copy the linklink copied! Annex C. Contextual factors

This section provides data on administrative and institutional features of each country, including: the regime type; the composition and electoral system of the legislature; the structure of the executive branch; the division of power between one central and several regional or local governments; and key characteristics of the judicial system. It also provides basic data on population and gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018 and data on the number of municipalities, provinces, states and/or regions.

Political and institutional frameworks influence those who formulate and implement policy responses to the challenges faced by governments. For example, the type of electoral system employed has a number of potential consequences on the nature and tenure of government, including the diversity of views represented and the ability of the legislature to create and amend laws. Major differences in legislative institutions can affect the way a country’s bureaucratic system works. The extent that power is shared between the legislative and executive branches, exemplified by the system of executive power (parliamentary, presidential or dual executive), the frequency of elections and term limits, the ease of constitutional amendments, and the ability of the judiciary to review the constitutionality of laws and actions, set the constraints within which policies and reforms can be enacted and implemented. The way that governments are structured, including the division of responsibilities vertically (across levels of governments) and horizontally (between departments or ministries), is a key factor underlying the organisational capacity of government. Different structures and responsibilities require different sets of competencies, including oversight, monitoring and evaluation and co-ordination.

While many contextual factors are products of a country’s historical development and cannot be easily changed by policy makers, they can be used to identify countries with similar political and administrative structures for comparison and benchmarking purposes. In addition, for countries considering different policies and reforms, the indicators can illustrate structural differences that may affect their passage and implementation.

copy the linklink copied! Methodology and definitions

GDP data are from the IMF World Economic Outlook Database.

Federal states have a constitutionally delineated division of political authority between one central and several regional or state autonomous governments. While unitary states often include multiple levels of government (such as local and provincial or regional), these administrative divisions are not constitutionally defined.

Under the parliamentary form of executive power, the executive is usually the head of the dominant party in the legislature and appoints members of that party or coalition parties to serve as ministers. The executive is accountable to parliament, who can end the executive’s term through a vote of no confidence. Several countries with parliamentary systems also have a president, whose powers are predominantly ceremonial in nature. Under the presidential system, the executive and members of the legislature seek election independently of one another. Ministers are not elected members of the legislature but are nominated by the president and may be approved by the members of the legislature. The dual executive system combines a powerful president with an executive responsible to the legislature, with both responsible for the day-to-day activities of the state. It differs from the presidential system in that the cabinet (although named by the president) is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

Data on the frequency of governments cover the period between 1 January 1998 and 31 August 2018. The number of governments is determined by the number of terms served by the head of the executive branch (where a term is either defined by a change in the executive or an election that renewed support for the current government).

A ministry is an organisation in the executive branch that is responsible for a sector of public administration. Common examples include ministries of health, education and finance. While sub-national governments may also be organised into ministries, the data only refer to central government. Ministers advise the executive and are in charge of either one or more ministries, or a portfolio of government duties. In most parliamentary systems, ministers are drawn from the legislature and keep their seats. In most presidential systems, ministers are not elected officials and are appointed by the president. The data refer to the number of ministers that comprise the cabinet at the central level of government and exclude deputy ministers.

Bicameral legislatures have two chambers (usually an upper house and a lower house), whereas unicameral legislatures are composed of only a lower house. Electoral systems are usually characterised as single member (first-past-the-post or Preferential and two-round) or multi member (proportional representation or semi-proportional representation). The types of electoral systems are defined as follows:

Under first-past-the-post, the winner is the candidate with the most votes but not necessarily an absolute majority of votes.

Under preferential and two-round, the winner is the candidate who receives an absolute majority (i.e. over 50%) of votes. If no candidate receives over 50% of votes during the first round of voting, the preferential system makes use of voters’ second preferences while the two-round system uses a second round of voting to produce a winner.

Proportional representation (PR) systems allocate parliamentary seats based on a party’s share of national votes.

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Brunei Darussalam

Cambodia

Indonesia

Lao PDR

Malaysia

Myanmar

Philippines

Singapore

Thailand

Viet Nam

Population 2016 WB estimate (in millions)

0.423

15.80

261.1

6.8

31.20

52.9

103.30

5.60

68.90

94.60

GDP in 1988 (PPP in USD billion at current prices)

52743

577

2338

1002

5642

No data

2342

18194

3238

811

GDP in 2018 (PPP in USD billion at current prices)

79726

4322

13162

7932

30858

6802

8893

98014

18944

7463

Change in GDP PPP 1988-2018

34%

87%

82%

87%

82%

No data

74%

81%

83%

89%

Member of the OECD

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

State structure

Unitary

Unitary

Unitary

Unitary

Federal

Unitary

Unitary

Unitary

Unitary

Unitary

Number of tiers of government

State/regional

Not applicable

24

34

Not applicable

13

14

81

Not applicable

76

63

Intermediate

Not applicable

185

Not applicable

16

Not applicable

Not applicable

1594

Not applicable

Not applicable

710

Local

Not applicable

1621

508

Not applicable

149

Not applicable

42028

Not applicable

Not applicable

11145

System of executive power

Constitutional monarchy

Parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Presidential republic

One-party socialist republic

Parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Parliamentary republic

Presidential republic

Parliamentary republic

Constitutional monarchy / Military-affiliated government since 2014

One-party socialist republic

Head of state

Sultan

Monarch

President

President

Monarch

President

President

President

Monarch

President

Head of government

Sultan

Prime Minister

President

Prime Minister

Prime Minister

State Counsellor

President

Prime Minister

Prime Minister

Prime Minister

Separation of powers

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Term limit for heads of state (years)

None

None

10

None

5

5

6

6

None

10

Governments at the central level between 1998 and 2018

Total number of governments

1

5

6

3

5

6

4

5

7

2

Number of Ministers at the central level of government (2018)

13

27

34

23

28

24

20

19

27

27

Number of Ministries or Departments at the central level of government (2018)

13

25

34

16

26

24

20

16

20

22

Upper House (central government)

Existence

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Membership based on regional considerations?

Not applicable

Partially

Yes

Not applicable

Partially

No

No

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Frequency of elections or appointments (in years)

Not applicable

6

5

Not applicable

3

5

6

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Size - number of seats

Not applicable

62

132

Not applicable

70

224

24

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Lower House (central government)

Electoral system

Not applicable

Proportional representation

Proportional representation

First-past-the-post

First-past-the-post

330 seats by first-past-the-post; 110 seats appointed by military

238 seats by first-past-the-post; 59 by party-list PR

88 seats by First Past the Post; 9 seats nominated by parliamentary selection committee and the President; 3 non-constituency seats from opposition parties

Junta appointed at time of publication; Elections announced for February 2019

Absolute majority vote with a second round if needed

Frequency of elections (in years)

Appointments by the Sultan

5

5

5

5

5

3

5

5

5

Size - number of seats

33

125

560

149

222

440

297

100

250

500

Judicial system

Mixed legal system: English common law and Islamic law

Mixed legal system: civil law; customary law; Communist legal theory, and common law

Civil law system, influenced by customary law

Civil law system, similar to the French system

Mixed legal system: English common law; Islamic law, and customary law

Mixed legal system: English common law and customary law

Mixed legal system: civil; common; Islamic, and customary law

English common law system

Civil law system with common law influences

Civil law system

Existence of system of judicial review of the constitutionality of laws and actions

Judicial review (dual system of secular and Sharia courts)

Judicial review

Judicial review

Judicial review

Judicial review

Limited judicial review

Judicial review

Judicial review

Judicial review

Limited judicial review

Notes: EIU: Economist Intelligence Unit; PR: proportional representation; WB: World Bank.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264305915-en

© OECD, ADB 2019

This Work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 3.0 IGO (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO) public license.

Annex C. Contextual factors