Annex C. Programmes and policies included in analysis of Brazil, Kenya and Nepal

Table A C.1.



Brief description

Approach to unpaid care work

Public services


Educaçao Infantil

National preschool programme for children 4 years +; “compulsory”, aiming at 50% enrolment by 2020; 0-3 years optional

Recognising and reducing unpaid care work, but not redistributing for parents receiving cash transfers (conditional on not doing paid work)

Mother and More

Anti-poverty parenting programme and mother and child mobile health clinic

No UCW focus initially. Unpaid care work recognised; helps reduce (access to healthcare); redistribution encouraged


Nairobi City Council

Has ECD/preschool provision mandate; for 4-6 year-olds only

Sets but cannot enforce provider regulations

Addresses all 3Rs, by de facto extending school enrolment threshold to younger children


Social enterprise, improves quality of care and certifies providers

Hub and spoke model for skill diffusion; 0-6 years old

Addresses all 3Rs (not gender restricted, some male care providers participate)

For full age range of young children

HelpAge International

Policy advocacy for those with greatest care needs, at intersection of age and particular medical conditions

Recognises and reduces UCW, by focusing on care needs and quality of life for older people, pre-empting need for more intensive caregiving


Action Aid

Supports community provision of childcare – no single model

Parents’ willingness to pay indicates recognition and reduction. Redistribution is addressed peripherally

Age Nepal

Geriatric care training programme for health professionals

Addresses LTC skills in clinical settings among paid caregivers

No UCW focus, but may reassure domestic caregivers/elders that institutional care is an acceptable substitute



World Food Programme

Improved services to “the most vulnerable, incorporating better resilience to natural disasters, stronger livelihoods and enhanced investment environment” (DfID, 2015, p. 3[3])



Increase the resilience of women and men against the negative impacts of climate change and increase representation of women in livelihood initiatives and climate change adaptation plans (pilot action research project)

Recognises UCW, aims at recognition by women and men in communities, reduction and redistribution

Asian Development Bank; Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare

Address gender-based inequalities with respect to access to economic opportunities, political participation, lack of voice and representation, and existing socio-cultural barriers (particular focus on disadvantaged women)

Recognises UCW, aims at reduction through infrastructure


Secretariat for Food Security, Health and Nutrition within the Ministry of Social Development

Access to water and food security

UCW not recognised as issue across secretariat/ministry; no aim at redistribution or reduction


Innovation Energie Développement

Stimulate market solutions to energy poverty

UCW not recognised, no aim at redistribution or reduction

Social protection


“Housewife Policy”: policy reform of pension and social security system

Provides for earlier retirement age + voluntary social security contributions for housewives; introduced in 2006

Providing access to: maternity leave, pension and medical support (paid sick leave) for low- or non-income earners including housewives

Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF)

Cash transfer programme aimed at reducing poverty and inequality, by targeting benefits to mothers

Initially no explicit focus on unpaid care work but targeting mothers, tending to reinforce their caring role

Later childcare provision (Brazil Carinhoso) was introduced, and from 2016 there have been small-scale attempts to address social norms on care with men


Cash Transfer for Orphan and Vulnerable Children – (CT-OVC)

Providing welfare payments to keep vulnerable groups in the care of their families and communities

Piloted in 2007 and by 2017 approx. 40% coverage of target group

Facilitate/encourage unpaid care work by family carers (most likely women) through provision of a small stipend to family carers

Older Persons Cash Transfer (OPCT)

Initially piloted in 2011 and by 2015/16 approx. 24% coverage of target group

Now being extended to provide universal coverage to all over 70

No explicit consideration of care issues


Social Security Fund

Provision of 1% of salary by workers to the Fund

None at the moment – eligibility of informal workers but unpaid care workers not eligible

Child Grant

Supporting better nutrition for children under five years of age in Karnali region and Dalit households in the rest of the country

No explicit focus on unpaid care work but targeting of mothers may reinforce existing stereotypes

Shared responsibility


UN Women

National advocacy campaigns as part of the HeForShe campaign and the UNiTE to End Violence against Women; support of other initiatives, e.g. secondary schools

Recognises unpaid care work as barrier to gender equality


Work with men, private sector and health services with the focus on men (and their partners)

Recognises and aims at redistribution and reduction of time spent on care and domestic work by women through engaging with men

Secretariat for women’s policies (National)

Awareness raising in congress, research focused on formalising and decent work for domestic workers as mean for raising value of care and domestic work more broadly.

Recognises unpaid care work, aims at wider recognition through achieving recognition of paid care work



Awareness raising for community political voice and accountability Reflection circles(with time diaries), piloting

Aims for recognition of unpaid care work as well as redistribution and reduction of drudgery


Work with community, including men, to change social norms through policy analysis

Rapid care analysis toolkit in slum areas of Nairobi

Aims at redistribution by engaging with male champions


Create constituency of men to change social norms focused on areas with highest rates of female genital mutilation

Aims at recognition and redistribution of unpaid care work



Sensitisation of women in rural areas, within access to resources

Leadership programme

No explicit focus

UN Women

Advocacy campaigns; dialogue with policy makers working 12 districts and Kathmandu valley, reach restricted in mountain region

Aiming for recognition and redistribution


[1] Chopra, D., A. Kelbert and P. Iyer (2013), A feminist political economy analysis of public policies related to care: A thematic review.

[3] DfID (2015), Urban partnerships for poverty reduction (UPPR) – Project completion report, (accessed on  December 2018).

[2] IFC (2017), Tackling Childcare: The Business Case for Employer-Supported Childcare, International Finance Corporation..

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