This publication constitutes the 46th report of the OECD’s Continuous Reporting System on Migration. The report is divided into eight chapters plus a statistical annex. Chapter 1 provides a broad overview of recent trends in international migration flows and policies up to 2021 on international movements. It also analyses recent changes on the labour market inclusion of immigrants in OECD countries. Chapter 2 monitors recent changes in migration policies, while Chapter 3 looks at the recent changes in policies that support the integration of immigrants and their children.

Chapter 4 presents a broad overview of the refugee crisis triggered by the unprovoked war of aggression of Russia against Ukraine and of the policy responses in OECD countries. The chapter examines both initial and medium-to-longer term reception support that is available to Ukrainian refugees, focusing specifically on housing, access to immediate assistance and public services, education, and employment.

Chapters 5 to 7 focus on international students. The chapters in turn analyse recent trends, attraction and retention policies, and the economic impact of international students. Chapter 5 provides an overview of international students in OECD countries, their origin and destination countries as well as drivers of their mobility. It discusses how international students differ from domestic students in the OECD and provides the latest enrolment and permit statistics, noting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Chapter 6 reviews OECD countries’ policies to attract, admit and retain international students. It provides examples of communication and outreach strategies to international students as well as parameters for their admission. Finally, it discusses policies to monitor the compliance of international students with the regulations set out on their study permit and ensure that institutions and students do not misuse this channel. Chapter 7 provides estimates for the five- and ten-year stay rates of international students, and discusses their importance as a feeder for labour migration during and after study, as well as their economic impact.

Chapter 8 presents succinct country-specific notes and statistics on developments in international migration movements and policies in OECD and selected non-OECD countries in recent years. Lastly, the statistical annex includes a broad selection of recent and historical statistics on immigrant flows, asylum requests, foreign and foreign-born populations, and naturalisations.

This year’s edition of the OECD International Migration Outlook is the collective work of the staff of the International Migration Division in the Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs. Chapter 5 was drafted by Elisabeth Kamm (OECD). Chapter 6 was prepared by Elisabeth Kamm and Jonathan Chaloff (OECD). Chapter 7 was prepared by Elisabeth Kamm and Thomas Liebig (OECD). Jean-Christophe Dumont edited the report. Statistical work was carried out by Philippe Hervé and Nicolas Ortega. Editorial assistance was provided by Dominika Andrzejczak and Charlotte Baer as well as Natalie Corry and Lucy Hulett.

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