copy the linklink copied!Hungary

This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.

Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    
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The national currency is the Forint (HUF). In 2019, HUF 290.60 were equal to USD 1. In 2019, the average worker earned HUF 4 450 146 (Secretariat estimate).

copy the linklink copied!1. Personal Income Tax Systems

1.1. Central/federal government income taxes

1.1.1. Tax unit

The tax unit is, in all cases, the separate individual. In exceptional cases, the employer can become subject to personal income tax, for instance in the case of benefits in kind.

1.1.2. Tax allowances and tax credits

1.1.2.1. Standard reliefs

  • Basic reliefs: None.

  • Standard marital status reliefs: None.

  • Employee Tax credit: Since 1st January 2012 there is no employee tax credit.

  • Family tax allowance: For families having children, the basis of income tax can be reduced by the family tax allowance, which amounts to HUF 66 670 per month (for families having one child), HUF 133 330 per month/each dependent (for families having two children) or HUF 220 000 per month/each dependent (for families having at least three children). This tax allowance can be applied by a pregnant woman (or her husband) as from the 91st day after conception until birth of the child. The tax allowance may be claimed by one spouse or be split between the spouses. As of 1st January 2014, the family tax allowance was extended: families whose combined PIT base is not sufficient to claim the maximum amount of the family tax allowance can deduct the remaining sum from the 7% health insurance contribution and the 10% pension contribution. This measure does not affect the eligibility for social security benefits (pensions, healthcare, transfers, etc.).

1.1.2.2. Main non-standard tax reliefs

  • Trade Union membership dues: Membership dues and contributions paid to trade unions and other corporate bodies of employees are deductible without any restriction.

  • Tax credits are made available for physical disability or agricultural activities. Tax deduction is available for those having income from abroad.

  • From 1st January 2015 for newly married couples (where it is the first marriage for at least one of the parties) the basis of income tax can be reduced by HUF 33 335 per month for one person of the couple for 24 months.

1.1.3. Tax schedule

The rate of personal income tax amounts to 15%.

1.2. State and local income taxes

In Hungary there is no local personal income tax system supplementing the central one.

copy the linklink copied!2. Compulsory Social Security Contributions to Schemes Operated within the Government Sector

2.1. Employees’ contributions

2.1.1. Pensions

The rate of pension contribution amounts to 10% of gross earnings.

From 1st January 2019 retired workers (old age pension) does not have to pay 10% pension contribution after their wage income.

2.1.2. Sickness

The rate of health security contribution amounts to 7% of gross earnings.

From 1st January 2019 retired workers (old age pension) does not have to pay 4% sickness contribution after their wage income. (Previously they had to pay only 4% out of the 7%).

2.1.3. Unemployment

The worker must pay, as employees’ contribution, 1.5% of gross earnings.

2.1.4. Others

None. The average worker does not have any obligation to pay other contributions than the above mentioned. However, the contribution rates may be different for certain types of income or for certain groups of income recipients (e.g. employees with pensioner status). None of these exceptions are applicable to the workers taken into consideration in this report.

2.2. Employers’ contributions

2.2.1. Pensions

None.

2.2.2. Sickness

None.

2.2.3. Unemployment

None.

2.2.4. Others

From 2012, the employers’ social security contributions were merged into the new payroll tax, called social contribution tax. This change is of legal nature, the combined rate remains 27% while the revenue is divided among the pension, health care and labour-market funds. In 2017, the social contribution tax decreased to 22%, and in January 2018, the rate was lowered to 19.5%. In July 2019, the rate was lowered to 17.5%.

The employer contributions also include a payroll tax: the training levy amounts to 1.5% of gross earnings.

From 1st January 2013, the Job Protection Act (JPA) introduced new targeted reliefs in the employers’ contributions (social contribution tax and training levy) to incentivise the employment of the most disadvantageous groups on the labour market. This measure reduces the standard rate of the employers' contributions up to a cap of HUF 100 000 per month. From 2017, the JPA introduced a permanent reduction of the employers' tax rate by 50% of the current tax rate for:

  • employees under 25 years of age,

  • employees over 55 years of age,

  • employees working in elementary occupations,

  • employees working in agricultural occupations.

It also introduced temporary reductions (21% in the first two years of the employment, and 50% of the current tax rate in the third year) for:

  • long term unemployed re-entering the labour market,

  • people returning to work after child-care leave,

  • career starters.

From 1st January 2015, the budgetary institutions are not eligible for the JPA tax allowances anymore.

From 1st January 2019, the JPA is being phased out and new better targeting reliefs were introduced. The new reliefs reduces the standard rate of the employers' contributions up to the cap of the minimal wage, in 2019 the minimal wage is HUF 149 000 per month.

The new reliefs reduce the employers' tax rate by 50% of the current tax rate for:

  • employees working in elementary and in agricultural occupations,

In addition, there is a temporary reductions (21% in the first two years of the employment, and 50% of the current tax rate in the third year) for:

  • employees returning to labour market (those who had been out of work for at least 6 months out of the preceding 9 months became entitled for a new type of tax allowance )

In addition, there is a temporary reductions (21% in the first three years of the employment, and 50% of the current tax rate in the fourth and fifth year) for:

  • mothers with 3 or more children

From 1st January 2019, retired workers (old age pension) doesn’t have to pay 19.5%, from 1st of July, 17.5% social contribution tax after their wage income.

The targeted reliefs in the employers’ contributions are not considered in the Taxing Wages model.

Social security contributions will have to be paid on other benefits than gross earnings (e.g., grants in kind) and payments (e.g., certain kind of contracts).

copy the linklink copied!3. Universal cash transfers

3.1. Transfers related to marital status

None.

3.2. Transfers for dependent children

Effective from 1 January 2008:

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Type of family

HUF per month

For a couple with one child

12 200

For a single earner with one child

13 700

For a couple with two children, per child

13 300

For a single earner with two children, per child

14 800

For a couple with 3 or more children, per child

16 000

For a single earner with 3 or more children, per child

17 000

For a couple with permanently sick and disabled child

23 300

For a single earner with permanently sick and disabled child

25 900

copy the linklink copied!4. Main Changes in the Tax/benefit System Since 2010

  • The tax base correction was phased out in two steps.

  • The employee tax credit was abolished.

  • The employees’ health care contribution was increased.

  • The employers’ social security contributions were merged into the social contribution tax (legal change only, rates and base remained unchanged).

  • Health contributions on benefits in kind were increased.

  • As a temporary measure, a wage compensation scheme was in effect in the form of an employers’ SSC credit.

  • Targeted employment incentives to boost the employment levels of groups at the margin of the labour force.

  • The child tax allowance was extended in 2014 by allowing the deduction of the allowance from employees’ SSC.

  • The rate of the PIT decreased by 1 percentage point in 2016.

  • The rate of family tax benefit for families with two children is gradually increased from 2016 so that it will be doubled by 2019.

  • From 2017 the social contribution tax decreased to 22% and from 2018 subsequently to 19.5%.

  • From 1st of July, 2019 social contribution tax decreased to 17.5%.

  • From 1st January 2019 retired workers (old age pension workers) doesn’t have to pay 10% pension contribution, 4% sickness contribution, employers’ social security contributions (social contribution tax and training levy) after their wage income.

copy the linklink copied!5. Memorandum Items

5.1. Employer contributions to private social security arrangements

In Hungary the law dealing with the voluntary mutual insurance funds (like pension funds) was enacted on 6 December 1993. From 2019 employers contributions to these funds are taxed as wages, but employees can apply a 20% tax credit with a limit of HUF 150 000 per year on. The tax authority pays the tax credit directly to a voluntary fund.

From 2019 voluntary insurance contributions paid by the employer are taxable as wages and the employees can apply a 20% tax credit with a limit of HUF 150 000 per year. Insurance contracts signed before 2019 have 1 year transitional provision, in case of these contracts contributions paid by the employer are tax exempt till 30% of the minimal wage, above that it’s taxable according to an effective personal income tax rate of 17.7% and an effective health contribution of 21.83%.

As from 2008, employer pension institutions can be established. Based on the rules for 2017, the monthly contribution paid to an employer pension institution by the employer of a private worker is not limited and it is taxable according to an effective personal income tax rate of 17.7% and an effective health contribution of 25.96%. From 2018, the effective health contribution is 23.01%. From 2019, voluntary contributions to these funds are taxed as wages.

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2019 Parameter values

Average earnings/yr

Ave_earn

4 450 146

Secretariat estimate

Child allowance (per child)

child_al

1

800 040

2

 

1 599 960

3

2 640 000

4

2 640 000

Income tax schedule

tax_sch

0.15

Social security contributions

SSC_unemp

0.015

SSC_p

0.1

SSC_h

0.07

Payroll taxes *

SSC_empr

0.185

payroll_rate

0.015

# of children

1

2

3+

Transfers for children

CB_rates

0

12 200

13 300

16 000

(monthly)

1

13 700

14 800

17 000

*average SSC_empr rate for 2019

2019 Tax equations

The equations for the Hungarian system in 2019 are mostly on an individual basis. But the child allowance can be split between the spouses and cash transfers are calculated only once. This is shown by the Range indicator in the table below.

The functions which are used in the equations (Taper, MIN, Tax etc) are described in the technical note about tax equations. Variable names are defined in the table of parameters above, within the equations table, or are the standard variables "married" and "children". A reference to a variable with the affix "_total" indicates the sum of the relevant variable values for the principal and spouse. And the affixes "_princ" and "_spouse" indicate the value for the principal and spouse, respectively. Equations for a single person are as shown for the principal, with "_spouse" values taken as 0.

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Line in country table and intermediate steps

Variable name

Range

Equation

1.

Earnings

earn

2.

Allowances:

Children

child_al

P

IF(Children>0, Children*VLOOKUP(Children, child_al, 2), 0)

Total

tax_al

B

child_al

3.

Credits in taxable income

taxbl_cr

B

0

4.

CG taxable income

tax_inc

P

MAX(0,earn -tax_al)

CG taxable income

tax_inc

S

Positive(earn_spouse-Positive(tax_al-earn_spouse-SSC_deduction_princ/tax_sch))

5.

CG tax before credits

CG_tax_excl

B

tax_inc*tax_sch

7.

CG tax

CG_tax

B

CG_tax_excl-tax_cr

8.

State and local taxes

local_tax

B

0

Child tax allowance (Employees' SSC)

SSC_child_cr

P

=MIN(earn_princ*(SSC_h+SSC_p),Positive(tax_al-earn_princ)*tax_sch)

Child tax allowance (Employees' SSC)

S

=MIN(earn_spouse*(SSC_h+SSC_p),Positive(-earn_princ)*tax_sch)

9.

Employees' soc security

SSC

B

earn*(SSC_unemp+ SSC_h+SSC_p)-SSC_child_cr

11.

Cash transfers

cash_trans

J

Children*(VLOOKUP((1-Married), CB_rates, MIN(Children, 3)+1)*12)

13.

Employer's soc security

SSC_empr

B

earn*SSC_empr

Employer's payroll taxes

Payroll

B

earn*payroll_rate

Key to range of equation B calculated separately for both principal earner and spouse P calculated for principal only (value taken as 0 for spouse calculation) J calculated once only.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

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https://doi.org/10.1787/047072cd-en

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