copy the linklink copied!6. Exploring increased flexibility in the vocational education and training system in Germany

This chapter explores the possibility for more flexible approaches to vocational education and training (VET) in order to meet the needs of struggling learners, including recent arrivals. As some learners are struggling to move through the VET system with a formal qualification, there can be opportunity to discuss alternative pathways through VET for particular groups. Increased flexibility can be more effective learners who are less likely to be admitted and complete a standard VET track. The development of new means of entry into VET can be linked, moreover, to sectors of the labour market which are experiencing skill shortage and are in need of recruiting apprentices. Learning from experiences locally in Germany and from other OECD countries, such flexible approaches include consideration of shorter qualification as a stepping stone towards a full qualification, prolonging the duration of apprenticeship training for specific groups, as well as a modularised approaches.


copy the linklink copied!Issues and challenges

Migrants can get stuck in the transition system or in other preparatory measures which do not lead to the development of formal competences

Many migrants face substantial obstacles in getting appropriately prepared for participation in the dual system and once prepared, finding and completing an apprenticeship is more challenging, especially for the humanitarian migrants. At the same time as migrants have problems accessing apprenticeships, there is a skills need for vocational education and training (VET) competences (see more in Chapter 1). If the flow of learners from migrant background was to be considered as a pipeline or a series of pipelines, representing different groups of migrants, many blockages and leaks would be identified.

Students who are unable to find an apprenticeship placement, can attend different preparatory measures to try to enhance their skill levels and meet the employers’ requirements. All students are provided with measures within the transition system (Übergangsbereich) (Chapter 2). The OECD has previously identified the ability of the transition system to prepare students for the regular dual model as one of the main challenges with the German VET system (Hoeckel and Schwartz, 2010[1]). Older migrants are provided with measures offered by the local employment services (Chapter 2). There is a lack of information on what migrants who are unable to find an apprenticeship contract do. Many might embark on a new programme of learning. In this way, the preparatory measures can be a time consuming process and learners might end up with no qualification at all. Despite the many advantages of preparatory programmes, one risk is that staying in those programmes for too long can be inefficient and counterproductive, and especially if the training does not lead to formal competences that are valued by the labour market (OECD, 2018[2]).

Lack of flexibility in the VET system can be particularly challenging for struggling learners

Typically, the apprenticeship scheme is built around the needs of the main target population. Other student groups, such as migrants, can have a different background and starting point and might therefore meet challenges in completing the training (OECD, 2018[3]). As elaborated in Chapter 4, the termination of apprenticeship contracts are particularly high for asylum seekers and refugees from the main asylum origin countries. It is estimated that 40% of these contracts are terminated early on, compared to 16% of all apprenticeship contracts. And there is not much information available on what these students choose to do afterwards. Many might find a new employer and sign a new apprenticeship contract. Other will choose another programme, for instance a school-based VET programme or general education programmes, and many might also drop-out from learning altogether either entering jobs without training or not in education, employment or training (NEET). One challenge for Germany is the lack of alternatives for students, whether migrant or native in origin, who experience problems in entering VET or who fail to complete the VET track.

The dual model stands strong in Germany

The German dual VET system is known and admired worldwide for its ability to provide the labour market with highly skilled VET graduates and for yielding benefits for the economy, most substantially visible in a low youth unemployment rate. This is a system that is built on long traditions and a history of strong co-operation between the social partners and the authorities. In Germany, VET is a shared responsibility between the federal level, the Länder and the social partners. Policy making is made in close co-operation, but also with a clear division of responsibilities. The system is based on stakeholders working together to find mutually attractive solutions. Changes to the system are most effective when they are made on a consensual basis (Hoeckel and Schwartz, 2010[1]).

As the dual, three-year apprenticeship model is well established, there seems to be reluctance to change a successful formula. Engagement with social partners has very many positive sides, but can also underpin conservative responses to system change. For example, discussions of creating alternative pathways through VET by introducing apprenticeship programmes leading to lower initial levels of qualifications, have been a controversial issue. Policy makers are primarily worried about lowering standards and reducing the attractiveness of VET.

Options do exist for more flexible pathways, but these are not used much

Even though the German dual model stands strong, the federal government has recently introduced options to provide students with more flexible solutions. While the vast majority of apprentices in Germany attend regular dual or school-based VET programmes, there exist alternative approaches within the law that underpin provision which is arguably better suited to meeting the needs of many migrants. This includes part-time training and extension of apprenticeship duration (Box 6.1). These are opportunities that can be used and further developed at a local level (Granato and Neises, 2017[4]).

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Box 6.1. Existing flexibility in the German VET system

Part-time apprenticeships

It is possible to adjust the duration of apprenticeships on an individual basis. If apprentices and the training firm are able to prove a ‘”legitimate interest”, they can request that the daily or weekly training time is reduced. An extension of the whole duration of the apprenticeship is not mandatory in such cases, but might be agreed upon if this seems necessary to successfully complete the apprenticeship. Such “part-time” apprenticeships are especially helpful for young mothers and fathers, who often do not have a post-compulsory education (BMBF, 2018[5]). Moreover, it might be possible to simultaneously attend language training or further remedial courses (Granato and Neises, 2017[4]) but it is uncertain if this would be sufficient to prove a legitimate interest. However, such part-time apprenticeships are only applied rarely. In 2016, 2 085 new contracts were part-time apprenticeships, corresponding to 0.4% of all new contracts (BMBF, 2018[5]).

Some local initiatives are however exploring alternative models

Some local or regional initiatives are exploring alternative pathways for migrants, one example is a pilot of a 1+3 model in Bavaria (Box 6.2). However, in comparison to countries like Sweden and Switzerland, alternative routes which take account of additional challenges facing certain learners are significantly limited.

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Box 6.2. 1+3 model in Bavaria

The IHK chamber in Coburg, Bavaria had recently initiated a pilot-project called 1+3 where in VET provision (apprenticeships in mechanics and electronics) is combined with German language training. During the first year, apprentices visit language classes on two days, vocational school training on one and firm-based training on the remaining two days. The second to fourth years correspond to regular apprenticeships, but additionally includes 1-1.5 days German language training. The whole apprenticeship last 54 months or 4.5 years. This way, apprentices can improve their language skills throughout the training while receiving a salary and acclimatising to the German working world. In addition, they learn the language in a vocational context, what entails didactic advantages. The project is supported by the Bavarian government, which introduced a model-class at the VET school in Coburg which supports the language training. Training firms do not receive financial support. The rationale is that with additional language and academic support, apprentices from migrant backgrounds can contribute comparable benefits to employers as native peers, but over a longer timescale.

Source: IHK zu Coburg (2019[6]), Pilotausbildungsmodell 3+1 für Flüchtlinge Erfolgreich Gestartet,

Not many adults attend apprenticeship training

In Germany, the vast majority of VET students start their apprenticeship directly or soon after completing compulsory schooling. In 2016, about 80% of apprentices in the dual VET system were 22 or younger (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2017[7]). Adult education and participation in lifelong learning measures, on the other hand, is less common than in other countries (Eurostat, 2017[8]). However, the recent inflow of adult immigrants without upper secondary education has increased the importance of comprehensive provision of educational offerings that are adapted to adults needs.

In principle, there are several pathways available in Germany to adults interested in obtaining a VET qualification. For regular VET programmes, such as dual apprenticeships, both in and outside companies, or school-based VET, there are no formal age limits in place. With dual apprenticeships, employers decide whom they will hire, and some might prefer younger candidates. In rare cases,1 employers are known to apply their own age limits. Mechanisms also exist for the existing knowledge and skills of migrants to be recognised within VET provision (Box 6.3), although many recent arrivals do not possess a VET qualification as described in Chapter 1.

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Box 6.3. Alternative pathways to a VET qualification for adults

The initiative “Late starters” (Spätstarterinitiative), as from 2016 “Future Starters” (Zukunftsstarter) from the PES and the BMAS targets young people aged between 25 and 35 years without a VET qualification. The aim of the initiative is that 120 000 young participants will achieve a VET qualification by the end of 2020.

Recognition of foreign qualifications is applicable for holders of formal foreign qualifications. In 2012, Germany introduced a legal entitlement to examine the equivalence of foreign qualifications in the Professional Qualifications Assessment Act (Berufsqualifikationsfeststellungsgesetz, BQFG). The recognition procedure was subsequently strengthened and follows national standards, leading to a meaningful growth in new recognitions annually from 11 000 in 2012 to about 19 400 in 2015 (BMBF, 2017[9]) and almost 25 000 in 2017. While most applicants are European, almost 1 500 were refugees in 2015, an increase of 25% compared to 2014 (BMBF, 2017[9]). About two-thirds of all applications gain full recognition of their foreign qualification, with the qualifications of most other applicants being partially recognised. To obtain a full qualification, the IQ-network offers qualification modules, which are often applicable for refugees (BMBF, 2017[9]).

The German Bundestag has taken the decision to broaden opportunities for qualified professionals to work in Germany. The Skilled Immigration Act will make it easier for qualified professionals with vocational qualifications from countries outside the European Union to work in Germany. The act is expected to enter into force on 1 February 2020.

Validation of non-formal and informal learning in Germany goes back a long way, though historically there has not been a common legal framework and a standardised system at a federal level. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), together with the Association of German Chambers of Commerce and Industry (DIHK) and the German Confederation of Skilled Crafts (ZDH) agreed to ask selected chambers of both sectors to conduct the pilot project "ValiKom” as from the end of 2015. The aim of the project is to establish a common framework for the validation of occupational skills and competences through standardised procedures, assessment criteria and tools, in line with the approaches set out in the Professional Qualifications Assessment Act (BQFG). The project builds explicitly on the responsibilities of the chambers set out in the Vocational Training Act (BBiG).

The validation appoach refers to the prevailing training regulations and occupational profiles and issues ultimately a certificate expressing the extent to which the skills demonstrated are equivalent to the ones normally gained under the Vocational Training Act [(Teil-) Gleichwertigkeitsfeststellung]. Following successful piloting, the partners launched in November 2018 the Valikom-Transfer project with a number of chambers involved and occupations involved.

copy the linklink copied!Policy message

Drawing upon experience of local initiatives and other OECD countries, consider developing in close alignment with employers more flexible approaches that target both youths and adults to the VET system.

Exploring flexible approaches in the regular VET system can help in meeting the specific needs of youth and adults who struggle to enter VET or who are at risk of poor outcomes and are unlikely to complete a mainstream VET programme, including, but not exclusively, migrants. Increased flexibility can enhance student success rates in developing certified skills that enable self-sufficiency and contribute to the economy as a whole.

More flexible solutions can take many forms. Three main approaches include: shorter linked apprenticeships; longer apprenticeships; modular approaches.

Such approaches have been seen to be effective in enabling the progression of youth at risk of poor outcomes without compromising the employability of learners. Also adults can benefit substantially from more flexible measures. By monitoring the migrants’ performance within VET, assessing local pilots that are experimenting with flexible solutions and learning from international practice, opportunity exists to give serious consideration to the development of more flexible models in Germany. This is particularly important should the progression pipeline experience unacceptable levels of blockages and leaks.

copy the linklink copied!Policy arguments

By developing more flexible models that target specific groups, migrants can have higher chances of succeeding

In order to unlock the potential of migrants, the VET system can be more adapted towards the specific needs of migrants and other vulnerable groups (Jeon, 2019[10]). As recent arrivals have a diverse background, integration measures also need to be adaptable to individual needs (OECD, 2016[11]). Alternative pathways through VET can facilitate a more realistic educational option for many migrants by providing a more targeted educational offer in line with the migrant’s needs and individual abilities. Youths and adults may have very different needs in terms of training. Flexibility on deciding for instance the duration of the training can be beneficial for both the learners and the employers. It can help to ensure that the learners reach the learning objectives and that the employers are able to balance the costs with the benefits of the training (OECD, 2010[12]).

Many of the key stakeholders find more flexible models important in order to integrate migrants

In an expert monitor, a clear majority of the respondents representing key stakeholders in the German VET system, among others employers and unions, finds alternative solutions such as prolonged or shorter models as the most important measure in integrating migrants into VET (Granato and Neises, 2017[4]). This is also in line what the OECD team heard through several interviews conducted through three visits in Germany. Many vulnerable groups can benefit by more flexible solutions adapted towards their needs (Kis, 2016[13]). This can include be natives with weak basic skills, second generation migrants or other migrant groups who have stayed for longer periods in Germany. Because the need for alternatives for this group is becoming more evident, the discussions of increased flexibility is opening up. Within discussions of alternative models, the reasonable preconditions for many of the stakeholders, particularly union and employers’ representatives, is that such models should be universally accessible to all students, as opposed to being a migrant specific measure. Concerns also relate to fear that such reform might undermine the quality of German VET provision. Again, this is a reasonable point of contention. Where more flexible provision is at its most effective, strong consideration is given to maintaining quality.

Prioritising VET provision which leads to a formal competence can be more effective for the apprentice, the employer and for the society

One challenge is to keep the balance between adequately preparing recent arrivals to embark on a VET provision and retaining them too long in preparatory measures. Programmes provided outside the mainstream classes have disadvantages: students miss the normal curriculum, they might be stigmatised by participation, and fall behind in the rest of the curriculum (European Commission, 2015[14]; Nusche, 2009[15]). In a Swiss study based on interviews, a majority of migrants expressed the wish to combine language training with work (UNHCR, 2017[16]). Hence, it can be preferable to introduce migrants at an early stage to mainstream education, and in turn provide support during the training. Starting an educational pathway towards a formal qualification can be more effective for apprentices who have a sufficient level on the language and basic skills. Although preparatory programmes can lead to an upper secondary qualification in some Länder, this is not consistently available. This is also a measure that can increase the supply of apprentices to employers who are in need of skilled workers.

Increased flexibility in the VET system can be achieved in different ways depending on who the target group is

Different alternative approaches can fit for specific target groups, for instance adults or young students, or for certain sectors in the labour market which are experiencing skill shortages and are in need of recruiting apprentices. Learning from practices in other countries, and regional or local examples within Germany, there are at least three alternative approaches that can be viable for Germany to further explore; a prolonged model, a shorter model as a stepping stone towards a full qualification and a modular approach.

A prolonged model can give weaker learners, including many migrants, extra time to meet with the academic requirements of apprenticeship training

In a prolonged model that combines VET with language training, apprentices can receive greater support and extra time during their training period to meet the academic and language requirements of the apprenticeship that is needed to complete the training. As elaborated in Chapter 4, many migrants tend to be in need of such additional support. By adding extra time to the ordinary three-year apprenticeship duration focusing particularly on additional support in language learning, the migrants gain in that workplaces are commonly seen as particularly conducive to learning. Combining language learning with learning a vocation, the students have the benefit of working together with colleagues who speak fluent German, which can be more motivating and effective (OECD, 2016[11]). An important distinction should be made between a prolonged model and for instance first doing an EQ and then embarking on apprenticeship training, in the former case students are starting a four-year pathway that leads to a formal qualification, increasing confidence that skilled employment will result. The apprenticeship placement is also secured, which means that the student can stay in a stable environment while they keep up with the requirements set at their VET school and by the employer. As students spend more time in the company, employers can have greater confidence that costs spent on the training are balanced out with the benefits of productive work (Kuczera, 2017[17]). The challenge, however, can be in keeping provision attractive to students, as many are in need of having a stable income to support themselves and their families. As laid out previously in the chapter, some Länder are already exploring more flexible models. These pilots should be followed closely within real-time evaluations with consideration being given to scaling them up if they are successful. If the numbers of migrant learners entering and succeeding within apprenticeships continues at a low level, longer duration apprenticeships represent a potentially attractive policy option for Germany.

Shorter models can reduce entrance barriers as well as provide training that leads to a partial qualification

Shorter apprenticeship models disaggregate apprenticeship learning into a number of linked qualifications that act as stepping stones towards a full qualification, so reducing entrance barriers to skilled employment. A shorter programme can be more realistic for many to complete and can give apprentices the opportunity to start their track towards a full VET qualification at an earlier point and thereby contributes to reducing entry barriers that many migrants meet. The target group can be students who are experiencing difficulties in finding an apprenticeship placement or adults who already possesses relevant experiences (OECD, 2018[3]). Such models can be particularly relevant to employers within sectors where there are shortages of qualified VET personnel. Increased flexibility can be made available at a local level or be more systematic by defining it in VET regulations at the federal level.

The consideration of developing shorter models should however be done with great care to avoid the creation of lower level of qualifications. The main objective should be to enable students to take a first step in a pathway towards a full formal qualification valued within the labour market and at the same time limit the amount of young people entering the labour market without a formal qualification. Such competence awarding possibilities can thus be beneficial both for the student because they can save time, but also for the society as a whole. While shorter time spent undertaking productive work decreases the short-term benefits for employers, this approach can also be a longer-term investment. As more students can gain access to formal training, the possibilities for recruiting qualified labour for the labour market can increase (Kuczera, 2017[17]).

In Germany, some professions are already experimenting with VET qualifications which are shorter in duration than regular apprenticeships, for instance one or two years. One example is within health care, where students can embark first on a one or two-year course, depending on the Länder, as a health care assistant, before either entering the labour market or pursuing further studies. Experiences locally suggest that many students choose to continue training after the completion of the first initial courses.

A comparable two year apprenticeship model has been successful in Switzerland. The provision is available in 57 professions leading to a VET certificate (EBA, Eidgenössisches Berufsattest). In this model, opportunity exists to secure a qualification that is both valued by employers and is clearly articulated as a stepping-stone towards a full VET qualification. Those who complete can join the three- or four-year apprenticeship, typically joining the second year of the programme (OECD, 2018[3]). The long-term transition after completing an EBA apprenticeship is in most cases successful. Three and a half years after completion, 87% of the 2012 EBA cohort was either employed or in education with 13% not in education, employment or training (NEET)2 (FSO, 2018[18]). A challenge of EBA programmes, however, is that the immediate transition into the labour market is not always smooth and without interruption. More than one-fifth of contracts are terminated prematurely. As a result, only 74.1% of those who started in 2012 completed the apprenticeship directly after 2 years (SKBF-CSRE, 2018[19]). As well as potentially serving learners from migrant backgrounds, evidence from this Swiss model shows that such provision can be of relevance to many native learners who would, otherwise, struggle to succeed in regular apprenticeship provision. By adapting programme design, a wider range of learners are able to benefit from apprenticeship provision, providing employers with an ultimately deeper pool of skilled labour (Lüthi, forthcoming[20]).

The Danish have a similar two year model (erhvervsgrunduddannelse - EGU), targeting young learners under 30 not in education or employment, who currently lack the prerequisites to enrol in a regular VET program. The aim is to upskill these young students so that they can enter the labour market or enrol in further training, for instance a VET programme. The training is primarily practical, and is organised according to the dual principle, where the students alternate between school-based and work-based learning in a workplace. The content is set on an individual basis, and may include some elements from the normal VET track. On completion, the students receive certification. In case of overlap with the normal VET track, students can continue their training to receive a full VET qualification. The number of students enrolled in this programme is around 2 000 (The Danish Ministry for Education, 2019[21]). An evaluation of the scheme shows that completion of the programme reduces the students’ likelihood of being welfare dependent. Many of the students completing typically choose further studies within VET, and among the non-completers, many of these are transferred to an ordinary VET track (Rambøll Management Consulting, 2016[22]).

Building upon the existing two-year EGU model, the Danish authorities are also currently conducting a pilot specifically targeting recent arrivals (Integrations grunnuddanningen). The pilot aims to secure the possibility of work and upskilling for migrants whose qualifications and productivity do not match the requirements in the Danish labour market. The pilot is a result of a 2016 tripartite agreement about labour market integration agreed by the government and the social partners. Migrants are hired by an employer and receive a salary, in addition to school training with additional allowance during the school period. Some of the migrants in the programme will either be enrolled on or will have completed the traditional integration course. There are no language entry requirements, but the content of the training is adapted towards the migrant’s individual needs and language level. As of April 2018, a total of 1 440 migrant were registered in the programme (The Danish Ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing, 2019[23]).

A modular approach can give flexibility in the provision from which especially adults can benefit

A modular approach to securing an apprenticeship qualification is gaining traction in many of European countries and can represent a more flexible pathway towards a VET qualification especially targeted at adult learners. Because training can be more easily combined with paid work, a modular approach can make it more attractive to adults to participate in formal learning opportunities. In the same way as with shorter models, a modular approach can be well-adapted towards some migrant learners as it can contribute to lowering entry requirements and addressing widespread desires for early labour market entry. Cedefop (2015[24]) defines partial qualifications as building blocks (such as modules) that can be combined into a full qualification. In this way modules can be understood as components of education and training programmes.

Across the European Union, the use of modules have been more commonly used in adult learning, rather than within the regular upper secondary VET system (Cedefop, 2015[24]). Australia has devised a flexible modular approach to its VET system, to which all age groups have access (Hoeckel et al., 2008[25]). Modularisation in the German VET system can be found in some occupations or through pilot schemes locally (Cedefop, 2015[24]). One objective in the Norwegian government’s 2018 integration strategy is to increase provision available to migrants which leads to a formal qualification (The Norwegian Ministry for Education, Research and Integration, 2019[26]). One of the measures in this regard is an ongoing pilot which explores more flexible solutions for low-skilled adults, including migrants, through a modularised approach to upper secondary VET. In this way, migrants and other groups can take modules one by one at a slower pace allowing for mixing the training with payed work. Each module will be finalised with a formal assessment. When all modules are completed, the candidate can sign up for a normal VET trade and journeyman’s certificate. In this way, the final examinations ensures quality in that these candidates are required to demonstrate the same competences as candidates following the normal VET track (The Norwegian Ministry for Education and Research, 2016[27]).

Recognising the labour market potential of the young newly arrived and the difficulties they face in entering an upper secondary vocational programme, Sweden introduced Vocational Packages (yrkespaket) in December 2017 in a range of fields. These are clusters of courses leading to a partial qualification that is recognised in the labour market. It allows students to combine courses from compulsory or upper secondary levels in upper secondary school or in adult education (Kuczera and Jeon, 2019[28]; Jeon, 2019[10]).

The Danish authorities are targeting migrants in its existing modularised labour market education scheme (arbeidsmarkedsuddannelsene), which is a broad provision of short vocationally oriented courses. The scheme is designed to upskill adults with or without formal qualifications with skills or qualifications which are needed on the labour market. The provision can be part of a full formal VET qualification. Additional modules are provided for migrants with Danish as a second language. These modules are linked to language (at basic, intermediate and advanced levels as well as vocational language courses), introductions to the vocational area, the Danish labour market and how to apply for jobs. In addition, students take the vocational courses within the scheme, but that are adapted for migrants (The Danish Ministry for Education, 2019[29]).


[5] BMBF (2018), Berufsbildungsbericht 2018, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Bonn.

[9] BMBF (2017), Bericht zum Anerkennungsgesetz 2017, Silber Druck oHG, Niestetal,

[24] Cedefop (2015), The role of modularisation and unitisation in vocational education and training, Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg,

[14] European Commission (2015), Language Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Classrooms, Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg,

[8] Eurostat (2017), EU Benchmarks Education and Training 2020, 2017, (accessed on 30 January 2019).

[18] FSO (2018), Übergänge nach Abschluss der Sekundarstufe II und Integration in den Arbeitsmark, Bundesamt für Statistik BFS, Neuchâtel.

[4] Granato, M. and F. Neises (2017), Geflüchtete und berufliche Bildung, Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, Bonn.

[25] Hoeckel, K. et al. (2008), OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training: A Learning for Jobs Review of Australia 2008, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[1] Hoeckel, K. and R. Schwartz (2010), OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training: A Learning for Jobs Review of Germany 2010, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[6] IHK zu Coburg (2019), Pilotausbildungsmodell 3+1 für Flüchtlinge Erfolgreich Gestartet, (accessed on 30 January 2019).

[10] Jeon, S. (2019), Unlocking the Potential of Migrants: Cross-country Analysis, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[13] Kis, V. (2016), “Work-based learning for youth at risk: Getting employers on board”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 150, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[17] Kuczera, M. (2017), “Striking the right balance: Costs and benefits of apprenticeship”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 153, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[28] Kuczera, M. and S. Jeon (2019), Vocational Education and Training in Sweden, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[20] Lüthi, S. (forthcoming), “Unlocking the potential of migrants through vocational education and training - Country note: Switzerland”, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, OECD Publishing, Paris.

[15] Nusche, D. (2009), What Works in Migrant Education?: A Review of Evidence and Policy Options, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[3] OECD (2018), Seven Questions about Apprenticeships: Answers from International Experience, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[2] OECD (2018), The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background: Factors that Shape Well-being, OECD Reviews of Migrant Education, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[11] OECD (2016), Making Integration Work: Refugees and Others in Need of Protection, Making Integration Work, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[12] OECD (2010), Learning for Jobs, OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[22] Rambøll Management Consulting (2016), Analyse av erhvervsgrunduddannelse (EGU), Ramboll, Copenhagen,

[19] SKBF-CSRE (2018), Swiss Educational Report, Swiss Coordination Centre for Research in Education, Aarau.

[7] Statistisches Bundesamt (2017), Integrierte Ausbildungsberichterstattung: Anfänger, Teilnehmer und Absolventen im Ausbildungsgeschehen nach Sektoren/Konten und Ländern, Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden.

[21] The Danish Ministry for Education (2019), Om arbeidsmarkedsuddannelse, (accessed on 30 January 2019).

[29] The Danish Ministry for Education (2019), Om tosprogede i arbeidsmarkedsuddannelserne (AMU), Ministry of Education, Denmark, (accessed on 4 February 2019).

[23] The Danish Ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing (2019), Integrationsbarometer, (accessed on 30 January 2019).

[27] The Norwegian Ministry for Education and Research (2016), Fra utenforskap til ny sjanse, samordnet innsats for voksnes laering, Kunnskapsdepartement,

[26] The Norwegian Ministry for Education, Research and Integration (2019), Integrering gjennom kunnskap. Regjeringens integreringsstrategi 2019-2022, Kunnskapsdepartementet,

[16] UNHCR (2017), Die Sicht der Flüchtlinge und vorläufig Aufgenommenen in der Schweiz,, UNHCR Büro für die Schweiz und Liechtenstein, Genf.


← 1. For example, police training often applies age limits.

← 2. However, such figures cannot assess the effectiveness of EBA apprenticeships conclusively, as it remains unknown how those graduates would have performed without any upper secondary education instead, thus a causal effect is uncertain (SKBF-CSRE, 2018[19]).

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