Poland

Introduction

In September 2018, Poland updated its 2016-2020 “Multiannual Development Cooperation Programme”, adding Lebanon and Uganda as priority countries. Its co-operation focuses in particular on eastern neighbours, with 4 out of 12 priority countries in this region. The programme’s thematic priorities are good governance, democracy and human rights, human capital, entrepreneurship and private sector, sustainable agriculture and rural development, and environmental protection. The update also highlighted migration as a cross-cutting issue and intends to focus more on corporate social responsibility.

In November 2019, a DAC mid-term review of Polish development co-operation will follow-up on Poland’s first DAC Peer Review in 2016, assessing progress on issues such as strategic focus, assistance to least developed countries (LDCs) and untying aid.

Official development assistance

Poland has increased its official development assistance (ODA) by more than 80% since 2014, explained by higher contributions to the European Union as well as an expansion of its bilateral aid. Poland made progress in untying aid between 2016 and 2017 (from 34.5% to 60.3%). In contrast, Poland’s aid allocations to the LDCs dropped sharply from 42.0% in 2016 to 6.5% in 2017, due to lower allocations to Ethiopia and the United Republic of Tanzania. Since 2014, Poland has steadily increased the share of its bilateral co-operation, from 22% in 2014 to 35% in 2017.

In 2018, Poland provided USD 763 million in total ODA (preliminary data, current prices), using the new “grant-equivalent” methodology (see the methodological notes for further details) adopted by DAC members on their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. This represented 0.14% of gross national income (GNI). Under the “cash-flow basis” methodology used in the past, 2018 net ODA was USD 754 million, which represented an increase of 5.4% in real terms from 2017.

Poland’s share of untied bilateral ODA (excluding administrative costs and in-donor refugee costs) was 60.3% in 2017 (up from 34.5% in 2016), while the DAC country average was 82.1%. The grant element of total ODA was 99.6% in 2017. Non-grants represented 1.9% of gross ODA.

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In 2017, 35% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally, of which 43% was channelled through multilateral organisations (multi-bi/non-core contributions). Poland allocated 65% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations. Learn more about multilateral development finance

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Note: Poland began reporting at the activity level in 2013, therefore no data on multi-bi ODA are reported in the figure.

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In 2017, country programmable aid was 48% of Poland’s bilateral ODA, compared to a DAC country average of 48% (see the methodological notes for further details on country programmable aid). Project-type interventions accounted for 33% of this aid.

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In 2017, Poland channelled 46.9% of gross bilateral ODA through the public sector (down from 57.2% in 2016). The share of bilateral ODA channelled through private sector institutions was 0.1%. In 2017, Poland channelled USD 1 million through universities or other teaching and research institutions, equal to 0.6% of its gross bilateral ODA. See the methodological notes for further details on channels of delivery.

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In 2017, USD 24 million of gross bilateral ODA was channelled to and through civil society organisations (CSOs). Between 2016 and 2017, ODA channelled to and through CSOs increased as a share of bilateral aid (from 8.2% to 9.7%).Learn more about ODA allocations to and through CSOs and the Civil Society Days.

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In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Europe, with USD 126 million allocated to the region (50.7% of bilateral ODA). While the share of Poland’s bilateral ODA to the Middle East increased from 7.1% in 2016 to 29.6% in 2017, it decreased for Africa, from 46.9% in 2016 to 10.8% in 2017.

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In 2017, 61.7% of gross bilateral ODA went to Poland’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are in Europe, in particular its neighbouring countries Ukraine and Belarus, as well as the Middle East and Africa. Support to fragile contexts reached USD 31 million in 2017 (12.5% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts.

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Note: In 2017, Turkey received USD 28.2 million under the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey (FRIT) for the support of Syrian refugees.

In 2017, 6.5% of Poland’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 16 million) was allocated to the LDCs. This is down from 42.0% in 2016. The DAC country average for 2017 was 23.5%. Lower middle-income countries (32.1%) and upper middle-income countries (30.6%) received the highest share of bilateral ODA in 2017, noting that 30.8% was unallocated by income group.

At 0.02% of GNI in 2017, total ODA to the LDCs (including imputed multilateral flows) was lower than the UN target of 0.15-0.20% of GNI.

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In 2017, 48.4% of bilateral ODA commitments (USD 121 million) was allocated to social infrastructure and services, with a focus on education (USD 83 million) and support to government and civil society (USD 21 million). Humanitarian aid amounted to USD 46 million. Poland committed USD 16 million (9.4% of bilateral allocable aid) to promote aid for trade and improve developing countries’ trade performance and integration into the world economy in 2017.

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USD 4 million of gross bilateral allocable ODA supported gender equality. In 2017, 2.3% of Poland’s bilateral sector-allocable aid had gender equality and women’s empowerment as a principal or significant objective (similar to 2.6% in 2016), well below the DAC country average of 36% and although the entirety of Poland’s bilateral portfolio is screened against the gender policy marker. Learn more about ODA focused on gender equality and the DAC Network on Gender Equality.

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USD 60 million of bilateral ODA commitments supported the environment. In 2017, 36% of Poland’s gross bilateral allocable aid supported the environment , up from 2% in 2016. One per cent (USD 2 million) focused on climate change, compared with the respective DAC country averages of 33% and 25%.Learn more about climate-related development finance.

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Other financial flows

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Institutional set-up

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-ordinates development co-operation policy under the brand “Polish Aid”. While the Ministry of Foreign Affairs managed 26.8% of Polish ODA in 2016/17, most funds (and notably contributions to the EU) are provided by the Ministry of Finance (61.4% of ODA in 2016/17). The Ministry of Finance is also responsible for and manages concessional lending (provided to some priority countries in Africa). Through scholarships, the Ministry of Education also provides ODA.

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Evaluation system

Poland’s Development Cooperation Act (2011) mandates the Minister responsible for Foreign Affairs to evaluate the effective implementation of the goals set out in the development co-operation programme. The Multiannual Development Cooperation Programme 2016-2020 provides a clear definition of evaluation and roles of evaluation, based on international development evaluation standards and principles.

On behalf of the minister, the Development Cooperation Department (DCD) evaluates Polish development co-operation. An independent evaluation post sits within the department, reporting directly to the Director. The Development Cooperation Department draws up an annual or two-year evaluation plan, which is published. Evaluations are conducted by external companies selected through a public tender procedure.

In 2019, in line with the Evaluation plan of Poland’s development cooperation in 2018 and 2019 (in Polish language only), public information and promotion activities implemented under the Multiannual Development Cooperation Programme 2016-2020 will be evaluated and the results will inform future priorities. Learn more about evaluation 2018 in Poland.

Visit the DAC Evaluation Resource Centre website for evaluations of Polish development co-operation.

Performance against the commitments for effective development co-operation

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Explore the Monitoring Dashboard of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation.

Polish Aid: https://www.polskapomoc.gov.pl/Polish,Aid,160.html

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Poland: https://www.gov.pl/web/diplomacy

Member of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) since 2013.

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