Romania

Romania’s development co-operation is mostly focused on countries in its vicinity – the Eastern Partnership countries and Southern neighbourhood, with a volume of official development assistance (ODA) that has steadily increased. In 2016, Romania established the legal framework for national development co-operation policy to regulate its programmatic and institutional structure, as well as associated financial and implementation regulations. The Romanian Agency for International Development Cooperation (RoAid) became operational in 2018 and began implementing aid activities the same year. As a DAC participant since 2018, Romania has welcomed the opportunity to be involved as an observer in Denmark’s Statistical peer review in 2018 and in Germany’s DAC peer review in 2020.

Romania’s development co-operation objective is focussed on the eradication of extreme poverty and global security by promoting socio-economic sustainability and effectiveness through international co-operation. Its assistance, mostly directed to European countries in its neighbourhood, is provided in line with Law No. 13/2016 that regulates development co-operation and humanitarian aid financed from Romanian public funds. The law sets the strategic objectives, programmatic and institutional framework, as well as financing and implementation modalities of Romania’s development co-operation. Romania provides the vast majority of its ODA through multilateral channels, mainly as core contributions.

In 2019, Romania provided USD 251 million (preliminary figures) in ODA, equivalent to 0.10% of Romania’s gross national income (GNI). This represented an increase of 2.8% in real terms from 2018, due to a slight increase in bilateral ODA. In 2018, Romania provided USD 249 million in total ODA, equivalent to 0.11% of GNI. The government has committed to strive to achieve a 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio by 2030 as part of EU’s collective commitment to achieve 0.7% ODA/GNI ratio by 2030. Total ODA on a grant-equivalent basis has the same value as net ODA under the cash-flow methodology used in the past, as Romania provides only grants.1

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In 2018, the largest proportion of Romania’s ODA (76%) was provided as core contributions to multilateral organisations. Gross bilateral ODA was 24% of total ODA, of which 16% was channelled through multilateral organisations (earmarked contributions).

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In 2018, Romania increased its total support (core and earmarked contributions) to multilateral organisations. It provided USD 199 million of gross ODA to the multilateral system, an increase of 2.1% in real terms from 2017. Of this, USD 190 million represented core multilateral ODA and the rest was earmarked for a specific country, region, theme or purpose. Project aid earmarked to a specific theme and/or country (tight earmarking) accounted for 5% of Romania’s non-core contributions, while the remaining 95% was softly earmarked (to pooled funds and specific-purpose programmes and funds).

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In 2018, Romania’s total contribution to multilateral funds was mainly allocated to the European Union institutions, regional development banks and the United Nations (UN). These contributions together accounted for almost 99% of Romania’s total support to the multilateral system. The UN system received 3%, mainly through core contributions. Out of a total volume of USD 5 million to the UN system, the top three UN recipients of Romania’s support (core and earmarked contributions) were: the World Health Organization (USD 0.9 million), the UN Secretariat (USD 0.8 million), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (USD 0.7 million).

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Note: See the list of UN acronyms.

See the section on “Geographic and thematic focus of ODA” for the geographical and thematic breakdown of bilateral allocations earmarked through the multilateral development system. Learn more about multilateral development finance.

In 2018, Romania’s bilateral spending increased compared to the previous year. It provided USD 59 million of gross bilateral ODA (which includes earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations), which represented an increase of 45.9% in real terms from 2017.

In 2018, country programmable aid was 81% of Romania’s gross bilateral ODA, compared to a DAC country average of 49%.

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Note: NGO: non-governmental organisation.

In 2018, Romania channelled its bilateral ODA mainly through the public sector and multilateral organisations, as earmarked funding.

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In 2018, Romania’s bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Europe. USD 51 million was allocated to ODA-eligible countries in Europe and USD 4 million to Asia, accounting respectively for 86% and 7% of gross bilateral ODA. Europe was also the main regional recipient of Romania’s earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, in line with the policy priorities of the overall/multilateral strategy. Four per cent of gross bilateral ODA was unspecified by region in 2018.

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Bilateral ODA by recipient country

In 2018, 89% of gross bilateral ODA went to Romania’s top 10 recipients. Its top 10 recipients are mainly in Europe, where Romania has programmes with five countries, in line with its focus on its immediate neighbourhood. The share of gross bilateral ODA that was not allocated by country was 5%.

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In 2018, least developed countries received 1.6% of Romania’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 1 million). Romania allocated the highest share of gross bilateral ODA (71.5%) to lower middle-income countries in 2018, noting that 5% was unallocated by income group.

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Note: LDC: least developed country; LIC: low-income country; LMIC: lower middle-income country; UMIC: upper middle-income country; MADCTs: more advanced developing countries and territories.

Support to fragile contexts reached USD 3 million of gross bilateral ODA in 2018 (5.4% of gross bilateral ODA). Learn more about support to fragile contexts on the States of Fragility platform.

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Note: The chart represents only gross bilateral ODA that is allocated by country.

In 2018, most of Romania’s bilateral ODA was allocated to social infrastructure and services. Investments in this area accounted for 81.5% of bilateral ODA commitments (USD 48.3 million), with a strong focus on support to education (USD 46.7 million). Bilateral humanitarian aid amounted to USD 8.1 million (14% of bilateral ODA). Earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations focused primarily on humanitarian aid in 2018.

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The Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-ordinates Romania’s development co-operation and humanitarian aid policy at the national level. As such, it monitors the progress made in achieving the objectives and international commitments assumed by Romania, while also collecting analysis for reporting at the national and international level on Romania’s development cooperation and humanitarian aid activities. In this context, 20 Romanian public institutions are engaged in ODA reporting.

Regulated by Law No. 213/2016 and operational since 2018, RoAid is the national development institution responsible for implementing projects and programmes in the field of international development co-operation and humanitarian aid. In this context, the agency has promoted partnerships with the private sector and NGOs. In its international co-operation with other development co-operation agencies, RoAID is also active in regional organisations as a member of the Practitioners’ Network for European Development Co-operation since 2019. In addition, the above-mentioned law established an advisory committee for international development co-operation and humanitarian aid. The committee is responsible for ensuring the efficient integration of strategic planning and consensual designation of geographic and thematic priorities for development co-operation activities carried out by Romania.

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The development co-operation and humanitarian aid policy lays terms for evaluating projects and programmes through its legal framework. Activities implemented by RoAid are monitored by the agency, which circulates information collected to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Explore the Monitoring Dashboard of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation.

Romanian Agency for International Development Cooperation: http://roaid.ro/en/2382-2

Law No. 213 of November 9th 2016 on International Cooperation for Development and Humanitarian Aid: http://roaid.ro/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Law-213_-2016-on-Development-Cooperation.pdf

Participant in the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Reporting to the OECD since 2008 and reporting activity-level data since 2015 on 2014 activities.

The methodological notes provide further details on the definitions and statistical methodologies applied, including the grant-equivalent methodology, core and earmarked contributions to multilateral organisations, country programmable aid, channels of delivery, bilateral ODA unspecified/unallocated, bilateral allocable aid, the gender equality policy marker, and the environment markers.

← 1. All 2019 statistics in this paragraph are expressed in current prices and, therefore, they may differ from values in the ODA volume chart, which uses constant prices.

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https://doi.org/10.1787/2dcf1367-en

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