Reader’s guide

The project underlying the analysis presented here, which was initially referred to as the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) Video Study, is referred to as “Global Teaching InSights (GTI)” or “the Study” throughout this report.

The data referred to in this volume are presented in the chapter annexes and are available on the Study’s website (, along with the full international dataset, associated codebooks and a User Guide. For further details, including additional tables and analyses, see the Global Teaching Insights Technical Report1. Likewise, a selection of classroom videos and teaching materials from the Study have been made available on the Global Teaching InSights online community platform (

This publication features data from participating schools, teachers and students in eight countries and economies: Bíobio, Metropolitana and Valparaíso (Chile) (hereafter “B-M-V [Chile]”), Colombia, England (UK), Germany*, Kumagaya, Shizuoka and Toda (Japan) (hereafter “K-S-T [Japan]”), Madrid (Spain), Mexico and Shanghai (China).

While we refer to the countries and economies throughout the report, the Study is not representative of teaching in each country or economy, and is not a cross-country/economy ranking of the quality of teaching. Therefore, there are no international averages reported.

When referring to data from B-M-V (Chile), England (UK), K-S-T (Japan), Madrid (Spain) and Shanghai (China) throughout the report, we indicate the nation in brackets, although the sample was taken specifically from these sub-economies. In Germany, participating schools came from 7 of the 16 Laender (Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein), at the initiative of the DIPF. Throughout the report, this will be signalled by an asterisk appearing next to Germany*.

As a rule, a stratified, two-stage probability design was used to identify the sample of schools to be invited to participate in the Study in every country/economy. In schools that accepted the invitation, a sample of teachers and students were invited to participate, and once they accepted, the relevant schools, teachers and students were included in the Study. Important deviations from this rule were K-S-T (Japan) and Germany*, which are represented by selective groups of teachers only. In Germany, teachers were recruited through specific professional networks without any randomisation, which resulted in a strong over-representation of high track schools (Gymnasium). In K-S-T (Japan), all schools in the three cities were invited and the sample includes university-affiliated schools.

In Madrid (Spain), the Teacher Log only contained information about more than one lesson for 35 out of the 85 participating classrooms. Also, students' pre-tests and pre-questionnaires cannot be reliably linked to their post-tests and post-questionnaires, thus their comparison was not feasible.

In tables, countries and economies are ranked in alphabetical order.

Within the schools selected by the sampling plan, only teachers who taught the focal unit of quadratic equations were considered to be eligible for the Study, and only the classes in which those teachers taught the focal unit were eligible for the study. In most cases, these classes were in the equivalent of grade level 8 or 9 in ISCED level 2 schools, with an average of 26 students per class. In this report, the terms “students” and “teachers” are used as shorthand for the classes and their associated teachers that were randomly selected from the list of eligible classes and teachers. Random selection within schools did not apply in Germany*, K-S-T (Japan) and Shanghai (China).

Participation in the study was voluntary. Analyses discussed in the report include all students who actively consented to at least one data collection instrument (questionnaire, test, or video) on the roster and resolution forms provided by the countries/economies, and the corresponding schools and teachers.

The Study results are based on student and teacher pre- and post-questionnaires, student pre- and post-tests, teacher logs, video observations, and teaching materials. Independent observers rated videos and teaching materials on the basis of a set of underlying codes designed to capture aspects of each analytic domain considered in the study. No data imputation from administrative data or other studies is conducted.

Information gathered from various sources may differ. They represent different perspectives (e.g. student, teacher, independent observer) and have their own affordances and constraints. Together they provide a more complete picture of teaching quality.

Because of rounding, some figures in tables may not add up exactly to the totals. Totals, differences and averages are always calculated on the basis of exact numbers and are rounded only after calculation.

All percentages in this publication have been rounded to the nearest 1%, while all other figures have been rounded to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places).

Note that in figures such as density plots, curves may be sensitive to kernel smoothing, so readers should focus on the overall shape of these figures rather than small features that represent small numbers of classrooms.


Deutsches Institut für Internationale Pädagogische Forschung, Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education


International Consortium


International Standard Classification of Education


Programme for International Student Assessment


Teaching and Learning International Survey


Global Teaching InSights

For further information on the Study’s assessment instruments and the methods used, see the Global Teaching Insights Technical Report.

This report has StatLinks at the bottom of tables and graphs. To download the matching Excel® spreadsheet, just type the link into your Internet browser, starting with the prefix, or click on the link from the e-book version.


← 1. OECD (2020), Global Teaching InSights: Technical Report, OECD Publishing, Paris,

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