This Survey was prepared in the Economics Department by Jens Arnold and Alberto González Pandiella under the supervision of Piritta Sorsa. Research and statistical assistance was provided by Christian Abele, Matheus Bueno, James Hiroshi Habe and Anne Legendre and editorial assistance by Carolina González.

The Survey was discussed at a meeting of the Economic and Development Review Committee on 13 November 2017 and is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.

  
Basic statistics of Brazil, 2016
(Numbers in parentheses refer to the OECD average)*

LAND, PEOPLE AND ELECTORAL CYCLE

Population (million)

206.1

Population density per km²

24.7

(37.2)

Under 15 (%)

22.6

(17.9)

Life expectancy (years, 2015)

75.2

(80.5)

Over 65 (%)

8.1

(16.6)

Men

71.6

(77.9)

 

 

 

Women

78.9

(83.1)

Latest 5-year average growth (%)

0.9

(0.6)

Next general election

10/2018

ECONOMY

Gross domestic product (GDP)

 

 

Value added shares (%)

 

 

In current prices (billion USD)

1,796.2

 

Primary sector

5.5

(2.5)

In current prices (billion BRL)

6 266.9

 

Industry including construction

21.2

(26.6)

Latest 5-year average real growth (%)

-0.4

(1.8)

Services

73.3

(70.9)

Per capita (th USD PPP)

15.2

(42.0)

 

 

 

GENERAL GOVERNMENT

Per cent of GDP

Expenditure

41.6

(41.6)

Gross financial debt

69.9

(108.5)

Revenue

32.7

(38.7)

Net financial debt

46.2

(69.9)

EXTERNAL ACCOUNTS

Exchange rate (BRL per USD)

3.489

Main exports (% of total merchandise exports)

PPP exchange rate (USA = 1)

1.995

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

25.6

In per cent of GDP

Food and live animals

24.3

Exports of goods and services

12.5

(53.9)

Machinery and transport equipment

18.8

 

Imports of goods and services

12.1

(49.5)

Main imports (% of total merchandise imports) 

Current account balance

-1.3

(0.2)

Machinery and transport equipment

37.3

 

Net international investment position

-39.9

 

Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.

24.7

 

 

 

 

Mineral fuels, lubricants

11.0

 

LABOUR MARKET, SKILLS AND INNOVATION

Employment rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

54.0

(66.9)

Unemployment rate, LFS (age 15 and over) (%)

12.0

(6.3)

Men

64.3

(74.7)

Youth (age 18-24, %)

25.9

(13.0)

Women

44.5

(59.3)

Tertiary education completed 25-64 y/o (%)

14.8

(35.7)

Participation rate for 15-64 year-olds (%)

61.4

(71.7)

Gross dom. expenditure on R&D (% GDP, 2014)

1.2

(2.4)

ENVIRONMENT

Total primary energy supply p.c.(toe, 2014)

1.5

(4.1)

Exposure to air pollution (more than 10 g/m3 of PM2.5, % of population, 2015)

50.9

(75.2)

Renewables (%, 2014)

38.6

(9.6)

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion p.c.(tonnes, 2014)

2.3

(9.4)

SOCIETY

Income inequality (Gini coefficient, 2013)

0.470

(0.311)

Education outcomes (PISA score, 2015)

 

 

Relative poverty rate (%, 2013)

20.0

(11.3)

Reading

407

(493)

Median disp.househ.income (th USD PPP, 2013)

7.3

(20.4)

Mathematics

377

(490)

Public and private spending (% of GDP)

 

 

Science

401

(493)

Health care (2014)

8.3

(9.0)

Share of women in parliament (%)

9.9

(28.7)

Pensions (public, 2014)

11.6

(9.1)

 

 

 

Education (public , primary, secondary, post sec. non tertiary, 2014)

4.1

(3.4)

 

 

 

Note: Where the OECD aggregate is not provided in the source database, a simple OECD average of latest available data is calculated where data exist for at least 29 member countries.

Source: Calculations based on data from OECD, International Energy Agency, World Bank, IMF and Inter-Parliamentary Union.