Chapter 15. Profiles of other development co-operation providers reporting to the OECD

This chapter presents information on the volume and key features of the development co-operation provided by countries that are not members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). The chapter includes the 13 providers who reported to the OECD on their development co-operation programmes with a sufficient level of detail.

It also includes profiles for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the United Postcode Lotteries, both of which are leading private funders for development. As these foundations report to the OECD on a regular basis following the DAC statistical standards, their data are fully compatible with statistics on other development finance flows, particularly official development assistance (ODA).

    

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of the international law.

This section was prepared by Marisa Berbegal Ibáñez, Juan Casado Asensio, Tomas Hos, Michael Laird, Nadine Piefer and Cécile Sangaré, in collaboration with Valérie Thielemans.

Azerbaijan

In 2016, Azerbaijan’s net official development assistance (ODA) amounted to USD 13 million, representing an increase of 3% from 2015. The ratio of ODA as a share of gross national income (GNI) rose from 0.02% to 0.04%.

Azerbaijan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for setting the overall development co-operation guidelines of the country. Project implementation is the responsibility of the Azerbaijan International Development Agency (AIDA), which was established in 2011 within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. AIDA’s annual budget allocation is provided from the state budget. AIDA co-ordinates the activities of the relevant government bodies in the field of development (primarily line ministries), ensuring that their activities are consistent with Azerbaijan’s foreign policy objectives.

In 2016, Azerbaijan’s bilateral development co-operation consisted mainly of contributions to specific-purpose programmes and funds managed by international organisations. In Development Assistance Committee (DAC) statistics, such ODA is not assigned to specific countries but rather to regions or unspecified locations. The main sectors for Azerbaijan’s bilateral development co-operation were production (agriculture, industry, mining, tourism, etc.), governance and civil society, and multisector aid.

Azerbaijan’s multilateral ODA, which accounted for 69% of Azerbaijan’s net disbursements in 2016, was provided primarily through regional development banks, notably the Asian Infrastructure Development Bank (accounting for 65% of its multilateral ODA in 2016).

In 2017, Azerbaijan, a DAC Invitee,1 participated in the meeting of the DAC Working Party on Development Finance Statistics.

“Guided by the ‘Sustainable Development Goals’, AIDA is actively engaged in combating poverty, the development of science, education, culture and healthcare, wider application of information technologies and efficient use of energy resources. The main objective of AIDA is to share Azerbaijan’s broad capacity and experience in various economic and social fields with the developing world through its humanitarian aid and development assistance programmes.”

Azerbaijan International Development Agency website

Figure 44.1. ODA key statistics: Azerbaijan
picture

Source: OECD (2018), “Azerbaijan’s official development assistance (ODA)”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm (accessed 10 May 2018).

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798029

Leaving no one behind: AIDA support to the “Alliance to Fight Avoidable Blindness”

Azerbaijan shares its experience and know-how with developing countries within the framework of South-South co-operation in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals enshrined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

In this regard, the Azerbaijan International Development Agency (AIDA) considers one of its most successful programmes to be its contribution to the “Alliance to Fight Avoidable Blindness”. The campaign was implemented in several African countries each year between 2012 and 2016 as part of AIDA’s strategic partnership with the Islamic Development Bank. Under the initiative of AIDA, Azerbaijani ophthalmologists from the National Eye Center, named after Academician Zarifa Aliyeva, participated in the campaign by sharing their knowledge and experience with their colleagues from recipient countries. During this campaign, more than 300 000 people had eye examinations and more than 56 000 patients regained their vision after cataract surgery carried out free of charge. In addition, 177 local doctors benefited from professional training as part of the campaign. The second phase of the campaign will be launched in 2018.

References

OECD (2018), “Azerbaijan’s official development assistance”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018) www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/azerbaijan-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Republic of Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs (n.d.), “Azerbaijan International Development Agency”, webpage, http://www.mfa.gov.az/?language=en&options=content&id=667.

Bulgaria

In 2017, preliminary data show that Bulgaria’s official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 62 million (0.11% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, Bulgaria’s net ODA amounted to USD 68 million, representing an increase of 66% in real terms over 2015. The ODA/GNI ratio rose from 0.09% in 2015 to 0.13% in 2016.

Government Decree No. 234/2011 on the policy of the Republic of Bulgaria to participate in international development co-operation defines the tasks, mechanisms and institutional framework of the country’s development co-operation. It also provides guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and auditing Bulgaria’s development co-operation. The medium-term programmes for development co-operation and humanitarian aid, covering three- or four-year periods, determine the specific areas of intervention and expected outcomes, as well as financial allocations among priority partner countries and sectors. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (United Nations and Co-operation for Development Directorate, International Co-operation for Development Department) leads and co-ordinates Bulgaria’s development co-operation activities, in co-operation with line ministries, elaborates ODA policy and annual action plans, and negotiates agreements with partner countries. In addition, the inter-institutional International Development Co-operation Council, a consultative body created in 2007, assists the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in programming and promoting Bulgaria’s development co-operation.

In 2016, Bulgaria provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to Turkey, the Syrian Arab Republic, Georgia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia. The main sector of Bulgaria’s bilateral development co-operation was humanitarian aid. Bulgaria provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly in the form of grants for financial and technical support, as well as expenses for in-donor refugee costs.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 82% of Bulgaria’s total ODA in 2016, provided primarily through the European Union (accounting for 72% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), the World Bank Group (19%) and regional development banks (5%).

Bulgaria is an Invitee of the Development Assistance Committee.2

“Development co-operation and humanitarian assistance form an integral part of the foreign policy of the Republic of Bulgaria and contribute to achieving its goals. Official development assistance (ODA) is an important tool for promoting sustainable growth of developing countries, for supporting their integration in the global economy and for building fairer and more democratic societies. Humanitarian aid aims to save human lives, relieve suffering and safeguard human dignity both during and after crises, as well as prevent such situations to occur. It strengthens resilience of countries.”

Bulgarian Medium-Term Programme, Development Aid and Humanitarian Assistance for the Period 2016 2019

Figure 45.1. ODA key statistics: Bulgaria
picture

Source: OECD (2018), “Bulgaria’s official development assistance”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/bulgarias-official-development-assistance.htm

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798048

References

OECD (2018), “Bulgaria’s official development assistance”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/bulgarias-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm.

Estonia

In 2017, preliminary data show that Estonia’s net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 42 million (0.17% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, Estonia’s net ODA amounted to USD 43 million, representing an increase of 26% in real terms over 2015. The ratio of ODA as a share of GNI also rose, from 0.15% to 0.19%.

Estonia’s development co-operation is provided in line with its Strategy for Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Aid, 2016-2020. This strategy sets out the goals and objectives of Estonia’s development co-operation, its sectoral and geographical priorities, as well as its estimated financial allocations for ODA. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the key institution responsible for managing and co-ordinating Estonia’s development co-operation.

In 2016, Estonia provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to Turkey, Ukraine, Afghanistan, Georgia and the Syrian Arab Republic, often in the form of small-scale technical co-operation projects. The main sectors of Estonia’s bilateral development co-operation were governance and civil society; education, health and population; and multisector aid. Cross-cutting themes for Estonia’s development co-operation were information and communication technologies, transparency and democratic participation, and the rights of women and children.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 57% of Estonia’s total ODA in 2016, provided primarily through the European Union (accounting for 83% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), as well as through the World Bank and the United Nations.

Estonia, which joined the OECD in 2010, is an observer to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). In 2017, Estonia participated in several meetings of the DAC, including its high-level and senior-level meetings.

“The main objective of Estonian development co-operation is to contribute to the eradication of poverty and to attaining the other Sustainable Development Goals. Estonian bilateral development co-operation is primarily aimed at countries to which Estonia can offer added value based on its own experiences. Thus, the priority partner countries of Estonian bilateral development co-operation are Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, Afghanistan and Belarus. However, flexibility is also important for Estonian development co-operation and humanitarian aid, as it allows Estonia to react to the world’s crises in co-operation with international partners.”

Strategy for Estonian Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Aid, 2016-2020

Figure 46.1. ODA key statistics: Estonia
picture

Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798067

References

OECD (2018), “Estonia’s official development assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 16 April 2018). http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/estonias-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 16 April 2018). http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm.

Republic of Estonia Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2016), Strategy for Estonian Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid, 2016-2020, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia, http://vm.ee/sites/default/files/content-editors/development-cooperation/2016_2020_arengukava_eng_kodulehele_0.pdf.

Israel

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of the international law.

In 2017, preliminary data show that Israel’s net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 342 million (0.10% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, Israel’s net ODA amounted to USD 351 million, representing an increase of 46% in real terms over 2015. The ratio of ODA as a share of GNI rose from 0.08% to 0.11%.

Israel’s Agency for International Development Co-operation – MASHAV, a division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs – is in charge of planning, implementing and co-ordinating Israel’s development co-operation.

In 2016, Israel provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to the Syrian Arab Republic, Jordan and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israel did not report any information on the sectoral distribution of its programme. Israel provides its bilateral development co-operation mostly in the form of technical co-operation projects and capacity building, provided both in Israel and in developing countries.

Israel is also engaged in triangular co-operation, sharing its experience with other countries. It partners with several international organisations (e.g. the United Nations Development Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the World Food Programme) and Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members (e.g. Canada, France, Germany, Italy and the United States) to support developing countries in areas in which it has a comparative advantage.

Multilateral ODA accounted for USD 95 million in 2016, representing 27% of Israel’s total ODA. It was provided primarily through regional development banks (with a contribution to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank accounting for 81% of multilateral contributions), as well as through the United Nations (accounting for 13% of its multilateral ODA in 2016) and the World Bank Group (4%).

Israel, which joined the OECD in 2010, is an observer to the DAC. In 2017, Israel participated in several meetings of the DAC, including its high-level and senior-level meetings, as well as the meetings of several DAC subsidiary bodies: the Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET), the Network on Gender Equality (GENDERNET), and the Network on Development Evaluation (EvalNet). A representative from Israel participated, as an observer, in the DAC Peer Review of Finland.

“For over 53 years, the MASHAV has been committed to co-operation throughout the developing world, promoting projects, focusing on the centrality of human resources enrichment and institutional capacity building in the area of development. […] As a country which has gone through the process of switching from an underdeveloped state in the 1950s to a recent membership in the OECD, we feel we can share with others our first-hand experience in development”.

Ambassador Daniel Carmon, Head of MASHAV, Israel’s Agency for International Development Co-operation, 2011.

Figure 47.1. ODA key statistics: Israel
picture

Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798086

References

OECD (2018), “Israel’s official development assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 20 April 2018), OECD, Paris, http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/israels-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 20 April 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Kazakhstan

In 2016, Kazakhstan’s net official development assistance (ODA) amounted to USD 31 million, compared to USD 43 million in 2015, a decrease of 43% in real terms. The ratio of ODA as a share of gross national income [GNI] was 0.03% in 2016, compared to 0.04% in 2015.

The Foreign Policy Concept of Kazakhstan 2014-2020 guides Kazakhstan’s contribution to the international community’s development co-operation efforts. The ODA Concept of Kazakhstan (April 2013) sets out a roadmap for becoming a provider of development co-operation. Law No. 263-V on Official Development Assistance (December 2014) describes the main objectives, principles, competences and sectoral priorities of Kazakhstan’s ODA. In accordance with Article 6 of this law, Presidential Decree No. 415 “On approval of the main directions of the state policy in the sphere of ODA for 2017-2020” (January 2017) identifies the geographic and sectoral priorities, forms and mechanisms of financing, key parameters and tools for practical activities of Kazakhstan in the field of official development assistance for the period up to 2020.

The ODA Law provides the legal basis for establishing an agency under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, provisionally known as the Kazakhstan Agency for International Development Assistance (KAZAID), to implement development co-operation activities. For the moment, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the designated authority to implement the main lines of Kazakhstan’s ODA policy, including ODA activities.

In 2016, the main sectors for Kazakhstan’s bilateral development co-operation were government and civil society, economic infrastructure, and other social infrastructure (Kazakhstan did not report details on recipient countries).

Multilateral ODA accounted for 64% of Kazakhstan’s net disbursements in 2016, provided primarily through the United Nations (accounting for 91% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), as well as through other multilateral organisations.

Kazakhstan has been a Development Assistance Committee Invitee since 2015.3

“ODA shall be provided with the aim to facilitate: 1) further integration of Kazakhstan into the regional and international relations system; 2) establishment of external conditions favourable to the successful implementation of Kazakhstan’s development strategies and programs; 3) peace-building, regional and global security; 4) promotion of the social and economic development of a partner country and the well-being of its citizens; and 5) gradual transition of a partner country to address environmental protection and climate change.”

Article 3. Goals and Objectives of Official Development Assistance

Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Official Development Assistance (10 December 2014, No. 263-V)

Figure 48.1. ODA key statistics: Kazakhstan
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Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798105

Leaving no one behind: Promoting women’s economic empowerment in Afghanistan

In 2017, Kazakhstan, with support from the United Nations Development Programme, launched its first triangular co-operation project with Japan to support women’s economic empowerment in Afghanistan.

The two-year project has two main objectives. First, it is designed to increase the economic independence of Afghan women involved in public administration, health and education by transferring Kazakhstan’s experience to them. Second, it aims to provide Kazakhstan with the opportunity to learn practical skills in the implementation of ODA projects.

As part of this project, from 8 to 13 July 2017, Kazakhstan hosted in Astana a scientific and practical seminar to increase the capacity of 24 civil servants and representatives of non-governmental organisations from Afghanistan. The participants from Kazakhstan provided technical assistance to transfer their knowledge and experience.

References

OECD (2018), “Kazakhstan’s Official Development Assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/kazakhstan-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC” webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Kuwait

In 2016, Kuwait’s total net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 1 billion. The ratio of ODA as a share of gross national income (GNI) was 0.87%, which exceeds the 0.7% target set by the United Nations. Kuwait’s ODA in 2016 is much higher than in previous years because in 2016 it included, for the first time, grants by the state of Kuwait administered by the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) and other institutions, as well as grants by the Kuwait Fund.

Kuwait’s Law No. 35 of 1961 created the legal basis for the KFAED to act as an implementing agency in all developing countries on behalf of the Kuwaiti government. The KFAED acts under the overall supervision of the Prime Minister, who in practice delegates this mandate to the Minister of Finance. Other ministries, public authorities and non-governmental organisations also contribute to promoting development internationally, notably the Ministry of Foreign Affairs which can also provide humanitarian assistance.

The KFAED primarily provides concessional loans and loans to co-finance projects with other international, regional or national development partners. In addition, the Kuwait Fund provides guarantees. It also administers Kuwaiti government grants (outside its own budget) and provides some grants for technical, economic, and financial studies and assistance. The other actors in Kuwait’s development co-operation system mainly provide grants.

In 2016, Kuwait provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to Morocco, Jordan, Iraq, and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The main sectors for Kuwait’s bilateral development co-operation were economic infrastructure-related sectors, mainly transport and energy.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 3% of Kuwait’s net disbursements in 2016, provided primarily through the World Bank Group (accounting for 70% of its multilateral ODA in 2016) and the Arab Gulf Program for Development (AgFund, 15%).

Kuwait became a Participant of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) on 30 January 2018.4 In 2017, the Kuwait Fund participated in the Arab-DAC Dialogue on Development held in Bern, Switzerland.

“The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development is the first institution in the Middle East that took an active role in the international development efforts. […] Today, the Kuwait Fund forms a solid bridge of friendship and solidarity between the state of Kuwait and the developing nations”.

Kuwait Fund website

Figure 49.1. ODA key statistics: Kuwait
picture

Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798124

References

OECD (2018), “Kuwait’s Official Development Assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/kuwaits-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Latvia

In 2017, preliminary data show that Latvia’s net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 32 million (0.11% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, Latvia’s net ODA amounted to USD 30 million, representing an increase of 29% in real terms over 2015. The ODA/GNI ratio rose from 0.09% to 0.11%.

Latvia’s development co-operation is provided in line with the Latvian Development Co-operation Policy Strategy for 2016-2020, which defines the goals, principles and directions of Latvia’s development co-operation. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for formulating development co-operation policy and for co-ordinating activities.

In 2016, Latvia provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to Turkey (for assistance to refugees from the Syrian Arab Republic), Ukraine, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Afghanistan. The main sectors for Latvia’s bilateral ODA were humanitarian aid; government and civil society; and education, health and population. Latvia provides its bilateral development co-operation mostly in the form of small-scale technical co-operation projects.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 89% of Latvia’s total ODA in 2016, provided primarily through the European Union (accounting for 85% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), as well as through the World Bank Group (7%) and the United Nations (5%).

Latvia, which joined the OECD in 2016, is an observer to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). In 2017, Latvia participated in several meetings of the DAC, including its high-level and senior-level meetings, as well as the meetings of several DAC subsidiary bodies: the DAC Working Party on Development Finance Statistics (WP-STAT) and the Network on Development Evaluation (EvalNet).

“In implementing development co-operation both bilaterally and multilaterally Latvia is guided by the following principles – the main responsibility of partner countries over their national development; co-ordination and partnership; sustainability of results and predictability of aid; transparency and policy coherence for sustainable development. One of the principles is the implementation of horizontal issues – good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, gender equality, and environmental sustainability – in all activities of development co-operation.”

Latvian Development Co-operation Policy Guidelines for 2016-2020

Figure 50.1. ODA key statistics: Latvia
picture

Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798143

Leaving no one behind: Raising awareness of girls’ rights

One of the priorities of Latvia’s Development Co-operation Policy Guidelines for 2016-2020 is the promotion of democratic participation and development of the civil society, including the promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment. The Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved if they leave out women, who make up half of the world’s population. It is consequently crucial to be aware of and unlock the economic potential of girls and women. In this regard, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia supports the activities of the Latvian civil society organisation “Marta” to implement projects in the Central Asian countries of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan with the goal of raising awareness of girls’ rights to receive an education and attain economic independence, and preventing early marriages. Engaging with local authorities, heads of schools, teachers, parents, civil society organisations, media and youth representatives, considerable work has been done to produce, in an inclusive manner, methodological materials and action plans setting out certain steps to encourage girls to stay at school also after grades 8 and 9.

References

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia (2016), Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines for 2016-2020, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, Riga, www.vvc.gov.lv/export/sites/default/docs/LRTA/Citi/Development_Co-operation_Policy_Plan_for_2016.pdf.

OECD (2018), “Latvia’s official development assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/latvias-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Lithuania

In 2017, preliminary data show that Lithuania’s net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 59 million (0.13% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, Lithuania’s net ODA amounted to USD 57 million, representing an increase of 19% in real terms over 2015. The ODA/GNI ratio rose from 0.12% to 0.14%.

The Law on Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Aid, adopted in 2013 and updated with a new edition in 2016, provides the framework for Lithuania’s development co-operation policy and outlines its mission, goals, principles, priorities, responsibilities and financing. The main principles of Lithuania’s development co-operation are: partnership with partner countries, partner country’s ownership, solidarity, efficiency, transparency and responsibility, co-ordination and complementarity, and policy coherence.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for implementing and co-ordinating Lithuania’s development co-operation and takes an active role in encouraging Lithuanian national and municipal authorities and bodies, non-governmental organisations, and the private sector to take a stronger role in implementing the 2030 Agenda in partner countries. In 2017, to improve the quality and effectiveness of its ODA, project management functions were partly transferred from the ministry to the new Central Project Management Agency (which should develop gradually into a fully fledged Lithuanian Development Co-operation Agency). In 2017, representatives of business associations were also incorporated into the National Development Co-operation Commission, which plays a key role in ensuring policy coherence for development.

Lithuania’s inter-governmental Development Co-operation Action Plan for the period 2017-19 aims to support effective development policies in line with achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 and in accordance with the needs of partner countries. Thirteen ministries and other public institutions have committed to implement the action plan and allocate funds for development co-operation.

In 2016, Lithuania provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to Ukraine, Turkey, Belarus, Georgia and the Republic of Moldova. The main sectors for Lithuania’s bilateral development co-operation were humanitarian aid; education, health and population; and governance and civil society. Lithuania provides its bilateral development co-operation mostly in the form of small-scale technical co-operation projects.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 76% of Lithuania’s total ODA in 2016, provided primarily through the European Union (accounting for 87% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), as well as through the World Bank Group (8%) and the United Nations (3%).

In 2017, Lithuania, an OECD accession country and a Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Invitee,5 participated in the DAC senior-level and high-level meetings, as well as in the meetings of several DAC subsidiary bodies: the Working Party on Development Finance Statistics (WP-STAT), the Network on Development Evaluation (EvalNet), the Network on Gender Equality (GENDERNET) and the Network on Governance (GOVNET). In November 2017, OECD staff delivered a presentation on policy coherence for sustainable development at the meeting in Vilnius of the National Development Co-operation Commission and participated in a seminar on ODA statistics and reporting.

Lithuanian development co-operation aims to: 1) contribute to global efforts to reduce poverty in developing countries and the implementation of other Sustainable Development Goals decided on by the United Nations; 2) contribute to the development of an area of democracy, security and stability as well as sustainable development in the partner countries; 3) contribute to the enhancement of human rights and gender equality in the partner countries; 4) strengthen political, economic, social and cultural ties with the partner countries; and 5) inform and educate Lithuanian society about development co-operation policies of the United Nations, European Union and Lithuania, their goals and challenges, the results achieved, and to seek broader public acceptance and support for this activity.

From Article 3, Law on Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid, 2016

Figure 51.1. ODA key statistics: Lithuania
picture

Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798162

References

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania (2016), Republic of Lithuania Law on Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania, https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/69d22a72dfe711e782d4fd2c44cc67af?.

OECD (2018), “Lithuania’s official development assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 16 April 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/lithuania-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC” webpage, (accessed 16 April 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Romania

In 2016, Romania’s net official development assistance (ODA) amounted to USD 269 million, representing an increase of 71% in real terms over 2015. The ODA/GNI ratio rose from 0.09% in 2015 to 0.15% in 2016.

Law No. 213/2016 provides the legal basis for the development co-operation and humanitarian aid activities financed from Romanian public funds. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the national co-ordinator of Romania’s development co-operation and humanitarian aid policy. It monitors progress made in achieving the objectives and commitments assumed by Romania, reports annually to the government on activities implemented, and signs funding agreements. An Advisory Committee, composed of representatives from line ministries, public institutions, civil society, academia and the private sector, is responsible for ensuring the co-ordination and unity of strategic planning and priorities in the field of development co-operation. Law No. 213/2016 also created an Agency for International Development Cooperation, “RoAid”, which is responsible for implementing development co-operation and humanitarian aid-related activities.

In 2016, Romania provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to the Republic of Moldova, Turkey, Serbia, Ukraine and the Syrian Arab Republic. The main sectors of Romania’s bilateral development co-operation were governance and civil society; education, health and population; and humanitarian aid. Romania provides its bilateral development co-operation mostly in the form of scholarships and grants for financial and technical support.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 59% of Romania’s total ODA in 2016, provided primarily through the European Union (accounting for 87% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), as well as through the World Bank Group (7%) and the United Nations (3%).

Romania became a Development Assistance Committee participant on 5 April 2018.

Romania’s Strategic Multiannual Program is in line with the current global and EU development initiatives, namely Agenda 2030, including the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, and the new European Consensus on Development, which have as core objectives the eradication of poverty and further correlating the economic, social and environmental dimension of sustainable development, focusing on people, the planet, prosperity, peace and partnerships.

Strategic Multiannual Program on International Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Assistance Policy, 2018-2021

Figure 52.1. ODA key statistics: Romania
picture

Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798181

Leaving no one behind: Sharing Romanian expertise and experience effectively

The Mobility Fund for governmental experts is a global rapid-reaction instrument created to meet the ad hoc needs of Romania’s partner countries by providing Romanian experts and expertise in fields where Romania can add value. Since 2013, this instrument has been used to finance 43 short-term missions that shared Romanian experience and expertise, in line with Romania’s development co-operation strategy, thus contributing to the development of partner countries.

The missions funded aimed to train experts from the beneficiary countries in areas such as project management, the sanitary-veterinary field, public communication, consumer protection, electoral assistance, disaster risk reduction and crisis management. They also aimed at sharing Romania’s experience and expertise in such fields as: the EU pre-accession process, fight against corruption, competition, child protection, reform of the justice system and national security.

During 2016, the Mobility Fund was used to organise 14 missions to share Romania’s experience and expertise in areas including: child protection, anti-corruption and food safety, legislative harmonisation, zootechnics, consumer protection, judicial co-operation, etc.

The feedback on these missions has been positive. According to a representative of World Vision: “The Mobility Fund is an extraordinary instrument. […] Simple procedures, maximum results, great satisfaction. […] The amount of innovative ideas resulting from these exchanges has been amazing and materialized in the improvement of legislation, strategy and reform plans which, eventually, in my field, means a better life for children.”

References

OECD (2018), “Romania’s official development assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/romania-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC” webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Russian Federation

In 2017, preliminary data show that the Russian Federation’s net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 1.2 billion (0.08% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, the Russian Federation’s net ODA amounted to USD 1.3 billion compared to USD 1.2 billion in 2015, an increase of 12% in real terms. The ratio of ODA as a share of GNI rose from 0.09% in 2015 to 0.10% in 2016.

The Russian Federation’s development co-operation is provided in line with the Concept of the Russian Federation’s State Policy in the Area of International Development Assistance, approved by the President of the Russian Federation in 2014. The concept sets out the objectives, principles and priorities of the Russian Federation’s development co-operation, as well as the criteria for providing assistance to partner countries. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance, in co-operation with other government agencies, play a leading role in formulating the Russian Federation’s development co-operation policy and supervise its implementation.

In 2016, the Russian Federation provided its bilateral development assistance mainly to Cuba, Kyrgyzstan, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Armenia and Tajikistan. Most of the Russian Federation’s bilateral development co-operation was provided in the form of debt relief (56%). Other bilateral development co-operation was provided in the form of programme assistance and multisector aid.

The Russian Federation’s multilateral ODA accounted for 39% its total ODA, provided mostly through the Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank (accounting for 46% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), the United Nations (30%) and the World Bank Group (18%).

In 2017, the Russian Federation, an OECD accession country and a Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Invitee,6 participated in the meeting of the DAC Working Party on Development Finance Statistics (WP-STAT).

“Russia considers sustainable socio-economic development of countries and peoples as an indispensable element of the modern collective security system. […] Therefore, present-day realities of global policy and economy and Russia’s status of a superpower suggest that Russia could pursue a more active policy in international development assistance, including an increase in government spending for these purposes”.

Concept of Russia’s Participation in International Development Assistance, 2007

Figure 53.1. ODA key statistics: Russian Federation
picture

Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798200

References

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (2007), Russia’s Participation in International Development Assistance: Concept, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, https://www.minfin.ru/common/img/uploaded/library/2007/06/concept_eng.pdf.

OECD (n.d.), “The Russian Federation’s official development assistance (ODA)”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/russias-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Thailand

In 2016, Thailand’s net ODA amounted to USD 168 million, representing an increase of 170% in real terms over 2015. The ODA/GNI ratio rose from 0.02% in 2015 to 0.05% in 2016.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for Thailand’s bilateral and multilateral development co-operation policies. Its Department of International Organisations (DIO) also makes contributions to international organisations, such as the United Nations and the Asian Development Bank.

Thailand’s development co-operation is guided by the “Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy (SEP)” – a model that Thailand followed for its own development and which aims at providing a balanced and stable development to achieve the SDGs. It looks at modernising economies and societies by coping with critical challenges that arise from globalisation.

The Thailand International Development Cooperation Agency (TICA), under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is the central implementing agency for technical co-operation and capacity building. It provides a number of training courses, post-graduate scholarships, fellowships and study visits as well as programmes to dispatch Thai experts and volunteers. TICA also provides funding to other government agencies and private organisations to support capacity development for developing countries.

The Export-Import Bank (EXIM), under supervision of the Minister of Finance, is Thailand’s largest provider of ODA, offering concessional loans to developing countries, mainly to Thailand’s neighbours. These loans are linked to provision of goods and services from Thai companies.

The Neighbouring Countries Economic Development Cooperation Agency (NEDA), which is based in the Ministry of Finance, is Thailand’s second largest provider of ODA. It provides grants and concessional loans to neighbouring countries. NEDA also provides some technical assistance, research and academic support to stimulate regional economic development in the South-East Asia region.

Seventeen line ministries (including education, health and transport) also provide grants for bilateral projects and make contributions to some multilateral organisations.

In 2016, Thailand provided its bilateral development co-operation mostly to Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Cambodia, Bhutan and Viet Nam.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 68% of Thailand’s total ODA in 2016, provided primarily through the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (accounting for 86% of its multilateral ODA in 2016), as well as through the World Bank Group (3%).

Thailand has reported to the OECD aggregate data on its development co-operation since 2006.

Our development co-operation is in line with the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and focuses on sharing Thailand’s successes with our friends in various sustainable development sectors, ranging from agricultural and food security, education, public health to tourism and rural development.

(Thailand International Cooperation Agency and Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in Action, TICA 2017)

Figure 54.1. ODA key statistics: Thailand
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798219

References

OECD (2018), “Thailand’s official development assistance (ODA)” webpage, http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/thailands-official-development-assistance.htm (accessed 7 June 2018).

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Turkey

In 2017, preliminary data show that Turkey’s net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 8.1 billion (0.95% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, Turkey’s net ODA amounted to USD 6.5 billion, representing an increase of 72% in real terms over 2015. The ratio of ODA as a share of GNI rose from 0.50% in 2015 to 0.76% in 2016, which exceeds the 0.7% target set by the United Nations. As in 2014 and 2015, the increase in Turkey’s ODA mostly related to its response to the refugee crisis in its neighbouring country, the Syrian Arab Republic.

Turkey’s development co-operation is provided in line with the Statutory Decree on the Organization and Duties of the Turkish Co-operation and Co-ordination Agency (TIKA), adopted in 2011. The agency designs and co-ordinates Turkey’s bilateral development co-operation activities and implements projects in collaboration with other ministries, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the private sector. TIKA is an autonomous institution attached to the Prime Minister’s Office. Other public institutions, NGOs, and the private sector also implement projects and programmes funded through Turkey’s ODA.

In 2016, Turkey provided the largest share of its bilateral development co-operation to the Syrian Arab Republic, Somalia, the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Afghanistan, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main sectors for Turkey’s bilateral development co-operation were humanitarian aid and refugee support; education, health and population; and economic infrastructure (communications and business and other services).

Turkey is also engaged in triangular co-operation. For example, Turkey is one of the most active partners of the Islamic Development Bank’s Reverse Linkage mechanism, which facilitates and enables the bank’s member states to share expertise, knowledge and good practice on specific development constraints. Turkey has recently mapped its resource centres to enhance its participation in this mechanism.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 4% of Turkey’s total ODA in 2016, provided mainly through regional development banks (the Asian Infrastructure Development Bank accounted for nearly 71% of multilateral contributions), as well as through the United Nations (14%) and other multilateral agencies. Turkey hosts the Technology Bank for Least Developed Countries to strengthen the science, technology and innovation capacity in these countries.

Turkey, a founding member of the OECD, is an observer to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). In 2017, Turkey participated in several meetings of the DAC, including its high-level and senior-level meetings, as well as the meetings of several DAC subsidiary bodies: the Working Party on Development Finance Statistics (WP-STAT) and the Network on Development Evaluation (EvalNet).

“… Turkey continues its efforts to play a constructive role in major issues in its own region and beyond. These efforts are reinforced by Turkey’s development co-operation activities. Turkey’s endeavors in the field of development co-operation demonstrate its dedication to the global efforts aimed at poverty eradication and sustainable development for a better future for all.”

Turkey’s Development Co-operation: General Characteristics, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Figure 55.1. ODA key statistics: Turkey
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Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798238

Leaving no one behind: Turkey’s approach

Turkey’s development assistance is an instrument to strengthen its co-operation with other countries. Furthermore, Turkey’s efforts in the field of development co-operation are a testimony to its dedication to the global efforts aimed at creating a more peaceful and stable environment, poverty eradication and sustainable development for a better future for all. In this vain, implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) around the world is a high priority for Turkey. Turkey believes that the SDGs provide unprecedented opportunities to build partnerships and take robust action to achieve the goal of ensuring “no one is left behind”. To this end, Turkey prioritises the needs of the least-developed countries and continues to fulfil its commitments towards this most vulnerable group of countries. Forming partnerships based on a human-centered and demand-driven approach is at the core of Turkey’s policy in development co-operation. Turkey believes that its ability to tailor its assistance according to the needs of the recipient countries, as well as its practical, flexible and cost-efficient development solutions, stand out among emerging donors.

References

OECD (2018), “Turkey’s official development assistance (ODA)” webpage, “, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/turkeys-official-development-assistanceoda.htm

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 May 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs (n.d.), Turkey’s Development Cooperation: General characteristics, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey_s-development-cooperation.en.mfa.

United Arab Emirates

In 2017, preliminary data show that the United Arab Emirates’ net official development assistance (ODA) reached USD 4.6 billion (1.31% of gross national income [GNI]). In 2016, the United Arab Emirates’ total net ODA reached USD 4.2 billion, representing a decrease in real terms of 3% over 2015. The ratio of ODA as a share of GNI rose to 1.21% in 2016, up from 1.18% in 2015, which exceeds the 0.7% target set by the United Nations.

The Ministry of International Cooperation and Development and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were merged in February 2016. The new Ministry for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MOFAIC) has overall responsibility for setting policy, geographical and sectoral priorities for the United Arab Emirates’ development co-operation. The ministry also identifies modalities and mechanisms for foreign aid distribution and implementation, and documents aid flows. In December 2016, the MOFAIC launched the United Arab Emirates’ new development co-operation strategy for 2017-21 (Government of the United Arab Emirates, 2016).

In 2016, the United Arab Emirates provided its bilateral co-operation mostly to Egypt, Yemen, Jordan, Serbia, Morocco and Somalia. The main sectors of the United Arab Emirates’ bilateral disbursements were programme assistance, humanitarian aid and economic infrastructure (transport and energy). The United Arab Emirates provides its bilateral programme mostly in the form of grants.

The United Arab Emirates is also engaged in triangular co-operation, for example through the UAE-Pacific Partnership Fund in which the United Arab Emirates collaborated with the Asian Development Bank, World Bank, Japan, European Union and, especially, New Zealand in a number of Pacific small island developing states. The United Arab Emirates has also developed a technical assistance programme to work through its public-private partnerships and partner countries using a variety of modalities, including triangular co-operation.

Multilateral ODA accounted for 2% of the country’s total ODA in 2016, provided primarily through the Islamic Development Bank (43%), the UN agencies (24%) and the World Bank Group (19%).

The United Arab Emirates is a Participant in the Development Assistance Committee (DAC).7 In 2017, it participated in the DAC senior-level and high-level meetings, as well as the meetings of several DAC subsidiary bodies: the DAC Network on Gender Equality (GENDERNET) and the DAC Working Party on Development Finance Statistics (WP-STAT). The United Arab Emirates also participated in the 2017 Arab-DAC Dialogue on Development held in Bern, Switzerland.

“Global peace and prosperity represent the key pillars of the UAE’s Foreign Assistance Policy at a time that, unfortunately, witnesses more manifestations of poverty and instability. It requires us to take a genuine stand to review the moral obligations of states and organisations to alleviate human suffering through maximising aid impact, pushing towards support for stability, and putting an end to the conflicts and wars that generate more human tragedies.”

H.H. Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, United Arab Emirates Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, 2016

Figure 56.1. ODA key statistics: United Arab Emirates
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Source: OECD (2017), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, www.oecd.org/dac/stats/non-dac-reporting.htm.

 StatLink http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933798257

References

OECD (2018), “United Arab Emirates’ official development assistance (ODA)” webpage (accessed 10 April 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/uae-official-development-assistance.htm.

OECD (2018), “Development finance of countries beyond the DAC”, webpage, (accessed 10 April 2018), http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/non-dac-reporting.htm

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Leaving no one behind: The approach and priorities of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is committed to reducing global inequalities in health and reproductive health by addressing the burden of infectious diseases, child mortality and healthcare coverage. The foundation is also dedicated to stimulating inclusive and sustainable economic growth among the world’s poorest communities through scaling market-based innovations. Its approach to grant making emphasises collaboration, innovation, risk-taking, and, most importantly, results. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has reported to the OECD on a regular basis since 2009.

Financial flows from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to developing countries

Figure 57.1. Net resource flows to developing countries from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2009-16
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

Grant making and programme-related investments of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided USD 3.7 billion in net grants and programme-related investments in 2016, which represented an increase of 16.4% in real terms from 2015. Grant-making activities accounted for 98% of the net disbursed total. The remaining share refers to net programme-related investment, notably in the form of shares in collective investment vehicles and loans.

In 2016, 84.8% of the grants allocated by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation were provided bilaterally. The remaining 15.2% took the form of core contributions to multilateral organisations, namely Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Of the bilateral grants, 15.4% was channelled through multilateral organisations (multi-bi/non-core).

Figure 57.2. Grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by modality and main channel of delivery in 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm

Overall, UN agencies benefited from 49% of the foundation’s support channelled to/through the multilateral system, followed by other multilaterals (40%; e.g. Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), the World Bank Group (8%) and regional development banks (2%).

Figure 57.3. Distribution of multilateral and multi-bi private grants in 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, 45.6% of bilateral grants were programmed with partner countries. Over 70% of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s country programmable grant making consisted of project-type interventions, followed by contributions to pooled programmes and funds (15%), technical assistance (11%), and budget support (4%). A large share (52%) of the foundation’s grant making was other and unallocated, mainly referring to activities benefiting multiple regions, 64% of which were project-type interventions and 28% contributions to pooled programmes and funds.

Figure 57.4. Composition of bilateral grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, USD 1.03 billion of bilateral grants were channelled to and through civil society organisations (CSOs). This represented 32.8% of bilateral grant making, compared with 31.1% in 2015.

Figure 57.5. Bilateral grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by type of implementing CSO, 2010-16, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s bilateral grants were primarily focused on Africa and Asia. USD 842 million was allocated to sub-Saharan Africa and USD 379.9 million to South and Central Asia.

Figure 57.6. Share of bilateral grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by region, 2016, gross disbursements
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Note: Fifty-seven per cent of bilateral grants were unspecified by region in 2016. This share is not represented on the map.

Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, 24.4% of bilateral grants went to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundations’ top 10 recipient countries. These partner countries mainly include India and other south Asian countries, and countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Figure 57.7. Top recipients of bilateral grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

USD 646.1 million (17.4% of gross bilateral grants) supported fragile contexts, mainly as project-type interventions (65%), contributions to pooled programmes and funds (17%), and technical assistance (11%).

In 2016, 11.9% of bilateral grants of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation were allocated to least developed countries (LDCs), corresponding to USD 374.8 million. This figure is comparable to 2015 when the LDCs benefited from 12.5% of the foundations’ grant making. Lower middle-income countries received the highest share of bilateral grants in 2016 (16.4%).

Figure 57.8. Bilateral grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by income group, 2010-16, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, 81% of bilateral grants were allocated to social infrastructure and services, representing USD 2.9 billion. Health and population policies were clearly the main sector groups targeted by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, amounting to USD 2.7 billion (76% of the foundation’s total bilateral grant making). Agriculture, forestry and fishing benefited from USD 318.9 million (9%) and other economic infrastructure from USD 188.0 million (5%). USD 131.0 million (4%) was provided as debt relief, resulting from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s innovative financing schemes to further its vaccination activities.

Figure 57.9. Sectoral distribution of bilateral grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2015-16, commitments
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In addition, considering the whole spectrum of development finance providers active in health and population policies in 2016, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was the third-largest financier in these two sectors with USD 2.7 million committed.

Figure 57.10. Top providers for health and population policies, 2016, commitments
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

References

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (2018), Official webpage, (accessed 9 May 2018), https://www.gatesfoundation.org.

OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

United Postcode Lotteries

Leaving no one behind: United Postcode Lotteries’ approach and priorities

The United Postcode Lotteries refers to three charity lotteries administered by Novamedia which report to the OECD on their development grant making, namely the Dutch Postcode Lottery, the Swedish Postcode Lottery and the People’s Postcode Lottery. Through their highly diversified grant-making portfolio, the charity lotteries aim at a fairer and greener world. The United Postcode Lotteries are a leading private provider of unrestricted funding to organisations working for development. The United Postcode Lotteries started reporting to the OECD in 2017.

Financial flows from the United Postcode Lotteries to developing countries

In 2016, the United Postcode Lotteries provided USD 324 million for development, 68% of which came from the Dutch Postcode Lottery, 25% from the Swedish Postcode Lottery and 7% from the People’s Postcode Lottery. All three lotteries support development through grant making.

Figure 58.1. Net resource flows to developing countries from the United Postcode Lotteries per postcode lottery, 2016
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

Grant making of the United Postcode Lotteries

In 2016, grants allocated by the United Postcode Lotteries were provided bilaterally, 9% of which were channelled through pooled programmes and funds of UN agencies (UNICEF, UNHCR and the World Food Programme).

Figure 58.2. Grants from the United Postcode Lotteries by modality and main channel of delivery in 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, 57% of grants extended by the United Postcode Lotteries were core support to non-governmental organisations (NGOs), followed by humanitarian aid (19%). Only 9.2% were programmed with partner countries, all of which were project-type interventions. USD 5.5 million (1.7%) was extended in support of refugees in donor countries. Other and unallocated aid amounted to 14%, including activities with a regional scope and raising development awareness in donor countries.

Figure 58.3. Composition of grants from the United Postcode Lotteries, 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.) OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, the United Postcode Lotteries channelled USD 295.0 million to and through civil society organisations (CSOs), 82% of which was channelled to and through donor country-based NGOs, followed by international NGOs (13%) and NGOs in developing countries (5%).

Figure 58.4. Grants from the United Postcode Lotteries by type of implementing CSO, 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, 86% of grants by the United Postcode Lotteries were unallocated by region. Of the allocable grant making, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America and Caribbean benefited from 6% each, followed by South and Central Asia (2%).

Figure 58.5. Share of grants from the United Postcode Lotteries by region, 2016, percentage of gross disbursements
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Note: Eighty-six per cent of grants were unspecified by region in 2016. This share is not represented on the map.

Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

The United Postcode Lotteries allocated 5.4% of their grants to their top 10 recipients in 2016. Cameroon, Bangladesh and the United Republic of Tanzania benefited to the largest extent from these activities. Sixty per cent of the country allocable grants benefited least developed countries.

Figure 58.6. Top recipients of grants from the United Postcode Lotteries, 2016, gross disbursements
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (databasee), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, 42.1% of the grants committed by the United Postcode Lotteries were allocated to social infrastructure and services. A total of USD 136.7 million of the grants were allocated to social sectors, with a strong focus on other social infrastructure (USD 48.1 million, 72% of which for multisector aid to basic social services) and government and civil society (USD 46.9 million, 47% of which for human rights and 26% for women’s equality organisations and institutions and ending violence against women and girls). USD 57.9 million was provided in support of multisector aid, 94% of which targeted environmental protection and biodiversity.

Figure 58.7. Sectoral distribution of grants from the United Postcode Lotteries, 2016, commitments
picture

Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, the United Postcode Lotteries committed USD 18.6 million for gender equality, i.e. 8.1% of their allocable grant making for development. A relatively high share of their support to the government and civil society and population (26%) and reproductive health (25%) had gender equality and women’s empowerment as a principal or significant objective.

Figure 58.8. Share of allocable grants from the United Postcode Lotteries in support of gender equality by sector, 2016, commitments
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Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

In 2016, USD 100.9 million of United Postcode Lotteries’ grants supported the environment. USD 31.0 million (9.6% of their grant making) focused on local environment only, an additional USD 69.9 million focused on climate change (90% of which targeted both mitigation and adaptation).

Figure 58.9. Allocable grants from the United Postcode Lotteries in support of global and local environment objectives, 2016, commitments
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Notes: One activity can address several policy objectives at the same time. This reflects the fact that the three Rio conventions (targeting global environmental objectives) and local environmental objectives are mutually reinforcing. The same activity can be marked, for example climate change mitigation and biodiversity, or for biodiversity and desertification. Figure 56.9 nets out the overlaps between Rio and environment markers: it shows climate-related aid as a sub-category of total environmental aid; biodiversity and desertification are also included (either overlapping with climate-related aid or as additional – other – environmental aid) but not separately identified for the sake of readability of the graph. Details are available at: www.oecd.org/dac/stats/rioconventions.htm.

Source: OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

References

Dutch Postcode Lottery (2018), Official webpage, (accessed 9 May 2018), https://www.postcodeloterij.nl.

Novamedia (2018), Official webpage, (accessed 9 May 2018), https://www.novamedia.nl.

OECD (n.d.), OECD-DAC Statistics (database), http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/idsonline.htm.

People’s Postcode Lottery (2018), Official webpage, (accessed 9 May 2018), https://www.postcodelottery.co.uk.

Swedish Postcode Lottery (2018), Official webpage, (accessed 9 May 2018), https://postkodstiftelsen.se.

Notes

← 1. An Invitee may be invited, on a case-by-case basis, to participate in formal meetings of the DAC or its subsidiary bodies. An Invitee may take part in discussions but does not take part in decisionmaking processes, nor is it bound by the DAC’s conclusions, proposals or decisions.

← 2. An Invitee may be invited, on a case-by-case basis, to participate in formal meetings of the DAC or its subsidiary bodies. An Invitee may take part in discussions but does not take part in decision-making processes, nor is it bound by the DAC’s conclusions, proposals or decisions.

← 3. An Invitee may be invited, on a case-by-case basis, to participate in formal meetings of the DAC or its subsidiary bodies. An Invitee may take part in discussions but does not take part in decision-making processes, nor is it bound by the DAC’s conclusions, proposals or decisions.

← 4. As a Participant, Kuwait can attend formal meetings of the DAC and its subsidiary bodies. A Participant may take part in discussions but does not take part in decision-making processes, nor is it bound by the DAC’s conclusions, proposals or decisions.

← 5. An Invitee may be invited, on a case-by-case basis, to participate in formal meetings of the DAC or its subsidiary bodies. An Invitee may take part in discussions but does not take part in decision-making processes, nor is it bound by the DAC’s conclusions, proposals or decisions.

← 6. An Invitee may be invited, on a case-by-case basis, to participate in formal meetings of the DAC or its subsidiary bodies. An Invitee may take part in discussions but does not take part in decisionmaking processes, nor is it bound by the DAC’s conclusions, proposals or decisions.

← 7. As a Participant, the United Arab Emirates can attend formal meetings of the DAC and its subsidiary bodies. A Participant may take part in discussions but does not take part in decision-making processes, nor is it bound by the DAC’s conclusions, proposals or decisions.

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