Indicator D3. How much are teachers and school heads paid?

Teachers’ statutory salaries can vary according to a number of factors, including the level of education taught, their qualification level and how much experience they have or what stage of their career they are in.

Data on teachers’ salaries are available for three qualification levels: minimum, most prevalent and maximum. The salaries of teachers with the maximum qualifications can be substantially higher than those with the minimum qualifications. However, in some countries, very few teachers hold the minimum or maximum qualifications and in many countries, most teachers have the same qualification level. For these reasons, the following analysis on statutory salaries focuses on teachers who hold the most prevalent qualifications. At the secondary level, it focuses on teachers in general programmes (additional data collected on upper secondary teachers in vocational programmes are analysed in Box D3.3).

Teachers’ salaries vary widely across countries. The salaries of upper secondary school teachers (in general programmes) with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications (a proxy for mid-career salaries) range from less than USD 20 000 in the Slovak Republic to more than USD 70 000 in Canada, the Flemish and French Communities of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, and they exceed USD 100 000 in Luxembourg (Table D3.1). These and all subsequent figures are based on exchange rates that are adjusted for differences in purchasing power across countries (see Methodology section below).

Typically, teachers’ salaries increase with the level of education they teach. On average across OECD countries and other participants, the salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications range from USD 45 981 at the pre-primary level to USD 49 968 at the primary level, USD 51 613 at the lower secondary level and USD 53 456 at the upper secondary level. In Denmark and the Flemish and French Communities of Belgium, upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications earn between about 25% and 30% more than pre-primary teachers with the same experience, while they earn around 48% more in Finland and more than 80% more in Mexico. In Denmark and Finland, the difference is mainly driven by lower salaries for pre-primary teachers. In the Flemish and French Communities of Belgium and in Mexico, teachers’ salaries at upper secondary level are significantly higher than at other levels of education (Table D3.1).

The difference in salaries between teachers (with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications) at pre-primary and upper secondary levels is less than 5% in less than one-quarter of OECD countries, while they earn the same salary irrespective of the level of education taught in a similar number of countries and other participants (Table D3.1).

Salary structures usually define the salaries paid to teachers at different points in their careers. Deferred compensation, which rewards employees for staying in organisations or professions and for meeting established performance criteria, can also be used in teachers’ salary structures. OECD data on teachers’ salaries are limited to information on statutory salaries at four points of the salary scale: starting salaries, salaries after 10 years of experience, salaries after 15 years of experience and salaries at the top of the scale. Countries that are looking to increase the supply of teachers, especially those with an ageing teacher workforce or a growing school-age population, might consider offering more attractive starting wages and career prospects. However, to ensure a well-qualified teaching workforce, efforts must be made not only to recruit and select the most competent and best-qualified teachers, but also to retain them. Weak financial incentives may make it more difficult to retain teachers as they approach the peak of their earnings. However, there may be some benefits to compressed pay scales.

In OECD countries, the salaries of teachers with a given qualification level rise during the course of their careers, although the rate of change differs across countries. For upper secondary teachers with the most prevalent qualifications for teachers at that level, average statutory salaries are 29% higher than average starting salaries after 10 years of experience, and 36% higher after 15 years of experience. Average salaries at the top of the scale (reached after an average of nearly 25 years) are 65% higher than the average starting salaries. The difference in salaries by level of experience varies widely between countries. At the upper secondary level, salaries at the top of the scale exceed starting salaries by less than 20% in Croatia and the Republic of Türkiye, whereas salaries at the top of the scale are 2.8 times starting salaries in Korea (after at least 37 years of experience) (Table D3.1 and Education at a Glance Database, http://stats.oecd.org).

Teachers’ qualification levels can also be associated with different salary scales. For upper secondary teachers, the average statutory salary with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications is 39% higher than the average starting salary with the minimum qualifications. The average statutory salary for teachers at the top of the salary range with the maximum qualifications is 33% higher than the average starting salary for teachers with the minimum qualifications (Table D3.1 and Figure D3.2).

In terms of the maximum statutory salary range (from minimum – starting salaries with the minimum qualifications – to maximum – top of the scale salary with the maximum qualifications), in most countries and other participants where minimum salaries are below the OECD average, the maximum salaries are also below the OECD average. At the upper secondary level, the most notable exceptions are Colombia, England (United Kingdom) and Portugal, where starting salaries are at least 9% lower than the OECD average, but maximum salaries are at least 44% higher. These differences may reflect the different career paths available to teachers with different qualifications in these countries. Maximum salaries are at least double minimum salaries in about one-quarter of OECD countries and other participants (Figure D3.2).

The difference between maximum salaries (which may only apply to a very small proportion of teachers) and salaries of teachers with the most prevalent qualifications and 15 years of experience, also varies across countries. At upper secondary level, the pay gap between these two groups is less than 10% in six OECD countries and other participants, while it exceeds 60% in six others. In France, the difference at upper secondary level results from different salary scales for professeurs certifiés (teachers with most prevalent qualification) and professeurs agrégés (teachers with the maximum qualification) (Figure D3.2 and Table D3.1).

In addition to statutory salaries, teachers’ actual salaries include work-related payments, such as annual bonuses, results-related bonuses, extra pay for holidays, sick-leave pay and other additional payments (see Definitions section). These bonuses and allowances can represent a significant addition to base salaries and actual average salaries are influenced by their prevalence in the compensation system. Differences between statutory and actual average salaries are also linked to patterns of experience and qualifications in the teaching workforce, as these factors have an impact on teachers’ salary levels.

Across OECD countries and other participants, in 2022, the average actual salaries of teachers aged 25-64 were USD 42 371 at pre-primary level, USD 48 023 at primary level, USD 49 911 at lower secondary level and USD 53 119 in general programmes at upper secondary level. There are 29 OECD and partner countries and other participants with data available on both the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications, and the actual salaries of 25-64 year-old teachers for at least one level of education. Actual annual salaries are at least 10% higher than statutory salaries in 8 of these countries at pre-primary level and in 13 at upper secondary level. This shows the effect of additional allowances (included in the data for actual but not statutory salaries) and of differing levels of experience in the teaching populations of countries (Table D3.4).

Comparing teachers’ actual salaries to minimum and maximum statutory salaries also gives an indication of the distribution of teachers between the minimum and maximum salary levels. At the upper secondary level, the actual salaries of 25-64 year-old teachers are, on average, 54% higher than the statutory starting salary for teachers with the minimum qualification (among countries with available data on both actual and statutory salaries). This difference is less than 20% in Germany and Sweden, which may result from a smaller range of statutory salaries and/or less use of additional allowances compared to other countries. In contrast, in Costa Rica, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Poland and the Slovak Republic, the difference is over 70%, suggesting that most teachers are paid much more than the minimum starting salary (Figure D3.2).

Similarly, comparing actual salaries with the statutory maximum salary shows that actual salaries of 25-64 year-old teachers are, on average, 12% lower than the statutory salary at the top of the scale for teachers with the maximum qualification. Actual salaries are at least 25% lower than statutory salary at the top of the scale in six countries and other participants, suggesting that few teachers are paid at or near the maximum salary level. In eight countries, teachers’ average actual salaries are higher than the maximum statutory salary, which implies that allowances are having a substantial effect on teachers’ take-home pay (Figure D3.2).

Education systems compete with other sectors of the economy to attract high-quality graduates as teachers. Research shows that salaries and the alternative opportunities available to these graduates are important factors in the attractiveness of teaching (Johnes and Johnes, 2004[4]). Teachers’ salaries relative to other occupations with similar education requirements, and their likely growth in earnings, may have a huge influence on a graduate’s decision to become a teacher or to stay in the profession (see Box D3.2 for comparability issues related to measuring teachers’ relative salaries).

In most OECD countries, a tertiary degree is required to become a teacher at all levels of education (see Table X3.D3.3 in Education at a Glance 2023 Sources, Methodologies and Technical Notes (OECD, 2023[3])), meaning that the likely alternative to initial teacher education is a similar tertiary programme. Thus salary levels and labour-market conditions in different countries can be interpreted by comparing teachers’ actual salaries with the earnings of other professionals. There are two comparisons that can be made. First, to tertiary-educated workers: full-time, full-year 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary attainment (ISCED levels 5 to 8). Second, teachers’ actual salaries can be compared to the earnings of similarly educated workers, weighted by the proportion of teachers at each level of tertiary attainment. This second method ensures that comparisons between countries are not biased by differences in the distribution of bachelor’s, master’s or doctoral or equivalent attainment among teachers compared to tertiary-educated workers more generally (see Table X2.8 in Annex 2 for the proportion of teachers by attainment level, and Methodology section for more details).

In very few of the 19 countries and other participants with available data for similarly educated workers for at least one level of education do teachers’ actual salaries reach or exceed those of similarly educated workers. They amount to 65% or less of the earnings of similarly educated workers in Chile (except at upper secondary level), Hungary and the United States. However, upper secondary teachers in Germany have actual salaries that are nearly the same as those of similarly educated workers (Table D3.3).

Earnings for tertiary-educated workers are more widely available. Against this benchmark, teachers’ actual salaries relative to other tertiary-educated workers increase with higher education levels. On average, pre-primary teachers’ salaries amount to 81% of the full-time, full-year earnings of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds. Primary teachers earn 87% of this benchmark salary, lower secondary teachers 90% and upper secondary teachers 95% (Table D3.3).

In almost all countries and other participants with available information, and at almost all levels of education, teachers’ actual salaries are lower than those of tertiary-educated workers. The lowest relative salaries are at pre-primary level: pre-primary teachers’ salaries are 55% of those of tertiary-educated workers in Hungary and 60% of those of tertiary-educated workers in the Slovak Republic. However, in some countries and other participants, teachers earn more than tertiary-educated adults, either at all levels of education (Australia, Costa Rica, Lithuania and Portugal) or only at some levels (at upper secondary level in the Flemish Community of Belgium and Finland and at secondary level in Germany). In Costa Rica (at lower and upper secondary level), Lithuania and Portugal, teachers earn at least 30% more than tertiary-educated workers (Table D3.3 and Figure D3.1).

Finally, teachers’ salaries increase at different rates over the course of their careers in different countries. On average among OECD countries and other participants with available data, for upper secondary teachers with the most prevalent qualification starting salaries represent 75% of the average earnings of tertiary-educated workers, but reach to 123% of earnings at the top of the scale. Countries vary widely in terms of the competitiveness of salaries and the time taken to reach the top of the scale, however. It takes 25 years on average, ranging from 4 years in Scotland (United Kingdom) to 42 years in Hungary. These differing rates of progression mean that countries with similar relative salaries at the top and bottom of the scale might not necessarily be offering similarly competitive teacher compensation. For example, in France, starting salaries are 63% of tertiary-educated workers’ earnings and salaries at the top of the scale are 103% of tertiary-educated workers earnings. This is similar to New Zealand where the equivalent figures are 61% and 98%. However, it takes teachers 35 years to reach the top of the scale in France, compared with 7 years in New Zealand (Figure D3.3).

School heads’ responsibilities may vary between countries and also within countries, depending on the schools they lead. School heads may exercise educational responsibilities (which may include teaching, but also responsibility for the general functioning of the institution in areas such as the timetable, implementation of the curriculum, decisions about what is taught, and the materials and methods used). They may also have other administrative, staff management and financial responsibilities (see Indicator D4 in Education at a Glance 2022 (OECD, 2022[7]) for more details, including differences in the nature of the work carried out and the hours worked by school heads compared to teachers).

Some countries have a specific salary scale for school heads, who may or may not receive a school-head allowance on top of their statutory salaries. In other countries, they may be paid according to teachers’ salary scales, with an additional school-head allowance. The use of teachers’ salary scales may reflect the fact that school heads are initially teachers with additional responsibilities. At upper secondary level (general programmes), school heads are paid according to teachers’ salary scales with a school-head allowance in 14 out of the 35 countries and other participants with available information, and according to a specific salary range in the other 21. Of these, 15 countries and other participants have no specific school-head allowance and 6 include a school-head allowance in the salary. The amounts payable to school heads (through statutory salaries and/or school-head allowances) may vary according to the characteristics of the school(s) where the school head is based (for example the size of the school based on the number of students enrolled, or the number of teachers supervised). They could also vary according to the individual characteristics of the school heads themselves, such as the duties they have to perform or their years of experience (Table D3.16, available on line).

Considering the large number of criteria involved in the calculation of school heads’ statutory salaries, the statutory salary data for school heads focus on those related to the minimum qualification requirements to become a school head, and Table D3.5 (available on line) shows only the minimum and maximum values. Caution is necessary when interpreting these values because salaries often depend on many criteria and as a result, few school heads may earn these amounts.

About half of OECD countries and other participants have similar pay ranges for primary and lower secondary school heads, while upper secondary school heads benefit from higher statutory salaries on average. At upper secondary level, the minimum salary for school heads is USD 57 240 on average across OECD countries and other participants, ranging from USD 22 048 in Costa Rica to USD 112 247 in Luxembourg. The maximum salary is USD 90 692 on average, ranging from USD 35 969 in the Czech Republic to USD 155 235 in Luxembourg (Figure D3.4 and Table D3.5, available on line). These values should be interpreted with caution, as minimum and maximum statutory salaries refer to school heads in different types of schools.

On average across OECD countries and other participants, at primary level the maximum statutory salary of a school head with the minimum qualifications is 74% higher than the minimum statutory salary, while it is 67% higher at lower secondary level and 70% higher at upper secondary level. There are 11 countries or other participants where school heads at the top of the scale can expect to earn at least twice the statutory minimum salary in at least one of these levels of education; In Costa Rica, they can even expect to earn more than three times the minimum salary at all levels of education (Table D3.5, available on line).

The minimum statutory salaries for school heads with the minimum qualifications are higher than the starting salaries of teachers (with the most prevalent qualification at that level) in all OECD countries and other participants except Colombia (at pre-primary and primary levels) and Costa Rica. The difference increases with level of education: on average, minimum school heads’ salaries are 49% higher than teachers’ at primary level, 54% higher at lower secondary level and 54% higher at upper secondary level. In a number of countries, the minimum statutory salary for school heads is higher than the maximum salary for teachers. At upper secondary level, this is the case in about one-third of OECD countries and other participants (Figure D3.4 and Table D3.5, available on line).

Similarly, the maximum statutory salaries for school heads are higher than the maximum salaries for teachers for all OECD countries and other participants with available data. At upper secondary level, the maximum statutory salary of a school head is 52% higher on average than the maximum for teachers (with the most prevalent qualifications). In Chile, England (United Kingdom), Israel and Scotland (United Kingdom), school heads’ maximum salaries are more than twice statutory teachers’ salaries at the top of the scale (Figure D3.4 and Table D3.5, available on line).

Across OECD countries and other participants, average actual salaries for school heads aged 25-64 ranged from USD 71 784 at primary level to USD 76 572 at lower secondary level and USD 81 972 at upper secondary level. School heads’ actual salaries are higher than those of teachers, and the premium (the difference in actual salaries between school heads and teachers, in favour of school heads) increases with levels of education. On average, school heads’ actual salaries in 2022 were 51% higher than teachers’ at primary level, 54% higher at lower secondary level and 55% higher at upper secondary level (Table D3.4).

The premiums vary widely across countries and levels of education, however. The highest premium for school heads over teachers was in England (United Kingdom) at pre-primary level, where school heads’ actual salaries are 80% higher than those for teachers, and Italy at primary and secondary levels, where school heads’ actual salaries are more than twice those of teachers. The lowest premiums, of less than 30%, are in Estonia (at primary and secondary), Finland (pre-primary), France (pre-primary and primary), Iceland (pre-primary), Latvia (lower secondary) and Norway (pre-primary). For France, the low premiums can be explained by the fact that pre-primary and primary school heads are teachers relieved from part of their teaching duties. They receive the salaries of teachers at this level of education, with the addition of a specific school-head allowance. Other countries show a steep rise in the salaries of school heads compared to teachers at the secondary level, but a smaller difference at primary level. For example, in Ireland, school heads’ actual salaries are 46% higher than teachers’ at primary level, but the difference is 73% at lower and upper secondary level. In Costa Rica, Estonia, Poland and Slovenia, the difference is much larger at pre-primary level than at primary and lower secondary levels (Table D3.4; see Box D3.1 for variations at subnational level).

The career prospects of school heads and their relative salaries are also a signal of a potential career progression pathway available to teachers and the compensation associated with this career in the longer term. Not only do school heads earn more than teachers, they also, unlike teachers, typically earn more than similarly educated workers (Table D3.2).

Between 2010 and 2022, the statutory salaries of teachers (with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications) increased overall in real terms (i.e. when adjusted for increases in the cost of living) in most of the countries for which data are available. However, only two-fifths of OECD countries have the relevant data available for the whole period with no break in the time series. Among these countries, around two-thirds show an increase in such salaries over this period and one-third show a decrease (Table D3.7, available on line).

The biggest real-terms decreases in statutory salaries between 2010 and 2022 were in Greece, where statutory salaries fell by more than 30% at pre-primary, primary and secondary levels. There were also smaller declines (less than 10%) in teachers’ statutory salaries (at some or all levels of education) in about one-quarter of OECD countries and other participants. During the same period, statutory salaries increased by 30% or more for teachers in Chile (pre-primary, primary and lower secondary levels, and nearly 30% at upper secondary level), Hungary (pre-primary level) and Israel (pre-primary and secondary levels) and by nearly 30% in the Slovak Republic (Figure D3.5 and Table D3.7, available on line).

For the period 2015 to 2022, four-fifths of OECD countries and other participants have comparable data for at least one level of education, based on teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications. Teachers’ statutory salaries increased in real terms in between one-half and three-fifths of these (depending on the level of education) during this time. Statutory salaries increased by about 5% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 4% at upper secondary level (general programmes) (Table D3.7, available on line). However, when considering the average across OECD countries and other participants with available data for all the reference years between 2010 and 2022, statutory salaries were stable over 2015-22 (changing by less than 1 percentage point) at the different levels of education (Figure D3.5 and Table D3.7, available on line).

There were large increases or decreases in salaries over the period 2015-22 in some countries. They grew by more than 20% in Chile, the Czech Republic, Israel (at upper secondary level), Lithuania and the Slovak Republic (at pre-primary level). In contrast, statutory salaries have fallen since 2015 (at all levels of education with available data) in 14 countries and other participants. The largest decreases were in Costa Rica where salaries fell by 19% at pre-primary and primary levels and nearly 40% at secondary level (Figure D3.5 and Table D3.7, available on line).

As 2022 data are not available for a significant number of countries and other participants, trends are analysed up to 2021. Between 2010 and 2021, teachers’ actual salaries increased overall in real terms in most countries for which data are available. Around two-thirds of countries with time series data show an increase over this period and one-third a decrease. However, only one in three OECD countries have data available on the actual salaries of teachers aged 25-64 for this period with no break in the time series.

For the countries with available data and no breaks in the time series, actual salaries generally increased between 2010 and 2021. The increase in salaries was over 20% at all levels of education in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Sweden, and at upper secondary level in Iceland. There were only three countries and other participants where actual salaries fell in at least one level of education. They fell by 11% for upper secondary teachers in the Flemish Community of Belgium (Table D3.8, available on line).

Over the period 2015 to 2021, at least two-thirds of OECD countries and other participants have comparable time series data for at least one level of education. Around three-quarters of these countries showed an increase in real terms in actual salaries. On average across OECD countries and other participants with available data for all the reference years, actual salaries increased by about 2% at primary level, 3% at lower secondary level and 6% at upper secondary level. The increase exceeded 20% in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Iceland (except at upper secondary level), Latvia, Lithuania and the Slovak Republic (Table D3.8, available on line).

Statutory salaries, based on pay scales, are only one component of the total compensation of teachers and school heads. School systems may also offer additional payments to teachers and school heads, such as allowances, bonuses or other rewards. These may take the form of financial remuneration and/or reductions in the number of teaching hours, and decisions on the criteria used for the formation of the base salary and additional payments are taken at different levels (Tables D3.13 and D3.15, available on line).

Criteria for additional payments vary across countries. In the large majority of countries and other participants, teachers’ core tasks (teaching, planning or preparing lessons, marking students’ work, general administrative work, communicating with parents, supervising students and working with colleagues) are rarely compensated through specific bonuses or additional payments (Table D3.10, available on line). Teachers may also be required to take on some responsibilities or perform some tasks without additional compensation (see Indicator D4 in Education at a Glance 2022 (OECD, 2022[7]) for the tasks and responsibilities of teachers). Taking on other responsibilities, however, often entails some sort of extra compensation.

At upper secondary level, teachers who participate in school management activities in addition to their teaching duties received extra compensation in nearly three-fifths of the countries and other participants with available information. It is also common for teachers to be awarded additional payments, either annual or occasional, for teaching more classes or hours than required by their full-time contract, having responsibility as a class or form teacher, or performing special tasks such as training student teachers (Table D3.10, available on line).

Outstanding performance can also lead to additional compensation, either in the form of occasional additional or annual payments, or through increases in basic salary. These are awarded to upper secondary teachers in about three-fifths of the OECD countries and other participants with available data. Additional payments can also include bonuses for special teaching conditions, such as teaching students with special needs in regular schools or teaching in disadvantaged, remote or high-cost areas (Table D3.10 available on line).

There are also criteria for additional payments for school heads, but fewer tasks or responsibilities lead to additional payments compared to teachers (see Tables D3.12 and D3.15, available on line).

Teachers refer to professional personnel directly involved in teaching students. The classification includes classroom teachers, special education teachers and other teachers who work with a whole class of students in a classroom, in small groups in a resource room, or in one-to-one teaching situations inside or outside a regular class.

School head refers to any person whose primary or major function is heading a school or a group of schools, alone or within an administrative body such as a board or council. The school head is the primary leader responsible for the leadership, management and administration of a school.

Actual salaries for teachers/school heads aged 25-64 refer to the annual average earnings received by full-time teachers/school heads aged 25-64, before taxes. It is the gross salary from the employee’s point of view, since it includes the part of social security contributions and pension-scheme contributions that are paid by the employees (even if deducted automatically from the employees’ gross salary by the employer). However, the employers’ premium for social security and pension is excluded. Actual salaries also include work-related payments, such as school-head allowance, annual bonuses, results-related bonuses, extra pay for holidays and sick-leave pay. Income from other sources, such as government social transfers, investment income and any other income that is not directly related to their profession is not included.

Earnings for workers with tertiary education are average earnings for full-time, full-year workers aged 25-64 with an education at ISCED level 5, 6, 7 or 8.

Salary at the top of the scale refers to the maximum scheduled annual salary (top of the salary range) for a full-time classroom teacher (for a given level of qualification of teachers recognised by the compensation system).

Salary after 15 years of experience refers to the scheduled annual salary of a full-time classroom teacher. Statutory salaries may refer to the salaries of teachers with a given level of qualification recognised by the compensation system (the minimum training necessary to be fully qualified, the most prevalent qualifications or the maximum qualification), plus 15 years of experience.

Starting salary refers to the average scheduled gross salary per year for a full-time classroom teacher with a given level of qualification recognised by the compensation system (the minimum training necessary to be fully qualified or the most prevalent qualifications) at the beginning of the teaching career.

Statutory salaries refer to scheduled salaries according to official pay scales. The salaries reported are gross (total sum paid by the employer) less the employer’s contribution to social security and pension, according to existing salary scales. Salaries are “before tax” (i.e. before deductions for income tax).

Data on teachers’ salaries at lower and upper secondary level refer only to general programmes.

Salaries were converted using purchasing power parities (PPPs) for private consumption from the OECD National Accounts Statistics database. The period of reference for teachers’ salaries is from 1 July 2021 to 30 June 2022. The reference date for PPPs is 2021/22, except for some southern hemisphere countries (e.g. Australia and New Zealand), where the academic year runs from January to December. In these countries, the reference year is the calendar year (i.e. 2022). Tables with salaries in national currency are included in Annex 2. To calculate changes in teachers’ salaries (Tables D3.7 and D3.8, available on line), the deflator for private consumption is used to convert salaries to 2015 prices.

In most countries, the criteria to determine the most prevalent qualifications of teachers are based on a principle of relative majority (i.e. the level of qualifications of the largest proportion of teachers).

In Table D3.3, the ratios of salaries to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25-64 are calculated based on weighted averages of earnings of tertiary-educated workers (Columns 2 to 5 for teachers and Columns 10 to 13 for school heads). The weights, collected for every country individually, are based on the percentage of teachers or school heads at each ISCED level of tertiary attainment (see Tables X2.8 and X2.9 in Annex 2). The ratios have been calculated for countries for which these data are available. When data on earnings of workers referred to a different reference year than the 2022 reference year used for salaries of teachers or school heads, a deflator has been used to adjust earnings data to 2022. For all other ratios in Table D3.3 and those in Table D3.6 (available on line), information on all tertiary-educated workers was used instead of weighted averages. Data on the earnings of workers take account of earnings from work for all individuals during the reference period, including the salaries of teachers. In most countries, the population of teachers is large and may impact on the average earnings of workers.

For more information, please see the OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics (OECD, 2018[8]) and Education at a Glance 2023 Sources, Methodologies and Technical Notes (OECD, 2023[3]) for country-specific notes.

Data on salaries and bonuses for teachers and school heads are derived from the 2022 joint OECD/Eurydice data collection on salaries of teachers and school heads. Data refer to the 2021/22 school year and are reported in accordance with formal policies for public institutions. Data on earnings of workers are based on the regular data collection by the OECD Labour Market and Social Outcomes of Learning Network. Data on salaries and bonuses for upper secondary teachers in vocational programmes are derived from the 2022 OECD data collection on salaries of upper secondary teachers in vocational programmes.

References

[4] Johnes, G. and J. Johnes (2004), International Handbook on the Economics of Education, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA.

[3] OECD (2023), Education at a Glance 2023 Sources, Methodologies and Technical Notes, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/d7f76adc-en.

[7] OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/3197152b-en.

[5] OECD (2021), Education at a Glance 2021: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/b35a14e5-en.

[6] OECD (2021), OECD Employment Outlook 2021: Navigating the COVID-19 Crisis and Recovery, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/5a700c4b-en.

[2] OECD (2019), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

[8] OECD (2018), OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics 2018: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264304444-en.

[1] OECD (2005), Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers, Education and Training Policy, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264018044-en.

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