Acronyms and abbreviations

ABOC

Agricultural Bank of China

ABS

asset-backed security

ACWI

All Country World Index

ADB

Asian Development Bank

ADBC

Agricultural Development Bank of China

AEI

American Enterprise Institute

AIIB

Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank

APs

authorised participants

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

BA

Bangkok Agreement

BOC

Bank of China

BRI

Belt and Road Initiative

BRIICS

Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, and South Africa

BWEI

Bloomberg World Equity Index

CBRC

China Banking Regulatory Commission

CCB

China Construction Bank

CCP

centralised clearing counter-party

CCR

capital conservation buffer

CDB

China Development Bank

CDS

credit default swap

CET

common equity tier

CFTC

US Commodity Futures Trading Commission

CIRC

China Insurance Regulatory Commission

CO2

carbon dioxide

CNOOC

China National Offshore Oil Corporation

CNPC

China National Petroleum Corporation

COK

cost of capital

CPC

Communist Party of China

CSRC

China Securities and Regulatory Commission

CTG

China Three Gorges Corporation

DRC

Development Research Centre

DTD

distance-to-default

ECB

European Central Bank

ECO

Economic Co-operation Organisation

ECSI

European Convention on State Immunity

ECT

energy charter treaty

EECA

Eastern Europe and Central Asia

EIA

environmental impact assessments

EMIR

European Market Infrastructure Regulation

ETF

exchange traded fund

EU

European Union

ExIm

China Import-Export Bank

FDI

foreign direct investment

FED

United States Federal Reserve

FSIA

US Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act

FSB

Financial Stability Board

FTSE

Financial Times Stock Exchange

G-SIBs

globally systemic important banks

G20

Group of 20 (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, United States and the European Union)

GDP

gross domestic product

GICS

Global Industry Classification Standard

GPS

Global Positioning System

G-SIB

globally systemically important banks

HBIS

Hebei Iron and Steel Group

HLAR

higher loss absorbing requirement

IBES

Institutional Brokers' Estimate System

ICBC

Industrial and Commercial Bank of China

IFSWF

International Forum of Sovereign Wealth Funds

IMF

International Monetary Fund

IRB

internal ratings-based

IWG

International Working Group of Sovereign Wealth Funds

LR

leverage ratio

LSAP

large scale asset purchases

LTV

loan-to-value

MDB

multilateral development bank

MENA

Middle East and North Africa

MFA

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

MMIMO

Massive-Multiple-In-Multiple-Out

MMMF

money market mutual funds

MOFCOM

Ministry of Commerce (also MofCom)

MPA

macro-prudential assessment

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

NCP

National Contact Point (agencies established by adhering governments to promote and implement the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises)

NDRC

National Development and Reform Commission

NPL

non-performing loans

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OTC

over-the-counter

PBoC

Peoples Bank of China

PE

price-to-earnings and private equity

PP

private placement

PPP

public-private partnership

QE

quantitative easing

R&D

research and development

RBC

responsible business conduct

RFE

relative factor endowment variable

ROE

return on equity

RWA

risk-weighted asset

S&P 500

Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index

SAARC

South Asian Association of Regional Co-operation

SDGs

Sustainable Development Goals

SEA

Strategic Environmental Assessment

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission

SEZ

special economic zone

SIM

similarity index

SOE

state-owned enterprise

SWF

sovereign wealth fund

TALF

Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility

TARP

Troubled Asset Relief Program

TBTF

too big to fail

TLAC

total loss absorbing capacity

TRNC

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

UHV

ultra-high voltage

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

WGB

OECD Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions

WMP

wealth management products

WTO

World Trade Organization

ISO country and currency abbreviations

Country

 

Currency

Australia

AUS

Australian dollar

ASD

Brazil

BRA

Brazilian real

BRL

China, People’s Republic of

CHN

yuan renminbi

CNY

Chinese Taipei

TWN

Taiwan new dollar

TWD

Colombia

COL

Colombian peso

COP

Euro area

EMU

euro

EUR

India

IND

Indian rupee

INR

Indonesia

IDN

rupiah

IDR

Japan

JPN

yen

JPY

Korea

KOR

won

KRW

Russian Federation

RUS

Russian rubble

RUB

Singapore

SGP

Singapore dollar

SGD

South Africa

ZAF

rand

ZAR

United Kingdom

GBR

pound

GBP

United States

USA

dollar

USD