The Survey was prepared by Margit Molnar, Ben Westmore and Thomas Chalaux, with contributions from Jiangyuan Lu, Wenhao Chen, Baolin Wang and Hyunjeong Hwang, under the supervision of Vincent Koen. Secretarial assistance was provided by Mercedes Burgos and Sisse Nielsen.

The Survey was discussed at a meeting of the Economic and Development Review Committee on 23 January 2017, with participation of representatives of the Chinese government. The cut-off date for data and information used in the Survey is 12 March 2017.

Empirical analysis in the Survey benefitted from a voluntary contribution from the Government of the Republic of Korea.

The Survey is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.

  
Basic statistics of China, 2015
(Numbers in parentheses refer to the OECD)

LAND AND PEOPLE

Population (millions)

1 371.2

(1 283.0)

Population density per km2

146.1

(35.4)

Under 15 (%)

17.2

(18.1)

Life expectancy (years, 2014)

75.8

(80.1)

Over 65 (%)

9.6

(16.2)

Men

74.3

(77.5)

Latest 5-year average growth (%)

0.5

(0.6)

Women

77.4

(82.8)

Urbanisation rate

55.6

(80.3)

Agricultural land (% of total, 2013)

54.8

(35.3)

ECONOMY

GDP, current prices (market exchange rate, trillion USD)

10.9

(45.9)

Value added shares (%)

GDP, current prices (trillion CNY)

67.7

(285.8)

Primary

8.9

(1.6)

Latest 5-year average real GDP growth (%)

7.8

(1.6)

Industry

40.9

(24.2)

GDP per capita, (000 USD PPP)

14.2

(39.7)

Services

50.2

(74.1)

GENERAL GOVERNMENT

Expenditure (% of GDP)

37.9

(41.9)

Net lending (% of GDP)

-1.3

(-2.9)

Revenue (% of GDP)

36.6

(39.0)

 

EXTERNAL ACCOUNTS

Exchange rate (RMB per USD)

6.23

Main exports (% of total merchandise exports)

PPP exchange rate (USA = 1)

3.47

Machinery and transport equipment

12.9

In per cent of GDP

Telecommunication, sound equipment

12.9

Exports of goods and services

22.3

(24.9)

Computers

8.5

Imports of goods and services

18.7

(24.7)

Main imports (% of total merchandise imports)

Current account balance

3.0

(0.1)

Machinery and transport equipment

20.9

Net international transfers

-0.1

(-0.7)

Petroleum and products

9.6

Balance of income

-0.4

(0.5)

Metalliferous ore, scrap

6.6

LABOUR MARKET, SKILLS AND INNOVATION

Employment rate (total population, %)

56.4

(55.9)

Unemployment rate (urban) (%)

4.1

(6.8)

Participation rate (total population, %)

58.3

(60.0)

Tertiary educational attainment 25-64 year-olds (%, 2010)

10.0

(35.0)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (% of GDP, 2014)

2.1

(2.4)

 

ENVIRONMENT

Total primary energy supply per capita (toe, 2014)

2.2

(4.2)

Freshwater use (m3 per capita 2014)

443.3

(827.7)

Renewables (% of TPES, 2014)

11.2

(9.4)

Agriculture (% of total use)

64.5

(43.9)

Fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5, μg/m3)

57.2

(14.9)

Households (% of total use)

12.3

(15.1)

CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons, 2013)

7.6

(9.7)

Industry (% of total use)

23.1

(41.1)

SOCIETY

Income inequality (Gini coefficient, 2013)

0.473

(0.311)

Education outcomes (PISA score in B-S-J-G, 2015)

Poverty headcount ratio at $3.1 a day (2011 PPP)

Reading

494

(493)

(% of population, 2013)

11.1

n.a.

Mathematics

531

(490)

Share of women in parliament (%)

23.6

(27.1)

Science

518

(493)

Net official development assistance (% of GNI, 2014)

-0.01

(0.01)

Note: B-S-J-G refers to the four areas covered by the latest PISA survey: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Guangdong.

Source: Calculations based on data extracted from the databases of the following organisations: National Bureau of Statistics, OECD, International Energy Agency, World Bank and International Monetary Fund.