Germany

  • Contrary to most other OECD countries, women are less likely to participate in adult learning than men in Germany. 53% of women in Germany participated in formal and/or non-formal education and training in 2018. This was higher than the OECD average of 48% for women, but lower than the participation rate of men in Germany (59%).

  • Germany has more children enrolled in ECEC services both aged under 3 and at pre-primary level than on average in the OECD. 39% of children under age 3 and 94% of children aged 3 to 5 in Germany were enrolled in ECEC in 2019, compared to 25% of children under age 3 and 83% of children aged 3 to 5 in the OECD on average.

  • There are regional disparities in tertiary attainment in Germany, ranging from 23% in the region of Saxony-Anhalt to 43% in the region of Berlin. However, this was one of the lowest variations across OECD countries with available data.

  • Annual public expenditure on primary to tertiary education per full-time student is above average in Germany, but the share of national wealth devoted to educational institutions is lower than average among OECD countries. In 2018, Germany spent 4.3% of its GDP on primary to tertiary education institutions, compared to 4.9% on average in the OECD.

  • Teachers in Germany have the highest average actual salaries among OECD countries with available data at primary and secondary levels (general programmes). At each of these levels, German teachers’ actual salaries were over 1.7 times the OECD average in 2020.

  • In Germany, 2.6% of students in lower secondary initial education repeated a grade in 2019, compared to 1.9% on average across OECD countries. Boys are more likely to repeat a grade at lower secondary initial education than girls. In Germany, 61% of repeaters at lower secondary level were boys, the same as the OECD average.

  • Women are generally more likely to graduate from upper secondary general programmes in most OECD countries. This is also the case in Germany, where women represent 54% of graduates, compared to 55% on average across the OECD (Figure 1). However, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track at upper secondary level. This is also the case in Germany, where 61% of upper secondary vocational graduates in 2019 were men (compared to the OECD average of 55%). In addition, there are significant gender differences across fields of study at this level. In 2019, women represented only 9% of graduates from engineering, manufacturing and construction upper secondary vocational programmes in Germany, lower than the OECD average of 15%. In contrast, 82% of graduates from vocational programmes in health and welfare were women in Germany, similar to the OECD average of 83%.

  • Tertiary education has been expanding in the last decades, and, in 2020, 25-34 year-old women were more likely than men to achieve tertiary education in all OECD countries. In Germany, 36% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 33% of their male peers, while on average across OECD countries the shares were 52% among young women and 39% among young men.

  • Gender differences are also significant in the distribution of tertiary entrants across fields of study. Women tend to be under-represented in certain fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) across most OECD countries. In 2019, women represented 21% of new entrants in engineering, manufacturing and construction degrees and 23% in information and communication technologies in Germany. In contrast, they represented 79% of new entrants to the field of education, a sector traditionally dominated by women. In Germany, men represent 34% of teachers across all levels of education, compared to 30% on average across OECD countries.

  • In order to tackle gender disparities in STEM, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research launched the “Go MINT” National Pact for Women in MINT Careers in 2008.1 This Pact set up partnerships nationwide to increase young women’s interest in STEM degrees and careers. As of 2019, the Federal Ministry of Education also invested €55 million in a MINT action plan, primarily to improve the infrastructure of extracurricular learning opportunities for young students by so called STEM-clusters, some of them with particular concepts for girls and young women to attract them at an early stage (aged 10-16 years) for a STEM career.2 Although women remain in the minority in these subject areas, an increasing number of women have graduated from first degrees in STEM at Bachelor’s level in recent years. For example, the number of women graduating from a Bachelor’s level programme in information and communications technologies rose by 71% between 2013 and 2019.

  • Young women are less likely to be employed than young men, particularly those with lower levels of education. Only 49% of 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary attainment were employed in 2020 compared to 69% of men in Germany. This gender difference is lower than the average across OECD countries, where 43% of women and 69% of men with below upper secondary attainment are employed.

  • In nearly all OECD countries and at all levels of educational attainment, 25-64 year-old women earn less than their male peers: their earnings correspond to 76%-78% of men’s earnings on average across OECD countries. This proportion varies more across educational attainment levels within countries than on average across OECD countries. In Germany, women with tertiary education have the lowest earnings compared to men with a similar education level, earning 70% as much, while those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earn 82% as much.

  • On average across OECD countries with available data, 25-64 year-old women tend to participate slightly more in adult learning than men of the same age. This is not the case in Germany, where 53% of women participated in formal and/or non-formal education and training in 2018, compared to 59% of men. Family reasons were reported as barriers to lifelong participation in formal and/or non-formal education and training by 46% of women compared to 22% of men.

Share
Embed code for this view
Copy code
Code copied!

1. Includes post-secondary non-tertiary level.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the share of women in general programmes.

Source: OECD (2021). Table B3.1. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/EAG2021_Annex3_ChapterB.pdf).

  • Socio-economic status may significantly impact students’ participation in education, particularly at levels of education that rely, in many countries, most heavily on private expenditure, such as early childhood education and care and tertiary education. This is less the case in Germany: in 2018, private sources accounted for 15% of total expenditure in pre-primary institutions, slightly lower than the OECD average of 17%. More children are enrolled in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Germany than in the OECD on average. 39% of children under age 3 in Germany were enrolled in ECEC services in 2019, whilst 94% of children aged 3 to 5 years old were enrolled. In comparison, 25% of children under age 3 and 83% of children aged 3 to 5 years were enrolled in ECEC in the OECD on average.

  • Tuition fees in public institutions in Germany are among the lowest across countries with available data. National students were charged USD 148 on average per year for a Bachelor's, Master’s or PhD degree in 2018, 80% less than they were charged in 2008. Public support is available for students from disadvantaged backgrounds (BAföG-eligible) as a combination of public grants and public interest-free loans. In 2018, these students received USD 8 372 on average in direct public support, half of which they received in public grants and half of which were public loans.

  • Across most OECD countries, socio-economic status influences learning outcomes more than gender and immigrant status. In Germany, the proportion of children from the bottom quartile of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) achieving at least PISA level 2 in reading in 2018 was 29% lower than that of children from the top ESCS quartile, which was the same as the average across OECD countries.

  • International student mobility at the tertiary level has risen steadily reaching about 333 200 students in Germany and representing 10% of tertiary students in 2019. The largest share of international tertiary students studying in Germany comes from China. Students from low and lower-middle income countries are generally less likely to study abroad. In 2019, 29% of international students in OECD countries came from low and lower-middle income countries. Similarly, 25% of international students studying in Germany come from low and lower-middle income countries.

  • Large differences in educational attainment may lead to starker earnings inequality in many countries. In Germany, 43% of 25-64 year-old adults with below upper secondary attainment earn at or below half the median earnings in 2019, above the OECD average of 27%.

  • Students with an immigrant background can face greater obstacles to learning than their native-born peers. For some, participating in school is more difficult due to language barriers and the need to adjust to a new country and culture. Immigrant students can also face greater socio-economic disadvantage. In general across the OECD, immigrant status is associated with poorer performance in PISA tests. For example, the share of immigrant students achieving at least PISA level 2 in reading was 19% lower than the share of non-immigrants (Figure 2). The gap between the performance of immigrant and non-immigrant students is wider in Germany, where the proportion of immigrant students achieving at least PISA level 2 in reading was 25% lower than the proportion of non-immigrants.

  • In many OECD countries, foreign-born adults earn less than native-born adults. This pay gap may narrow with higher levels of educational attainment. On average across OECD countries, foreign-born adults with below secondary attainment working full-time earn 89% as much as their native-born peers, while this gap disappears among tertiary-educated adults. In Germany, in 2019, among adults with below upper secondary attainment, the earnings of foreign-born full-time workers represented 95% of their native-born peers, 93% among adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment, and 89% among those with a tertiary-education.

Share
Embed code for this view
Copy code
Code copied!

How to read this figure: In Turkey, the proportion of children from the bottom quartile of the PISA ESCS index achieving at least PISA level 2 in reading is almost 30% lower than that of children from the top ESCS quartile. The proportion of students achieving at least PISA level 2 in reading is almost 15% higher for girls than for boys.The proportion of immigrants achieving at least PISA level 2 in reading is almost equal to that of non-immigrants (a parity index of 1 indicates perfect parity).

The ESCS parity index refers to the ratio of the value for the bottom quartile over the value for the top quartile of the ESCS index. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status. The gender parity index refers to the ratio of the female value over the male value. The immigrant status parity index refers to the ratio of the value for immigrants over the value for non-immigrants. See Box 1 in the SDG chapter of EAG 2021 for more information on the methodology.

1. In 2018, some regions in Spain conducted their high-stakes exams for tenth-grade students earlier in the year than in the past, which resulted in the testing period for these exams coinciding with the end of the PISA testing window. Because of this overlap, a number of students were negatively disposed towards the PISA test and did not try their best to demonstrate their proficiency. Although the data of only a minority of students show clear signs of lack of engagement (see PISA 2018 Results Volume I, Annex A9), the comparability of PISA 2018 data for Spain with those from earlier PISA assessments cannot be fully ensured.

Countries are ranked in descending order of the parity index based on the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

Source: OECD (2018), PISA 2018 Database. See Source section for more information (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/EAG2021_Annex3_ChapterB.pdf).

  • In Germany’s federal education system, most decision-making power is located at the Länder level. For example, 63% of decisions in public lower secondary education are taken at the state level in Germany, compared to only 11% in the OECD on average (OECD, 2018[1]). No decisions were taken centrally at this level of education.

  • National level data often hide important regional inequalities in children’s access and participation to education. In general, inequalities across regions tend to widen at non-compulsory levels of education. For example, in the majority of countries, the variation in enrolment rate of 3-5 year-olds is often greater than the variation among 6-14 year-olds. This is the case in Germany, where the enrolment rate of 3-5 year-olds varies from 88% in the region of Bremen to 96% in the regions of Baden-Württemberg and Thuringia whereas the enrolment of 6-14 year-olds varies from 97% in Hesse to 100% in Berlin, Hamburg, and Saarland. Similarly, the enrolment rate of 15-19 year-olds varies from 80% in Bavaria and Brandenburg to 100% in Bremen.3

  • Tertiary attainment may vary significantly within a country. In Germany, tertiary attainment of 25-64 year-old adults varies from 23% in the region of Saxony-Anhalt to 43% in the region of Berlin, one of the lowest regional variations across OECD countries with available data.

  • On average across OECD and partner countries with subnational data on labour-force status, there is more regional variation in employment rates among those with lower levels of education. In Germany, there is a difference of 21 percentage points in the employment rate of adults with below upper secondary education between different regions of the country, ranging from 51% in Berlin, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and Saxony to 72% in Baden-Württemberg. In comparison, employment rates for tertiary-educated adults ranged from 84% in Brandenburg to 91% in Bavaria.

  • The proportion of young people who are NEET shows significant subnational as well as national variation across OECD and partner countries. In Germany, the proportion in the subnational region with the highest share of 18-24 year-old NEETs (Bremen) is 7 percentage points higher than in the region with the lowest share (Bavaria).

  • The spread of COVID-19 has continued to impede access to in-person education in many countries around the world in 2021. By mid-May 2021, 37 OECD and partner countries had experienced periods of full school closure since the start of 2020.

  • The number of instructional days when schools were fully closed since the start of 2020 due to the pandemic (excluding school holidays, public holidays and weekends) varies significantly between countries and increases with the level of education. Germany follows this pattern. In Germany, preprimary schools were fully closed for an average of 61 days between 1 January 2020 and 20 May 2021. Meanwhile primary schools closed for 64 days, lower secondary for 85 days and upper secondary general schools for 83 days. In comparison, respective closures were 55, 78, 92 and 101 days on average across the OECD.

  • In many countries, schools did not fully close but remained open with reduced capacity. Schools at upper secondary (general) level in Germany for instance experienced 103 days of partial opening between January 2020 and May 2021, 70 of which occurred in 2020 and 33 in 2021. In total, this was higher than the number of days of partial opening in the OECD on average (57 days), where there were 27 days of partially open instruction in 2020, and 30 days in 2021. When adding both the number of days where schools were fully and partially closed, learning in upper secondary general education was disrupted by 186 days in Germany between January 2020 and May 2021.

  • The impact of COVID-19 and school closures on educational equity has been a concern for many countries. 30 out of the 36 OECD and partner countries surveyed, including Germany, declared that additional measures were taken to support the education of children who might face additional barriers to learning during the pandemic. 22 of these countries, including Germany, stated that they had subsidised devices for students to help them access education. Measures to encourage disadvantaged or vulnerable students to return to school after closures were also implemented in 29 OECD and partner countries. In Germany, school-based mechanisms were used to track whether children with disabilities and other populations at risk were returning to school or not and in some cases special transportation was arranged to help students to access school.

  • Countries have faced difficult decisions on how to best manage their resources to ensure that students can continue to access quality education in the safest possible conditions and to minimise disruption to learning. Before the pandemic, total public expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Germany reached 2.8% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2018, which was lower than the OECD average of 3.1%. About two-thirds of OECD and partner countries reported increases in the funding allocated to primary and secondary schools to help them cope with the crisis in 2020. Compared to the previous year, Germany reported an increase in the fiscal year education budget for primary and lower secondary general education in both 2020 and 2021.

  • 20 OECD and partner countries stated that the allocation of additional public funds to support the educational response to the pandemic was based on the number of students or classes. At the same time, 16 countries targeted additional funds at socio-economically disadvantaged students as a way to ensure that resources targeted those that needed them the most. In Germany, additional public resources were allocated based on socio-economic factors and the Königsteiner Schlüssel, whereby the tax revenue and population of each of the Länder are taken into account.

  • Countries’ approach to prioritise teachers in vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 has varied. In total, 19 OECD and partner countries, including Germany, have prioritised teachers as part of the government’s plans to vaccinate the population (as of 20 May 2021). In Germany, three priority groups for vaccination were established. Teachers at pre-primary and primary level were placed in priority group 2 and teachers at secondary level were in priority group 3. By 20 May 2021, all teachers at pre-primary and primary level who wanted to be vaccinated had been offered a vaccine. The vaccination of secondary level teachers who desired the vaccine was expected to be complete by the summer holidays.

  • The impact of the pandemic on the economy has raised concerns about the prospects of young adults, especially those leaving education earlier than others. In Germany, the unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary attainment was 12.1% in 2020, an increase of 0.2 percentage points from the previous year. This was a lower increase than the OECD average, where the youth unemployment rate of 15.1% in 2020 represented an increase of 1.9 percentage points from 2019 (Figure 3).

  • Despite the impact of the crisis on employment, the share of NEETs among 18-24 year-olds did not greatly increase in most OECD and partner countries during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. On average, the share of 18-24 year-old NEETs in OECD countries rose from 14.4% in 2019 to 16.1% in 2020. In Germany, the share of 18-24 year-old NEETs was 8.2% in 2019, which increased to 9.4% in 2020.

Share
Embed code for this view
Copy code
Code copied!

Countries are ranked in ascending order of the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary attainment in 2020.

Source: OECD (2021), Table A3.3. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/EAG2021_Annex3_ChapterA.pdf).

  • Annual expenditure per student on educational institutions provides an indication of the investment countries make on each student. In 2018, public expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions per full-time student in Germany was USD 12 247 compared to USD 10 000 on average across OECD countries.

  • Expenditure on core educational services such as instruction and teaching make up the largest share of education expenditure. However, ancillary services (such as student welfare) and research and development (R&D) activities also influence the level of expenditure per student. In primary to tertiary education, 84% of institutions’ expenditure per student is devoted to core educational services in Germany (compared to 89% on average across OECD countries). This share is generally lower at the tertiary level because of the expenditure on R&D, including in Germany where 50% of total expenditure is devoted to core educational services.

  • Between 2012 and 2018, expenditure per student from primary to tertiary education increased at an average annual growth rate of 1.6% across OECD countries. In Germany, expenditure on educational institutions grew at an average annual rate of 1.2%, while the number of students remained fairly stable over this period. This resulted in an average annual growth rate of 1.2% in expenditure per student over this period.

  • The share of national wealth devoted to educational institutions is lower in Germany than on average among OECD countries. In 2018, Germany spent 4.3% of its GDP on primary to tertiary educational institutions, which is 0.6 percentage points lower than the OECD average. Across levels of education, Germany devoted a below-average share of GDP than the OECD average at non-tertiary levels and also at tertiary level (Figure 4).

  • The share of capital costs on total expenditure on educational institutions is lower than the OECD average at primary to tertiary institutions in Germany. At primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level, capital costs account for 8% of total spending on educational institutions, similar to the OECD average (8%). At the tertiary level, capital costs represent 8%, lower than the average across OECD countries of 11%.

  • Compensation of teachers and other staff employed in educational institutions represents the largest share of current expenditure from primary to tertiary education. In 2018, Germany allocated 77% of its current expenditure to staff compensation, compared to 74% on average across OECD countries. Staff compensation tends to make up a smaller share of current expenditure on tertiary institutions due to the higher costs of facilities and equipment at this level. In Germany, staff compensation represents 67% of current expenditure on tertiary institutions compared to 82% at non-tertiary levels. On average across OECD countries, the share is 68% at tertiary level and 77% at non-tertiary level.

Share
Embed code for this view
Copy code
Code copied!

1. Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education includes pre-primary programmes.

Countries are ranked in descending order of total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP.

Source: OECD (2021), Table C2.1. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/EAG2021_Annex3_ChapterC.pdf).

  • The salaries of school staff, and in particular teachers and school heads, represent the largest single expenditure in formal education. Their salary levels also have an impact on the attractiveness of the teaching profession. In most OECD countries and economies, statutory salaries of teachers (and school heads) in public educational institutions increase with the level of education they teach, and also with experience. On average, statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales (maximum salaries) were between 86% and 91% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career (minimum salaries) at primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in 2020. In Germany, maximum salaries were 31% to 40% higher than minimum salaries at each level of education. However, most teachers were paid between these minimum and maximum salaries.

  • Between 2005 and 2020, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased (at constant prices) between 2% and 3% at primary and general lower and upper secondary levels, on average across OECD countries, despite a decrease of salaries following the 2008 financial crisis. In Germany, teachers' salaries at these levels increased by 12%-23%.

  • Teachers’ actual salaries reflect their statutory salaries and additional work-related payments. Average actual salaries also depend on the characteristics of the teaching population such as their age, level of experience and qualification level. In Germany, teachers’ average actual salaries amount to USD 76 997 at the primary level, USD 84 869 at the general lower secondary level and USD 89 816 at the general upper secondary level. On average across OECD countries, teachers’ average actual salaries were USD 45 687, USD 47 988 and USD 51 749 at the primary, lower secondary and upper secondary level respectively (Figure 5).

  • Teachers’ average actual salaries remained lower than those of tertiary-educated workers in almost all countries, and at almost all levels of education. Teachers’ average actual salaries at primary and general secondary levels of education are between 86% and 96% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and economies. In Germany, the proportion ranged from 92% to 108% at primary and general secondary levels of education.

  • Women are over-represented among primary, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers (representing respectively 82%, 68% and 60% of teachers at these levels on average across OECD countries in 2019). However, women are under-represented in tertiary education (44% of tertiary teachers on average). In Germany, the proportion of female teachers ranged from 87% at the primary level to 66% at lower secondary level, 56% at upper secondary level, and 39% at the tertiary level in 2019.

  • The average number of teaching hours per year required of a typical teacher in public educational institutions in OECD countries tends to decrease as the level of education increases: it ranged from 989 hours at pre-primary level (ISCED 02), to 791 hours at primary level, 723 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 685 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes) in 2020. In Germany, teachers are required to teach 1 755 hours per year at pre-primary level, 691 hours per year at primary level, 641 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 610 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).

  • During their working time, teachers also perform various tasks other than teaching itself such as lesson planning and preparation, marking students’ work and communicating or co-operating with parents or guardians. At the lower secondary level, teachers in Germany spend 36% of their statutory working time on teaching, compared to 44% on average among countries with available data.

  • In primary and secondary education, about 35% of teachers are at least 50 years old on average across OECD countries and may reach retirement age in the next decade, while the size of the school-age population is projected to increase in some countries, putting many governments under pressure to recruit and train new teachers. In 2019, 36% of primary teachers in Germany were at least 50 years old, which was higher than the OECD average of 33%. On average across OECD countries, the proportion of teachers aged at least 50 years old increases with higher levels of education taught, to 36% in lower secondary education and 40% in upper secondary education. In Germany, this proportion varies from 43% at lower secondary level to 40% at upper secondary level.

Share
Embed code for this view
Copy code
Code copied!

Note: Actual salaries include bonuses and allowances.

1. Actual base salaries.

2. Salaries at the top of the scale and the minimum qualifications, instead of the maximum qualifications.

3. Salaries at the top of the scale and the most prevalent qualifications, instead of the maximum qualifications.

4. Includes the average of fixed bonuses for overtime hours.

Countries and economies are ranked in descending order of starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with the minimum qualifications.

Source: OECD (2021), Table D3.3 and Education at a Glance Database, http://stats.oecd.org. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/EAG2021_Annex3_ChapterD.pdf).

References

OECD (2021), “Regional education”, OECD Regional Statistics (database), https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/213e806c-en (accessed on 27 July 2021).

OECD (2021), Education at a Glance 2021: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/69096873-en.

For more information on Education at a Glance 2021 and to access the full set of Indicators, see: https://doi.org/10.1787/b35a14e5-en

For more information on the methodology used during the data collection for each indicator, the references to the sources and the specific notes for each country, see Annex 3 (https://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance/EAG2021_Annex3.pdf).

For general information on the methodology, please refer to the OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications (https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264304444-en).

Updated data can be found on line at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-data-en and by following the StatLinks 2under the tables and charts in the publication.

Data on subnational regions for selected indicators are available in the OECD Regional Statistics (database) (OECD, 2021). When interpreting the results on subnational entities, readers should take into account that the population size of subnational entities can vary widely within countries. Also, regional disparities tend to be higher when more subnational entities are used in the analysis.

Explore, compare and visualise more data and analysis using the Education GPS:

https://gpseducation.oecd.org/

The data on educational responses during COVID-19 were collected and processed by the OECD based on the Survey on Joint National Responses to COVID-19 School Closures, a collaborative effort conducted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS); the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); the World Bank; and the OECD.

This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries.

This document, as well as any data and any map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area.

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the terms and conditions to be found at www.oecd.org/termsandconditions/.

← 1. MINT is the acronym for the following four subjects in German: mathematics (Mathematik); IT (Informatik); science (Naturwissenschaften); and technology (Technik). More information about the “Go MINT” National Pact can be found at the following website: https://www.komm-mach-mint.de/english-information.

← 2. For more details, see the following website: https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-en/news/mint-for-the-future-1580792.

← 3. Regional variation in enrolment may be influenced by students attending school in a different region from their area of residence, particularly at higher levels of education. This applies especially to the city states of Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg, to which many students from the surrounding regions travel to attend school or apprenticeships.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2021

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions.