(38.5)

Net financial debtb

45.9

(72.6)

EXTERNAL ACCOUNTS

Exchange rate (EUR per USD)

0.753

Main exports (% of total merchandise exports)

PPP exchange rate (USA = 1)

0.776

Machinery and transport equipment

47.5

In per cent of GDP

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.

15.0

Exports of goods and services

45.8

(53.8)

Manufactured goods

12.4

Imports of goods and services

39.0

(49.8)

Main imports (% of total merchandise imports)

Current account balance

7.4

(0.0)

Machinery and transport equipment

33.9

Net international investment position

38.4

Manufactured goods

12.9

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.

12.8

LABOUR MARKET, SKILLS AND INNOVATION

Employment rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

73.8

(65.6)

Unemployment rate, Labour Force Survey (age 15 and over) (%)

5.0

(7.3)

Men

78.1

(73.6)

Youth (age 15-24, %)

7.8

(15.1)

Women

69.5

(57.9)

Long-term unemployed (1 year and over, %)

2.2

(2.5)

Participation rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

77.7

(71.2)

Tertiary educational attainment 25-64 year-olds (%, 2013)

28.5

(33.3)

Average hours worked per year

1 371

(1 770)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (% of GDP)

2.8

(2.4)

ENVIRONMENT

Total primary energy supply per capita (toe)

3.8

(4.1)

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion per capita (tonnes)

9.4

(9.6)

Renewables (%)

11.1

(9.1)

Water abstractions per capita (1 000 m3, 2010)

0.4

Fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, μg/m3, 2013)

15.3

(13.8)

Municipal waste per capita (tonnes, 2013ᵇ)

0.6

(0.5)

SOCIETY

Income inequality (Gini coefficient, 2012)

0.289

(0.308)

Education outcomes (PISA score, 2012)

Relative poverty rate (%, 2012)

8.4

(10.9)

Reading

508

(496)

Median equivalised household income (000 USD PPP, 2010)

24.2

(20.4)

Mathematics

514

(494)

Public and private spending (% of GDP)

Science

524

(501)

Health care, current expenditureb

11.1

(8.9)

Share of women in parliament (%, December 2015)

36.9

(27.7)

Pensions (2011)

10.6

(8.7)

Net official development assistance (% of GNI)

0.42

(0.37)

Education (primary, secondary, post sec. non tertiary, 2012)

3.1

(3.7)

 

Better life index: www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org

a. Where the OECD aggregate is not provided in the source database, a simple OECD average of latest available data is calculated where data exist for at least 29 member countries.

b. 2013 for the OECD aggregate.

c. 2012 for the OECD aggregate.

Source: Calculations based on data extracted from the databases of the following organisations: OECD, International Energy Agency, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Inter-Parliamentary Union.