Abbreviations and acronyms

CEDAW

Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

EBRD

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EEA

European Economic Area

ESG

Environmental, Social and Governance criteria

EU

European Union

FATF

Financial Action Task Force

GCC

Gulf Co-operation Council

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GFDD

Global Financial Development Database (World Bank)

IAS

International Accounting Standards

IFC

International Finance Corporation

IFIAR

International Forum of Independent Audit Regulators

IFRS

International Financial Reporting Standards

ILO

International Labour Organisation

IOSCO

International Organization of Securities Commissions

IPO

Initial Public Offering

ISA

International Standards on Auditing

MSCI ESG

Morgan Stanley Capital International ESG indexes

NAICS

North American Industry Classification System

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

RPT

Related Party Transactions

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission

SME

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise

SOE

State-owned Enterprise

SPO

Secondary Public Offerings

SSE

Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative

UAE DIFC

United Arab Emirates Dubai International Financial Centre

UASA

Union of Arab Securities Authorities

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

WFE

World Federation of Exchanges

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