copy the linklink copied!Annex B1. Results for countries and economies

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Table II.B1.2.1 [1/4]. Students’ socio-economic status

 

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of 15-year-old population

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

All students

Variability in the index

Bottom quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Mean index

S.E.

s

S.D.

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

0.89

0.32

(0.01)

 

0.91

(0.01)

 

-0.91

(0.02)

 

0.07

(0.02)

 

0.75

(0.01)

 

Austria

0.89

0.01

(0.02)

 

0.88

(0.01)

 

-1.10

(0.03)

 

-0.29

(0.02)

 

0.31

(0.02)

 

Belgium

0.94

0.07

(0.02)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

-1.17

(0.02)

 

-0.22

(0.02)

 

0.50

(0.02)

 

Canada

0.86

0.42

(0.01)

 

0.82

(0.01)

 

-0.69

(0.02)

 

0.21

(0.02)

 

0.78

(0.01)

 

Chile

0.89

-0.58

(0.03)

 

1.03

(0.01)

 

-1.86

(0.03)

 

-0.99

(0.03)

 

-0.26

(0.04)

 

Colombia

0.62

-1.19

(0.04)

 

1.26

(0.02)

 

-2.81

(0.05)

 

-1.61

(0.05)

 

-0.78

(0.05)

 

Czech Republic

0.95

-0.21

(0.02)

 

0.88

(0.02)

 

-1.26

(0.03)

 

-0.57

(0.02)

 

0.04

(0.03)

 

Denmark

0.88

0.52

(0.01)

 

0.76

(0.01)

 

-0.54

(0.02)

 

0.40

(0.02)

 

0.88

(0.01)

 

Estonia

0.93

0.08

(0.02)

 

0.81

(0.01)

 

-0.98

(0.02)

 

-0.20

(0.02)

 

0.44

(0.02)

 

Finland

0.96

0.30

(0.02)

 

0.79

(0.01)

 

-0.78

(0.02)

 

0.06

(0.03)

 

0.69

(0.02)

 

France

0.91

-0.03

(0.02)

 

0.90

(0.01)

 

-1.22

(0.02)

 

-0.30

(0.02)

 

0.34

(0.02)

 

Germany

0.99

-0.10

(0.03)

 

1.04

(0.01)

 

-1.48

(0.03)

 

-0.41

(0.03)

 

0.33

(0.03)

 

Greece

0.93

-0.11

(0.02)

 

0.92

(0.01)

 

-1.30

(0.02)

 

-0.45

(0.03)

 

0.27

(0.03)

 

Hungary

0.90

-0.12

(0.02)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

-1.29

(0.03)

 

-0.47

(0.02)

 

0.23

(0.03)

 

Iceland

0.92

0.55

(0.01)

 

0.81

(0.02)

 

-0.57

(0.03)

 

0.41

(0.02)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

Ireland

0.96

0.13

(0.02)

 

0.87

(0.01)

 

-1.01

(0.03)

 

-0.16

(0.03)

 

0.50

(0.03)

 

Israel

0.81

0.35

(0.03)

 

0.98

(0.02)

 

-0.97

(0.03)

 

0.13

(0.03)

 

0.78

(0.02)

 

Italy

0.85

-0.22

(0.02)

 

0.92

(0.01)

 

-1.37

(0.02)

 

-0.57

(0.02)

 

0.07

(0.03)

 

Japan

0.91

-0.09

(0.01)

 

0.73

(0.01)

 

-1.05

(0.02)

 

-0.31

(0.02)

 

0.19

(0.01)

 

Korea

0.88

0.07

(0.02)

 

0.77

(0.01)

 

-0.97

(0.02)

 

-0.13

(0.02)

 

0.39

(0.02)

 

Latvia

0.89

0.00

(0.01)

 

0.84

(0.01)

 

-1.11

(0.02)

 

-0.29

(0.02)

 

0.39

(0.02)

 

Lithuania

0.90

0.03

(0.01)

 

0.87

(0.01)

 

-1.13

(0.02)

 

-0.28

(0.02)

 

0.46

(0.02)

 

Luxembourg

0.87

0.01

(0.01)

 

1.15

(0.01)

 

-1.56

(0.02)

 

-0.32

(0.02)

 

0.56

(0.01)

 

Mexico

0.66

-1.19

(0.04)

 

1.25

(0.02)

 

-2.76

(0.05)

 

-1.70

(0.04)

 

-0.77

(0.05)

 

Netherlands*

0.91

0.28

(0.02)

 

0.87

(0.02)

 

-0.91

(0.04)

 

0.07

(0.03)

 

0.69

(0.02)

 

New Zealand

0.89

0.16

(0.02)

 

0.97

(0.01)

 

-1.17

(0.02)

 

-0.10

(0.02)

 

0.63

(0.02)

 

Norway

0.91

0.54

(0.02)

 

0.82

(0.01)

 

-0.57

(0.03)

 

0.39

(0.02)

 

0.91

(0.02)

 

Poland

0.90

-0.14

(0.02)

 

0.85

(0.01)

 

-1.16

(0.01)

 

-0.57

(0.03)

 

0.14

(0.04)

 

Portugal*

0.87

-0.39

(0.03)

 

1.16

(0.01)

 

-1.91

(0.03)

 

-0.84

(0.04)

 

0.11

(0.06)

 

Slovak Republic

0.86

-0.21

(0.02)

 

0.92

(0.02)

 

-1.36

(0.04)

 

-0.55

(0.02)

 

0.12

(0.02)

 

Slovenia

0.98

0.07

(0.01)

 

0.80

(0.01)

 

-0.97

(0.01)

 

-0.24

(0.02)

 

0.42

(0.02)

 

Spain

0.92

-0.12

(0.02)

 

1.04

(0.01)

 

-1.54

(0.02)

 

-0.42

(0.02)

 

0.34

(0.02)

 

Sweden

0.86

0.36

(0.03)

 

0.89

(0.01)

 

-0.87

(0.03)

 

0.19

(0.03)

 

0.79

(0.03)

 

Switzerland

0.89

-0.01

(0.03)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

-1.25

(0.04)

 

-0.29

(0.03)

 

0.39

(0.04)

 

Turkey

0.73

-1.15

(0.04)

 

1.18

(0.03)

 

-2.59

(0.03)

 

-1.65

(0.03)

 

-0.82

(0.05)

 

United Kingdom

0.85

0.27

(0.03)

 

0.91

(0.01)

 

-0.95

(0.03)

 

0.00

(0.03)

 

0.67

(0.03)

 

United States*

0.86

0.11

(0.04)

 

1.02

(0.02)

 

-1.28

(0.05)

 

-0.17

(0.05)

 

0.57

(0.04)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OECD average

 

-0.03

(0.00)

 

0.93

(0.00)

 

-1.25

(0.00)

 

-0.33

(0.00)

 

0.35

(0.00)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. World Bank Estimate, year 2015. Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038609

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Table II.B1.2.1 [2/4]. Students’ socio-economic status

 

Coverage Index 3: Coverage of 15-year-old population

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

All students

Variability in the index

Bottom quarter

Second quarter

Third quarter

Mean index

S.E.

s

S.D.

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Mean index

S.E.

s

Partners

Albania

0.46

-0.87

(0.03)

 

0.97

(0.01)

 

-2.07

(0.02)

 

-1.26

(0.03)

 

-0.57

(0.03)

 

Argentina

0.81

-0.95

(0.03)

 

1.19

(0.01)

 

-2.50

(0.03)

 

-1.38

(0.04)

 

-0.49

(0.04)

 

Baku (Azerbaijan)

0.46

-0.56

(0.03)

 

0.92

(0.01)

 

-1.69

(0.02)

 

-0.93

(0.03)

 

-0.23

(0.03)

 

Belarus

0.88

-0.13

(0.02)

 

0.77

(0.01)

 

-1.14

(0.02)

 

-0.42

(0.02)

 

0.23

(0.02)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0.82

-0.56

(0.02)

 

0.82

(0.01)

 

-1.53

(0.02)

 

-0.91

(0.02)

 

-0.36

(0.03)

 

Brazil

0.56

-1.10

(0.03)

 

1.23

(0.01)

 

-2.72

(0.04)

 

-1.50

(0.03)

 

-0.65

(0.03)

 

Brunei Darussalam

0.97

-0.26

(0.01)

 

0.96

(0.01)

 

-1.50

(0.02)

 

-0.60

(0.01)

 

0.08

(0.01)

 

B-S-J-Z (China)

0.81

-0.67

(0.03)

 

1.07

(0.01)

 

-1.98

(0.03)

 

-1.14

(0.04)

 

-0.30

(0.05)

 

Bulgaria

0.72

-0.26

(0.04)

 

1.02

(0.03)

 

-1.57

(0.06)

 

-0.60

(0.04)

 

0.18

(0.04)

 

Costa Rica

0.63

-0.96

(0.04)

 

1.32

(0.02)

 

-2.71

(0.04)

 

-1.44

(0.05)

 

-0.42

(0.06)

 

Croatia

0.89

-0.23

(0.01)

 

0.78

(0.01)

 

-1.17

(0.01)

 

-0.57

(0.01)

 

0.00

(0.02)

 

Cyprus

0.92

0.30

(0.01)

 

0.92

(0.01)

 

-0.94

(0.02)

 

0.04

(0.02)

 

0.73

(0.01)

 

Dominican Republic

0.73

-1.06

(0.04)

 

1.12

(0.02)

 

-2.48

(0.04)

 

-1.45

(0.03)

 

-0.72

(0.04)

 

Georgia

0.83

-0.41

(0.02)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

-1.59

(0.02)

 

-0.75

(0.02)

 

-0.08

(0.03)

 

Hong Kong (China)*

0.98

-0.51

(0.03)

 

1.04

(0.02)

 

-1.81

(0.03)

 

-0.90

(0.03)

 

-0.18

(0.04)

 

Indonesia

0.85

-1.57

(0.05)

 

1.10

(0.02)

 

-2.94

(0.04)

 

-1.99

(0.06)

 

-1.24

(0.06)

 

Jordan

0.57

-0.66

(0.03)

 

1.11

(0.02)

 

-2.13

(0.04)

 

-1.03

(0.03)

 

-0.18

(0.04)

 

Kazakhstan

0.92

-0.44

(0.02)

 

0.85

(0.01)

 

-1.53

(0.02)

 

-0.77

(0.02)

 

-0.11

(0.02)

 

Kosovo

0.84

-0.46

(0.02)

 

0.88

(0.01)

 

-1.58

(0.02)

 

-0.78

(0.02)

 

-0.17

(0.02)

 

Lebanon

0.87

-0.57

(0.03)

 

1.15

(0.01)

 

-2.11

(0.04)

 

-0.90

(0.04)

 

-0.10

(0.03)

 

Macao (China)

0.88

-0.52

(0.01)

 

0.91

(0.01)

 

-1.65

(0.02)

 

-0.86

(0.02)

 

-0.23

(0.02)

 

Malaysia

0.72

-0.77

(0.03)

 

1.05

(0.02)

 

-2.03

(0.03)

 

-1.23

(0.03)

 

-0.46

(0.05)

 

Malta

0.97

0.06

(0.01)

 

0.96

(0.01)

 

-1.19

(0.02)

 

-0.29

(0.02)

 

0.47

(0.02)

 

Moldova

0.95

-0.59

(0.02)

 

0.93

(0.01)

 

-1.74

(0.02)

 

-0.97

(0.02)

 

-0.30

(0.03)

 

Montenegro

0.95

-0.18

(0.01)

 

0.87

(0.01)

 

-1.29

(0.02)

 

-0.50

(0.01)

 

0.15

(0.01)

 

Morocco

0.64

-1.89

(0.06)

 

1.42

(0.02)

 

-3.62

(0.05)

 

-2.51

(0.06)

 

-1.43

(0.07)

 

North Macedonia

0.95

-0.32

(0.01)

 

0.89

(0.01)

 

-1.47

(0.02)

 

-0.65

(0.01)

 

0.02

(0.01)

 

Panama

0.53

-1.09

(0.04)

 

1.35

(0.02)

 

-2.86

(0.04)

 

-1.56

(0.05)

 

-0.55

(0.06)

 

Peru

0.73

-1.12

(0.04)

 

1.17

(0.02)

 

-2.60

(0.04)

 

-1.52

(0.04)

 

-0.78

(0.05)

 

Philippines

0.68

-1.42

(0.04)

 

1.13

(0.02)

 

-2.86

(0.05)

 

-1.77

(0.04)

 

-1.08

(0.04)

 

Qatar

0.92

0.28

(0.01)

 

0.84

(0.01)

 

-0.86

(0.01)

 

0.18

(0.01)

 

0.62

(0.01)

 

Romania

0.71

-0.47

(0.05)

 

0.97

(0.02)

 

-1.64

(0.05)

 

-0.85

(0.04)

 

-0.20

(0.06)

 

Russia

0.94

0.13

(0.02)

 

0.74

(0.01)

 

-0.85

(0.02)

 

-0.08

(0.03)

 

0.46

(0.02)

 

Saudi Arabia

0.85

-0.70

(0.04)

 

1.19

(0.02)

 

-2.29

(0.04)

 

-1.11

(0.06)

 

-0.17

(0.06)

 

Serbia

0.88

-0.24

(0.02)

 

0.83

(0.01)

 

-1.28

(0.02)

 

-0.57

(0.02)

 

0.07

(0.02)

 

Singapore

0.95

0.17

(0.01)

 

0.92

(0.01)

 

-1.10

(0.02)

 

-0.06

(0.02)

 

0.62

(0.02)

 

Chinese Taipei

0.92

-0.32

(0.02)

 

0.92

(0.01)

 

-1.50

(0.02)

 

-0.64

(0.03)

 

0.05

(0.03)

 

Thailand

0.72

-1.30

(0.04)

 

1.16

(0.02)

 

-2.70

(0.03)

 

-1.77

(0.04)

 

-1.01

(0.06)

 

Ukraine

0.87

-0.20

(0.02)

 

0.77

(0.01)

 

-1.21

(0.03)

 

-0.48

(0.03)

 

0.11

(0.03)

 

United Arab Emirates

0.92

0.28

(0.02)

 

0.88

(0.01)

 

-0.92

(0.02)

 

0.12

(0.02)

 

0.66

(0.02)

 

Uruguay

0.77

-0.99

(0.04)

 

1.16

(0.02)

 

-2.43

(0.04)

 

-1.43

(0.04)

 

-0.66

(0.05)

 

Viet Nam

0.70

-1.62

(0.05)

 

1.08

(0.03)

 

-2.89

(0.06)

 

-2.05

(0.04)

 

-1.38

(0.06)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. World Bank Estimate, year 2015. Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038609

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Table II.B1.2.1 [3/4]. Students’ socio-economic status

 

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

Gini Index1

Fourth quarter

Top - Bottom quarter

5th percentile

95th percentile

95th - 5th percentile

Mean index

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

1.36

(0.01)

 

2.27

(0.02)

 

-1.28

(0.04)

 

1.55

(0.01)

 

2.83

(0.04)

.

 

Austria

1.14

(0.02)

 

2.23

(0.03)

 

-1.37

(0.04)

 

1.40

(0.02)

 

2.77

(0.05)

.

30.5

Belgium

1.18

(0.01)

 

2.35

(0.02)

 

-1.49

(0.03)

 

1.39

(0.01)

 

2.88

(0.03)

.

27.7

Canada

1.37

(0.01)

 

2.05

(0.02)

 

-1.01

(0.02)

 

1.55

(0.01)

 

2.56

(0.02)

.

 

Chile

0.78

(0.03)

 

2.64

(0.03)

 

-2.16

(0.04)

 

1.11

(0.02)

 

3.27

(0.05)

.

47.7

Colombia

0.45

(0.05)

 

3.27

(0.06)

 

-3.31

(0.05)

 

0.88

(0.05)

 

4.19

(0.07)

.

51.1

Czech Republic

0.95

(0.02)

 

2.21

(0.03)

 

-1.51

(0.05)

 

1.21

(0.02)

 

2.72

(0.05)

.

25.9

Denmark

1.34

(0.01)

 

1.88

(0.02)

 

-0.92

(0.03)

 

1.50

(0.02)

 

2.41

(0.03)

.

28.2

Estonia

1.07

(0.02)

 

2.06

(0.02)

 

-1.24

(0.02)

 

1.26

(0.02)

 

2.50

(0.03)

.

32.7

Finland

1.21

(0.02)

 

1.99

(0.02)

 

-1.01

(0.02)

 

1.38

(0.02)

 

2.39

(0.03)

.

27.1

France

1.04

(0.02)

 

2.26

(0.02)

 

-1.56

(0.04)

 

1.25

(0.02)

 

2.82

(0.03)

.

32.7

Germany

1.17

(0.02)

 

2.65

(0.04)

 

-1.84

(0.07)

 

1.43

(0.02)

 

3.28

(0.07)

.

31.7

Greece

1.05

(0.02)

 

2.35

(0.02)

 

-1.59

(0.04)

 

1.24

(0.02)

 

2.83

(0.04)

.

36

Hungary

1.06

(0.02)

 

2.36

(0.03)

 

-1.66

(0.06)

 

1.27

(0.02)

 

2.93

(0.06)

.

30.4

Iceland

1.42

(0.01)

 

1.99

(0.03)

 

-0.90

(0.05)

 

1.57

(0.03)

 

2.47

(0.07)

.

 

Ireland

1.19

(0.02)

 

2.20

(0.03)

 

-1.30

(0.03)

 

1.41

(0.02)

 

2.71

(0.03)

.

31.8

Israel

1.44

(0.03)

 

2.42

(0.04)

 

-1.32

(0.04)

 

1.69

(0.05)

 

3.01

(0.06)

.

 

Italy

0.99

(0.03)

 

2.36

(0.03)

 

-1.62

(0.03)

 

1.28

(0.03)

 

2.91

(0.03)

.

35.4

Japan

0.81

(0.01)

 

1.86

(0.03)

 

-1.30

(0.02)

 

1.02

(0.01)

 

2.32

(0.03)

.

 

Korea

1.00

(0.02)

 

1.97

(0.02)

 

-1.28

(0.02)

 

1.22

(0.02)

 

2.49

(0.03)

.

 

Latvia

1.01

(0.01)

 

2.12

(0.02)

 

-1.33

(0.02)

 

1.20

(0.01)

 

2.53

(0.03)

.

34.2

Lithuania

1.06

(0.01)

 

2.18

(0.02)

 

-1.35

(0.02)

 

1.24

(0.01)

 

2.59

(0.02)

.

37.4

Luxembourg

1.37

(0.01)

 

2.93

(0.03)

 

-2.06

(0.04)

 

1.60

(0.01)

 

3.65

(0.04)

.

33.8

Mexico

0.48

(0.05)

 

3.23

(0.06)

 

-3.16

(0.05)

 

0.89

(0.04)

 

4.05

(0.07)

.

 

Netherlands*

1.26

(0.02)

 

2.17

(0.04)

 

-1.22

(0.06)

 

1.44

(0.02)

 

2.65

(0.06)

.

28.2

New Zealand

1.29

(0.01)

 

2.46

(0.02)

 

-1.58

(0.03)

 

1.49

(0.01)

 

3.07

(0.03)

.

 

Norway

1.45

(0.02)

 

2.02

(0.03)

 

-0.85

(0.05)

 

1.63

(0.01)

 

2.48

(0.05)

.

27.5

Poland

1.02

(0.02)

 

2.17

(0.02)

 

-1.33

(0.01)

 

1.25

(0.02)

 

2.58

(0.02)

.

31.8

Portugal*

1.09

(0.02)

 

3.00

(0.03)

 

-2.27

(0.03)

 

1.31

(0.01)

 

3.57

(0.03)

.

35.5

Slovak Republic

0.95

(0.02)

 

2.31

(0.04)

 

-1.60

(0.09)

 

1.18

(0.02)

 

2.78

(0.09)

.

26.5

Slovenia

1.07

(0.01)

 

2.04

(0.02)

 

-1.16

(0.01)

 

1.26

(0.02)

 

2.42

(0.02)

.

25.4

Spain

1.12

(0.01)

 

2.66

(0.02)

 

-1.95

(0.03)

 

1.37

(0.01)

 

3.32

(0.03)

.

36.2

Sweden

1.33

(0.02)

 

2.20

(0.03)

 

-1.21

(0.04)

 

1.49

(0.03)

 

2.69

(0.05)

.

29.2

Switzerland

1.10

(0.02)

 

2.34

(0.03)

 

-1.68

(0.04)

 

1.31

(0.02)

 

2.99

(0.03)

.

32.3

Turkey

0.47

(0.08)

 

3.06

(0.07)

 

-2.89

(0.03)

 

0.92

(0.07)

 

3.81

(0.07)

.

42.9

United Kingdom

1.37

(0.02)

 

2.31

(0.03)

 

-1.27

(0.03)

 

1.60

(0.02)

 

2.87

(0.03)

.

33.2

United States*

1.31

(0.03)

 

2.59

(0.05)

 

-1.69

(0.07)

 

1.56

(0.04)

 

3.25

(0.08)

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OECD average

1.10

(0.00)

 

2.36

(0.01)

 

-1.57

(0.01)

 

1.33

(0.00)

 

2.91

(0.01)

 

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. World Bank Estimate, year 2015. Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038609

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Table II.B1.2.1 [4/4]. Students’ socio-economic status

 

Students’ socio-economic status measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)

Gini Index1

Fourth quarter

Top - Bottom quarter

5th percentile

95th percentile

95th - 5th percentile

Mean index

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Value

S.E.

s

Dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Albania

0.42

(0.03)

 

2.49

(0.03)

 

-2.34

(0.03)

 

0.76

(0.03)

 

3.10

(0.04)

.

 

Argentina

0.56

(0.03)

 

3.07

(0.04)

 

-2.90

(0.04)

 

0.89

(0.02)

 

3.78

(0.04)

.

 

Baku (Azerbaijan)

0.63

(0.03)

 

2.32

(0.02)

 

-1.93

(0.02)

 

0.89

(0.02)

 

2.82

(0.03)

.

 

Belarus

0.82

(0.02)

 

1.96

(0.02)

 

-1.37

(0.03)

 

0.98

(0.02)

 

2.35

(0.03)

.

25.6

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0.57

(0.03)

 

2.10

(0.03)

 

-1.78

(0.03)

 

0.88

(0.03)

 

2.66

(0.04)

.

 

Brazil

0.46

(0.03)

 

3.18

(0.04)

 

-3.19

(0.05)

 

0.83

(0.04)

 

4.03

(0.06)

.

51.3

Brunei Darussalam

0.96

(0.01)

 

2.47

(0.02)

 

-1.84

(0.02)

 

1.26

(0.01)

 

3.09

(0.02)

.

 

B-S-J-Z (China)

0.77

(0.03)

 

2.75

(0.03)

 

-2.27

(0.04)

 

1.05

(0.02)

 

3.32

(0.04)

.

 

Bulgaria

0.97

(0.02)

 

2.54

(0.06)

 

-1.97

(0.09)

 

1.18

(0.02)

 

3.14

(0.09)

.

 

Costa Rica

0.72

(0.04)

 

3.43

(0.05)

 

-3.06

(0.04)

 

1.02

(0.05)

 

4.08

(0.06)

.

48.4

Croatia

0.81

(0.01)

 

1.98

(0.02)

 

-1.35

(0.02)

 

1.04

(0.02)

 

2.39

(0.02)

.

31.1

Cyprus

1.37

(0.01)

 

2.31

(0.02)

 

-1.26

(0.04)

 

1.57

(0.02)

 

2.83

(0.04)

.

34

Dominican Republic

0.39

(0.05)

 

2.87

(0.05)

 

-2.97

(0.07)

 

0.76

(0.05)

 

3.72

(0.07)

.

45.2

Georgia

0.79

(0.02)

 

2.37

(0.03)

 

-1.87

(0.02)

 

1.00

(0.02)

 

2.86

(0.03)

.

36.5

Hong Kong (China)*

0.85

(0.05)

 

2.66

(0.04)

 

-2.16

(0.03)

 

1.20

(0.03)

 

3.35

(0.04)

.

 

Indonesia

-0.10

(0.06)

 

2.84

(0.06)

 

-3.27

(0.04)

 

0.35

(0.06)

 

3.62

(0.06)

.

39.7

Jordan

0.69

(0.03)

 

2.82

(0.04)

 

-2.55

(0.05)

 

0.96

(0.04)

 

3.51

(0.06)

.

 

Kazakhstan

0.65

(0.02)

 

2.18

(0.02)

 

-1.79

(0.02)

 

0.87

(0.01)

 

2.66

(0.02)

.

26.8

Kosovo

0.68

(0.02)

 

2.26

(0.03)

 

-1.92

(0.03)

 

0.96

(0.03)

 

2.88

(0.05)

.

 

Lebanon

0.83

(0.03)

 

2.94

(0.04)

 

-2.62

(0.06)

 

1.15

(0.04)

 

3.78

(0.07)

.

 

Macao (China)

0.67

(0.02)

 

2.32

(0.02)

 

-1.92

(0.04)

 

0.96

(0.02)

 

2.88

(0.05)

.

 

Malaysia

0.66

(0.04)

 

2.69

(0.04)

 

-2.33

(0.05)

 

1.00

(0.03)

 

3.33

(0.06)

.

41

Malta

1.26

(0.01)

 

2.45

(0.03)

 

-1.48

(0.02)

 

1.47

(0.02)

 

2.95

(0.03)

.

29.4

Moldova

0.63

(0.03)

 

2.38

(0.03)

 

-2.04

(0.03)

 

0.89

(0.02)

 

2.93

(0.04)

.

27

Montenegro

0.92

(0.01)

 

2.21

(0.02)

 

-1.56

(0.02)

 

1.14

(0.02)

 

2.70

(0.03)

.

 

Morocco

0.01

(0.08)

 

3.63

(0.06)

 

-3.94

(0.04)

 

0.57

(0.07)

 

4.51

(0.07)

.

 

North Macedonia

0.81

(0.01)

 

2.28

(0.02)

 

-1.80

(0.03)

 

1.05

(0.02)

 

2.85

(0.04)

.

35.6

Panama

0.60

(0.05)

 

3.46

(0.05)

 

-3.27

(0.06)

 

0.92

(0.05)

 

4.19

(0.07)

.

50.8

Peru

0.41

(0.05)

 

3.01

(0.05)

 

-3.05

(0.05)

 

0.84

(0.04)

 

3.89

(0.06)

.

43.4

Philippines

0.03

(0.06)

 

2.88

(0.06)

 

-3.29

(0.05)

 

0.48

(0.06)

 

3.76

(0.07)

.

40.1

Qatar

1.19

(0.01)

 

2.05

(0.02)

 

-1.32

(0.02)

 

1.39

(0.01)

 

2.70

(0.03)

.

 

Romania

0.83

(0.06)

 

2.47

(0.05)

 

-1.99

(0.07)

 

1.12

(0.04)

 

3.11

(0.07)

.

35.9

Russia

1.00

(0.02)

 

1.85

(0.02)

 

-1.07

(0.03)

 

1.17

(0.02)

 

2.24

(0.03)

.

37.7

Saudi Arabia

0.76

(0.03)

 

3.05

(0.04)

 

-2.72

(0.05)

 

1.01

(0.03)

 

3.73

(0.05)

.

 

Serbia

0.83

(0.02)

 

2.11

(0.02)

 

-1.49

(0.03)

 

1.04

(0.01)

 

2.53

(0.03)

.

28.5

Singapore

1.22

(0.01)

 

2.31

(0.02)

 

-1.44

(0.03)

 

1.40

(0.02)

 

2.84

(0.04)

.

 

Chinese Taipei

0.83

(0.02)

 

2.34

(0.02)

 

-1.81

(0.03)

 

1.09

(0.02)

 

2.90

(0.03)

.

 

Thailand

0.29

(0.07)

 

2.99

(0.06)

 

-3.02

(0.04)

 

0.76

(0.06)

 

3.78

(0.06)

.

36

Ukraine

0.76

(0.02)

 

1.98

(0.02)

 

-1.45

(0.05)

 

0.95

(0.02)

 

2.40

(0.05)

.

25.5

United Arab Emirates

1.25

(0.01)

 

2.18

(0.02)

 

-1.32

(0.02)

 

1.46

(0.01)

 

2.78

(0.03)

.

 

Uruguay

0.56

(0.06)

 

2.99

(0.05)

 

-2.79

(0.05)

 

0.99

(0.06)

 

3.78

(0.07)

.

40.2

Viet Nam

-0.16

(0.08)

 

2.73

(0.08)

 

-3.24

(0.08)

 

0.39

(0.08)

 

3.63

(0.10)

.

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. World Bank Estimate, year 2015. Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038609

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Table II.B1.3.1 [1/2]. Proportion of academically resilient students
Based on students’ reports

 

Reading performance, by national quarter of ESCS1

Percentage of disadvantaged students2 who are academically resilient3

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

460

(2.3)

 

490

(2.4)

 

519

(2.7)

 

549

(2.3)

 

89

(2.8)

 

13.1

(0.7)

 

Austria

440

(3.7)

 

475

(3.3)

 

496

(3.5)

 

533

(3.4)

 

93

(5.0)

 

10.0

(1.0)

 

Belgium

440

(2.8)

 

476

(3.2)

 

512

(3.1)

 

550

(2.2)

 

109

(3.1)

 

9.0

(0.7)

 

Canada

485

(2.3)

 

512

(2.3)

 

539

(2.6)

 

553

(2.5)

 

68

(3.3)

 

13.9

(0.8)

 

Chile

415

(3.0)

 

443

(3.4)

 

455

(3.2)

 

502

(3.4)

 

87

(4.3)

 

11.2

(1.1)

 

Colombia

373

(3.5)

 

398

(4.2)

 

419

(4.0)

 

459

(5.2)

 

86

(6.5)

 

10.0

(1.0)

 

Czech Republic

439

(4.3)

 

481

(3.2)

 

498

(3.0)

 

544

(3.2)

 

105

(5.4)

 

8.9

(1.1)

 

Denmark

462

(2.7)

 

493

(2.8)

 

514

(2.8)

 

540

(2.8)

 

78

(3.7)

 

12.2

(1.1)

 

Estonia

497

(3.7)

 

509

(3.1)

 

532

(2.5)

 

558

(2.9)

 

61

(4.6)

 

15.6

(1.7)

 

Finland

483

(3.0)

 

509

(2.6)

 

533

(3.2)

 

562

(3.7)

 

79

(4.7)

 

12.6

(1.1)

 

France

443

(2.7)

 

474

(3.4)

 

509

(3.3)

 

550

(3.9)

 

107

(5.0)

 

9.5

(1.0)

 

Germany

450

(4.3)

 

492

(3.5)

 

518

(4.0)

 

564

(4.0)

 

113

(5.4)

 

10.4

(1.2)

 

Greece

417

(4.1)

 

444

(3.9)

 

468

(4.0)

 

502

(4.2)

 

84

(5.2)

 

11.8

(1.1)

 

Hungary

420

(3.4)

 

463

(3.2)

 

489

(3.2)

 

534

(4.0)

 

113

(5.4)

 

7.7

(0.9)

 

Iceland

437

(3.6)

 

463

(4.0)

 

495

(3.4)

 

510

(4.0)

 

72

(5.7)

 

12.8

(1.4)

 

Ireland

482

(3.0)

 

511

(3.0)

 

527

(2.8)

 

557

(3.0)

 

75

(4.2)

 

13.1

(1.1)

 

Israel

407

(4.2)

 

455

(4.8)

 

507

(4.1)

 

529

(4.1)

 

121

(5.4)

 

8.0

(0.8)

 

Italy

436

(3.5)

 

474

(2.8)

 

487

(3.2)

 

511

(3.9)

 

75

(5.1)

 

12.4

(1.1)

 

Japan

465

(4.2)

 

499

(3.2)

 

517

(3.4)

 

537

(3.7)

 

72

(5.6)

 

11.7

(1.1)

 

Korea

477

(3.9)

 

503

(3.6)

 

525

(3.8)

 

552

(4.3)

 

75

(5.7)

 

13.5

(1.0)

 

Latvia

447

(2.8)

 

470

(2.9)

 

490

(3.1)

 

512

(3.0)

 

65

(3.9)

 

12.2

(1.1)

 

Lithuania

432

(2.6)

 

465

(2.8)

 

488

(2.8)

 

522

(2.3)

 

89

(3.5)

 

11.2

(0.9)

 

Luxembourg

415

(2.3)

 

445

(2.4)

 

488

(2.7)

 

537

(3.0)

 

122

(4.1)

 

7.6

(0.8)

 

Mexico

382

(2.8)

 

413

(3.3)

 

426

(4.0)

 

464

(4.9)

 

82

(5.7)

 

10.6

(1.2)

 

Netherlands*

448

(4.8)

 

470

(4.2)

 

495

(3.6)

 

536

(4.0)

 

88

(5.9)

 

12.6

(1.3)

 

New Zealand

462

(3.0)

 

490

(2.8)

 

525

(3.2)

 

558

(3.3)

 

96

(4.4)

 

11.7

(1.0)

 

Norway

459

(3.5)

 

496

(3.1)

 

520

(2.8)

 

532

(3.4)

 

73

(4.6)

 

12.3

(1.0)

 

Poland

469

(3.1)

 

504

(3.1)

 

518

(3.8)

 

560

(4.6)

 

90

(5.7)

 

10.8

(1.0)

 

Portugal*

448

(4.1)

 

480

(3.4)

 

501

(3.2)

 

543

(3.2)

 

95

(4.7)

 

10.0

(1.3)

 

Slovak Republic

404

(3.9)

 

449

(3.1)

 

468

(3.0)

 

511

(3.9)

 

106

(5.7)

 

9.1

(0.9)

 

Slovenia

462

(2.6)

 

476

(2.7)

 

506

(2.9)

 

541

(3.0)

 

80

(3.9)

 

11.7

(1.0)

 

Spain

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Sweden

460

(4.3)

 

501

(3.5)

 

526

(3.6)

 

549

(4.1)

 

89

(5.9)

 

11.4

(1.1)

 

Switzerland

435

(3.8)

 

469

(3.6)

 

499

(3.2)

 

539

(5.4)

 

104

(6.6)

 

9.3

(1.1)

 

Turkey

437

(3.8)

 

452

(3.1)

 

461

(3.0)

 

513

(4.0)

 

76

(6.0)

 

14.5

(1.4)

 

United Kingdom

471

(3.1)

 

493

(2.9)

 

516

(2.8)

 

550

(3.9)

 

80

(4.7)

 

14.0

(1.1)

 

United States*

460

(4.6)

 

488

(4.0)

 

517

(3.6)

 

558

(4.7)

 

99

(6.3)

 

10.3

(1.1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OECD average-36a

445

(0.6)

 

476

(0.5)

 

500

(0.5)

 

534

(0.6)

 

89

(0.8)

 

11.3

(0.2)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

2. A socio-economically disadvantaged student is a student in the bottom quarter of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) in his or her own country/economy.

3. Academically resilient students are disadvantaged students who scored in the top quarter of performance in reading amongst students in their own country.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

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Table II.B1.3.1 [2/2]. Proportion of academically resilient students
Based on students’ reports

 

Reading performance, by national quarter of ESCS1

Percentage of disadvantaged students2 who are academically resilient3

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Mean score

S.E.

s

Score dif.

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

Partners

Albania

377

(2.5)

 

402

(2.3)

 

406

(2.7)

 

438

(3.9)

 

61

(4.7)

 

12.3

(1.1)

 

Argentina

353

(3.6)

 

387

(3.5)

 

416

(3.4)

 

455

(4.1)

 

102

(5.4)

 

8.5

(0.9)

 

Baku (Azerbaijan)

371

(2.2)

 

385

(2.1)

 

393

(2.7)

 

412

(5.9)

 

41

(5.9)

 

16.5

(1.2)

 

Belarus

423

(3.1)

 

458

(3.6)

 

489

(2.5)

 

525

(3.5)

 

102

(4.7)

 

8.9

(1.0)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

373

(2.7)

 

402

(3.8)

 

408

(3.1)

 

431

(4.4)

 

58

(4.6)

 

13.1

(1.0)

 

Brazil

373

(2.3)

 

397

(2.8)

 

419

(2.6)

 

470

(3.8)

 

97

(4.4)

 

9.5

(0.6)

 

Brunei Darussalam

364

(1.8)

 

390

(1.9)

 

414

(2.3)

 

467

(2.0)

 

103

(2.7)

 

9.5

(0.8)

 

B-S-J-Z (China)

519

(3.7)

 

545

(2.7)

 

558

(2.9)

 

600

(4.0)

 

82

(5.4)

 

11.7

(1.2)

 

Bulgaria

369

(4.8)

 

403

(4.9)

 

438

(4.5)

 

475

(5.0)

 

106

(6.2)

 

6.5

(0.9)

 

Costa Rica

392

(2.6)

 

410

(2.8)

 

429

(4.5)

 

476

(4.6)

 

83

(4.9)

 

10.0

(0.9)

 

Croatia

455

(3.2)

 

463

(3.3)

 

480

(3.1)

 

518

(3.5)

 

63

(3.9)

 

15.2

(1.1)

 

Cyprus

389

(2.9)

 

416

(2.5)

 

439

(2.5)

 

459

(2.8)

 

69

(4.3)

 

12.8

(1.0)

 

Dominican Republic

319

(2.5)

 

333

(3.1)

 

336

(3.4)

 

383

(5.7)

 

65

(6.3)

 

12.3

(1.0)

 

Georgia

350

(2.9)

 

367

(3.4)

 

386

(2.6)

 

418

(3.8)

 

68

(4.5)

 

12.3

(1.0)

 

Hong Kong (China)*

497

(3.7)

 

523

(3.4)

 

529

(3.4)

 

555

(4.7)

 

59

(6.0)

 

16.5

(1.1)

 

Indonesia

350

(3.1)

 

362

(2.9)

 

371

(3.2)

 

402

(5.9)

 

52

(6.9)

 

13.7

(1.5)

 

Jordan

390

(4.3)

 

411

(3.3)

 

427

(3.3)

 

453

(4.1)

 

64

(5.6)

 

12.4

(1.4)

 

Kazakhstan

368

(1.8)

 

380

(1.6)

 

392

(1.8)

 

408

(2.8)

 

40

(3.1)

 

16.0

(0.8)

 

Kosovo

339

(2.2)

 

347

(2.1)

 

350

(2.1)

 

378

(2.6)

 

40

(3.5)

 

17.3

(1.4)

 

Lebanon

307

(4.1)

 

341

(4.5)

 

362

(5.9)

 

410

(7.5)

 

103

(7.7)

 

9.1

(1.2)

 

Macao (China)

511

(2.5)

 

524

(3.0)

 

524

(3.2)

 

542

(3.1)

 

31

(4.1)

 

19.8

(1.3)

 

Malaysia

377

(3.0)

 

401

(3.0)

 

417

(3.1)

 

466

(4.8)

 

89

(5.6)

 

9.8

(1.1)

 

Malta

406

(3.4)

 

442

(3.5)

 

460

(3.6)

 

491

(3.6)

 

85

(4.7)

 

13.3

(1.2)

 

Moldova

374

(2.9)

 

414

(3.2)

 

433

(3.0)

 

476

(4.7)

 

102

(5.3)

 

8.1

(0.9)

 

Montenegro

396

(2.1)

 

411

(1.9)

 

428

(2.3)

 

451

(2.1)

 

55

(3.0)

 

14.3

(1.0)

 

Morocco

340

(3.1)

 

351

(3.3)

 

357

(3.6)

 

391

(4.1)

 

51

(4.5)

 

13.2

(1.4)

 

North Macedonia

359

(2.8)

 

382

(2.8)

 

397

(3.0)

 

439

(2.7)

 

80

(4.0)

 

13.1

(1.2)

 

Panama

337

(3.4)

 

364

(3.1)

 

379

(3.2)

 

432

(5.5)

 

95

(6.5)

 

9.2

(1.1)

 

Peru

349

(2.9)

 

385

(3.0)

 

410

(3.2)

 

458

(4.3)

 

110

(4.9)

 

6.2

(0.8)

 

Philippines

301

(2.1)

 

330

(2.4)

 

339

(3.1)

 

389

(6.3)

 

88

(6.4)

 

7.7

(0.8)

 

Qatar

360

(1.4)

 

395

(1.8)

 

429

(1.7)

 

453

(1.8)

 

93

(2.3)

 

9.5

(0.5)

 

Romania

375

(5.1)

 

417

(4.7)

 

437

(4.8)

 

484

(5.7)

 

109

(7.0)

 

8.8

(1.2)

 

Russia

443

(4.4)

 

469

(3.1)

 

493

(3.2)

 

510

(4.2)

 

67

(5.4)

 

12.6

(1.0)

 

Saudi Arabia

362

(4.4)

 

392

(3.5)

 

409

(2.8)

 

437

(4.0)

 

74

(6.2)

 

10.7

(1.2)

 

Serbia

407

(4.2)

 

429

(4.1)

 

445

(3.7)

 

480

(4.6)

 

73

(5.8)

 

13.2

(1.3)

 

Singapore

495

(2.7)

 

535

(2.8)

 

570

(2.5)

 

599

(3.4)

 

104

(3.8)

 

9.7

(0.7)

 

Chinese Taipei

461

(2.9)

 

492

(2.8)

 

510

(3.6)

 

550

(4.3)

 

89

(4.8)

 

11.8

(0.9)

 

Thailand

369

(2.4)

 

377

(2.8)

 

388

(3.5)

 

438

(5.6)

 

69

(6.0)

 

12.5

(1.1)

 

Ukraine

422

(4.6)

 

456

(3.6)

 

476

(3.8)

 

511

(3.7)

 

90

(5.7)

 

11.8

(1.2)

 

United Arab Emirates

377

(1.6)

 

414

(2.2)

 

461

(2.3)

 

482

(4.0)

 

105

(4.1)

 

7.2

(0.6)

 

Uruguay

379

(3.6)

 

414

(3.2)

 

439

(3.9)

 

478

(4.1)

 

99

(5.7)

 

9.5

(1.1)

 

Viet Nam

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

0.0

c

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

2. A socio-economically disadvantaged student is a student in the bottom quarter of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) in his or her own country/economy.

3. Academically resilient students are disadvantaged students who scored in the top quarter of performance in reading amongst students in their own country.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

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Table II.B1.3.4 [1/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Students are satisfied with their lives1

All students

By national quarter of ESCS2

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Austria

66.3

(1.4)

 

66.4

(1.4)

 

70.6

(1.4)

 

68.5

(1.3)

 

72.8

(1.3)

 

6.4

(1.9)

 

Belgium

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Canada

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Chile

57.6

(1.4)

 

57.6

(1.4)

 

63.0

(1.4)

 

67.1

(1.3)

 

68.8

(1.3)

 

11.3

(1.9)

 

Colombia

75.6

(1.4)

 

75.6

(1.4)

 

72.6

(1.1)

 

71.5

(1.3)

 

72.4

(1.2)

 

-3.2

(2.0)

 

Czech Republic

59.6

(2.0)

 

59.7

(2.0)

 

62.1

(1.5)

 

67.4

(1.3)

 

69.5

(1.3)

 

9.9

(2.3)

 

Denmark

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Estonia

65.1

(1.4)

 

65.1

(1.4)

 

64.8

(1.6)

 

72.3

(1.4)

 

77.3

(1.3)

 

12.2

(1.9)

 

Finland

71.9

(1.3)

 

72.0

(1.3)

 

75.5

(1.4)

 

80.1

(1.0)

 

82.8

(1.0)

 

10.8

(1.7)

 

France

62.9

(1.5)

 

62.9

(1.5)

 

67.6

(1.4)

 

72.3

(1.2)

 

75.6

(1.3)

 

12.7

(2.2)

 

Germany

62.8

(1.4)

 

62.8

(1.4)

 

68.4

(1.7)

 

65.2

(1.5)

 

69.9

(1.5)

 

7.1

(2.2)

 

Greece

63.9

(1.5)

 

63.8

(1.5)

 

67.2

(1.2)

 

64.9

(1.3)

 

65.9

(1.4)

 

2.1

(2.0)

 

Hungary

64.1

(1.5)

 

64.2

(1.5)

 

66.5

(1.5)

 

69.0

(1.4)

 

71.7

(1.5)

 

7.5

(2.1)

 

Iceland

67.8

(1.9)

 

67.8

(1.9)

 

68.6

(1.7)

 

76.3

(1.6)

 

77.1

(1.4)

 

9.4

(2.4)

 

Ireland

57.8

(1.4)

 

57.7

(1.4)

 

61.2

(1.4)

 

62.8

(1.4)

 

63.6

(1.5)

 

5.9

(2.0)

 

Israel

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Italy

61.7

(1.5)

 

61.7

(1.5)

 

66.6

(1.4)

 

66.9

(1.2)

 

72.4

(1.0)

 

10.7

(1.6)

 

Japan

48.7

(1.5)

 

48.7

(1.5)

 

51.1

(1.3)

 

48.2

(1.3)

 

53.0

(1.6)

 

4.3

(2.2)

 

Korea

53.7

(1.3)

 

53.8

(1.3)

 

57.6

(1.4)

 

57.0

(1.4)

 

58.7

(1.2)

 

4.9

(1.7)

 

Latvia

60.5

(1.6)

 

60.6

(1.6)

 

69.6

(1.5)

 

69.5

(1.4)

 

75.8

(1.5)

 

15.2

(2.3)

 

Lithuania

73.2

(1.1)

 

73.1

(1.1)

 

76.9

(1.1)

 

74.8

(1.2)

 

77.0

(1.2)

 

3.9

(1.7)

 

Luxembourg

61.7

(1.6)

 

61.7

(1.6)

 

65.7

(1.3)

 

68.6

(1.3)

 

76.4

(1.3)

 

14.7

(1.9)

 

Mexico

79.3

(1.4)

 

79.3

(1.4)

 

82.5

(1.0)

 

83.2

(1.2)

 

84.8

(1.0)

 

5.5

(1.7)

 

Netherlands*

79.5

(1.7)

 

79.5

(1.7)

 

76.6

(1.5)

 

78.9

(1.3)

 

82.4

(1.6)

 

3.0

(2.5)

 

New Zealand

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Norway

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Poland

58.1

(1.5)

 

58.1

(1.5)

 

62.9

(1.7)

 

62.9

(1.4)

 

63.5

(1.5)

 

5.4

(2.1)

 

Portugal*

66.3

(1.4)

 

66.3

(1.4)

 

68.0

(1.3)

 

67.5

(1.4)

 

73.8

(1.3)

 

7.5

(1.6)

 

Slovak Republic

63.6

(1.6)

 

63.5

(1.6)

 

69.6

(1.1)

 

71.2

(1.3)

 

72.9

(1.3)

 

9.4

(2.1)

 

Slovenia

65.4

(1.4)

 

65.5

(1.4)

 

64.3

(1.5)

 

62.1

(1.5)

 

64.4

(1.8)

 

-1.1

(2.3)

 

Spain

68.9

(0.7)

 

68.9

(0.7)

 

72.3

(0.7)

 

74.4

(0.7)

 

78.5

(0.5)

 

9.6

(0.9)

 

Sweden

60.2

(1.4)

 

60.2

(1.4)

 

66.0

(1.6)

 

69.1

(1.4)

 

71.2

(1.0)

 

11.0

(1.7)

 

Switzerland

69.9

(1.5)

 

69.9

(1.5)

 

73.1

(1.5)

 

72.8

(1.4)

 

77.3

(1.5)

 

7.4

(2.1)

 

Turkey

38.0

(1.3)

 

38.0

(1.3)

 

41.5

(1.2)

 

47.2

(1.3)

 

47.6

(1.5)

 

9.7

(1.9)

 

United Kingdom

45.9

(1.4)

 

45.8

(1.4)

 

50.6

(1.5)

 

53.2

(1.2)

 

59.7

(1.4)

 

13.8

(1.9)

 

United States*

54.8

(1.4)

 

54.7

(1.4)

 

59.2

(1.5)

 

61.1

(1.6)

 

67.5

(1.4)

 

12.8

(2.1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OECD average

62.8

(0.3)

 

62.8

(0.3)

 

66.1

(0.3)

 

67.5

(0.2)

 

70.8

(0.2)

 

8.0

(0.4)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

copy the linklink copied!
Table II.B1.3.4 [2/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Students are satisfied with their lives1

All students

By national quarter of ESCS2

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Albania

84.5

(1.2)

 

84.6

(1.2)

 

87.8

(1.1)

 

86.5

(0.9)

 

86.8

(1.0)

 

2.3

(1.5)

 

Argentina

65.7

(1.4)

 

65.7

(1.4)

 

66.3

(1.3)

 

70.2

(1.1)

 

76.4

(1.3)

 

10.7

(1.9)

 

Baku (Azerbaijan)

64.1

(1.4)

 

64.2

(1.4)

 

66.5

(1.6)

 

65.1

(1.6)

 

71.4

(1.1)

 

7.2

(1.7)

 

Belarus

82.1

(1.1)

 

82.1

(1.1)

 

83.2

(1.1)

 

84.2

(1.2)

 

84.5

(0.9)

 

2.5

(1.5)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

73.7

(1.2)

 

73.7

(1.2)

 

76.5

(1.2)

 

77.7

(1.3)

 

78.0

(1.2)

 

4.3

(1.7)

 

Brazil

65.5

(1.1)

 

65.5

(1.1)

 

63.6

(1.1)

 

64.3

(1.2)

 

66.5

(1.0)

 

1.0

(1.5)

 

Brunei Darussalam

35.6

(1.2)

 

35.6

(1.2)

 

41.0

(1.3)

 

42.5

(1.3)

 

49.0

(1.1)

 

13.4

(1.8)

 

B-S-J-Z (China)

54.1

(1.8)

 

54.1

(1.8)

 

59.6

(1.5)

 

60.6

(1.1)

 

62.3

(1.2)

 

8.2

(2.1)

 

Bulgaria

59.8

(1.7)

 

59.8

(1.7)

 

64.8

(1.7)

 

66.2

(1.3)

 

70.1

(1.2)

 

10.3

(2.1)

 

Costa Rica

79.6

(1.0)

 

79.6

(1.0)

 

76.3

(1.2)

 

79.8

(1.0)

 

79.1

(1.3)

 

-0.5

(1.6)

 

Croatia

74.0

(1.2)

 

74.1

(1.2)

 

77.5

(1.1)

 

77.3

(0.9)

 

76.8

(1.0)

 

2.7

(1.6)

 

Cyprus

56.8

(1.4)

 

56.8

(1.4)

 

62.8

(1.4)

 

62.5

(1.4)

 

68.3

(1.4)

 

11.5

(2.0)

 

Dominican Republic

75.0

(1.8)

75.0

(1.8)

78.9

(1.5)

79.0

(1.3)

80.5

(1.3)

 

5.5

(2.2)

Georgia

69.0

(1.5)

 

69.0

(1.5)

 

73.1

(1.2)

 

75.3

(1.3)

 

77.5

(1.4)

 

8.5

(1.8)

 

Hong Kong (China)*

45.2

(1.2)

 

45.2

(1.2)

 

49.9

(1.2)

 

55.8

(1.4)

 

57.8

(1.5)

 

12.6

(1.8)

 

Indonesia

70.7

(2.0)

 

70.8

(2.0)

 

67.5

(1.4)

 

71.2

(1.8)

 

71.7

(1.6)

 

0.9

(2.5)

 

Jordan

52.9

(1.7)

 

53.0

(1.7)

 

62.5

(1.3)

 

63.2

(1.3)

 

68.3

(1.3)

 

15.3

(2.2)

 

Kazakhstan

87.1

(0.6)

 

87.1

(0.6)

 

86.9

(0.7)

 

86.3

(0.6)

 

87.4

(0.7)

 

0.3

(0.9)

 

Kosovo

80.5

(1.4)

 

80.6

(1.4)

 

79.4

(1.3)

 

84.1

(1.2)

 

83.4

(1.2)

 

2.8

(1.8)

 

Lebanon

46.0

(1.8)

46.0

(1.8)

55.1

(1.8)

 

59.4

(2.0)

 

72.0

(1.7)

 

26.0

(2.6)

Macao (China)

44.2

(1.6)

 

44.3

(1.6)

 

47.5

(1.7)

 

54.5

(1.4)

 

53.8

(1.7)

 

9.5

(2.6)

 

Malaysia

58.1

(1.7)

 

58.1

(1.7)

 

64.2

(1.2)

 

63.7

(1.5)

 

66.6

(1.8)

 

8.5

(2.3)

 

Malta

59.8

(1.9)

 

59.8

(1.9)

 

59.9

(1.9)

 

57.0

(1.8)

 

61.8

(1.8)

 

2.0

(2.7)

 

Moldova

67.9

(1.4)

 

67.9

(1.4)

 

74.8

(1.3)

 

79.3

(1.3)

 

84.1

(1.3)

 

16.1

(1.9)

 

Montenegro

71.1

(1.2)

 

71.2

(1.2)

 

77.2

(1.1)

 

74.1

(1.0)

 

76.4

(1.1)

 

5.3

(1.6)

 

Morocco

59.5

(1.6)

59.5

(1.6)

62.1

(1.4)

 

61.3

(1.6)

 

65.3

(1.3)

 

5.9

(1.9)

North Macedonia

82.4

(1.1)

 

82.4

(1.1)

 

82.6

(1.1)

 

79.3

(1.2)

 

81.0

(1.1)

 

-1.4

(1.7)

 

Panama

79.1

(1.7)

79.1

(1.7)

78.8

(1.3)

75.7

(1.4)

 

73.8

(1.5)

 

-5.3

(2.4)

Peru

68.0

(1.5)

68.0

(1.5)

68.0

(1.5)

 

67.8

(1.6)

 

68.4

(1.2)

 

0.5

(1.9)

Philippines

61.0

(1.5)

 

61.0

(1.5)

 

65.8

(1.3)

 

66.8

(1.3)

 

68.0

(1.7)

 

6.9

(2.1)

 

Qatar

59.2

(0.9)

 

59.1

(0.9)

 

61.5

(0.8)

 

60.9

(0.9)

 

63.8

(0.9)

 

4.6

(1.1)

 

Romania

75.0

(1.3)

 

75.1

(1.2)

 

77.5

(1.5)

 

81.3

(1.1)

 

84.6

(1.1)

 

9.5

(1.6)

 

Russia

69.8

(1.4)

 

69.8

(1.4)

 

67.8

(1.6)

 

68.7

(1.0)

 

70.4

(1.2)

 

0.6

(1.7)

 

Saudi Arabia

71.9

(1.5)

 

71.8

(1.5)

 

70.9

(1.2)

 

70.9

(1.2)

 

72.0

(1.4)

 

0.2

(2.0)

 

Serbia

70.4

(1.1)

 

70.4

(1.1)

 

75.6

(1.1)

 

76.8

(1.0)

 

74.9

(1.3)

 

4.5

(1.7)

 

Singapore

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Chinese Taipei

51.0

(1.4)

 

51.0

(1.4)

 

55.4

(1.3)

 

57.6

(1.3)

 

59.5

(1.4)

 

8.5

(1.8)

 

Thailand

71.6

(1.4)

 

71.7

(1.4)

 

73.8

(1.3)

 

73.1

(1.2)

 

74.6

(1.2)

 

3.0

(1.8)

 

Ukraine

77.1

(1.4)

 

77.2

(1.4)

 

80.7

(1.1)

 

83.1

(1.0)

 

85.5

(1.0)

 

8.4

(1.8)

 

United Arab Emirates

60.8

(0.8)

 

60.8

(0.8)

 

61.8

(1.0)

 

61.3

(1.1)

 

61.6

(2.0)

 

0.9

(2.2)

 

Uruguay

67.8

(1.5)

 

67.7

(1.5)

 

72.8

(1.4)

 

71.7

(1.6)

 

81.0

(1.5)

 

13.3

(2.1)

 

Viet Nam

74.1

(1.8)

 

74.1

(1.8)

 

73.3

(1.3)

 

71.8

(1.4)

 

73.9

(1.5)

 

-0.2

(2.4)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

copy the linklink copied!
Table II.B1.3.4 [3/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Do not feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school,3 by students’ socio-economic status

All students

By national quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

68.1

(0.9)

 

68.1

(0.9)

 

72.2

(1.1)

 

74.7

(0.8)

 

76.8

(0.8)

 

8.7

(1.2)

 

Austria

84.1

(0.9)

 

83.9

(0.9)

 

84.7

(1.0)

 

85.1

(1.2)

 

85.6

(0.8)

 

1.7

(1.2)

 

Belgium

83.6

(0.9)

 

83.6

(0.9)

 

84.7

(0.9)

 

85.3

(0.9)

 

87.2

(0.7)

 

3.6

(1.1)

 

Canada

68.0

(0.9)

 

68.1

(0.9)

 

73.5

(1.0)

 

73.7

(0.8)

 

78.9

(0.9)

 

10.8

(1.2)

 

Chile

76.8

(1.4)

 

76.8

(1.4)

 

78.3

(1.1)

 

75.7

(1.2)

 

78.2

(1.2)

 

1.4

(1.9)

 

Colombia

75.5

(1.5)

 

75.5

(1.5)

 

75.6

(1.2)

 

78.1

(1.1)

 

78.1

(1.0)

 

2.6

(1.7)

 

Czech Republic

70.9

(1.5)

 

70.9

(1.5)

 

76.5

(1.2)

 

78.6

(1.2)

 

77.8

(1.2)

 

6.9

(1.7)

 

Denmark

86.1

(1.0)

 

86.1

(1.0)

 

88.4

(1.0)

 

90.7

(1.0)

 

89.2

(0.9)

 

3.1

(1.4)

 

Estonia

81.0

(1.3)

 

81.1

(1.3)

 

83.5

(1.1)

 

84.8

(1.0)

 

88.6

(0.9)

 

7.5

(1.7)

 

Finland

82.0

(1.1)

 

82.0

(1.1)

 

85.9

(1.0)

 

85.2

(0.9)

 

86.1

(0.9)

 

4.1

(1.4)

 

France

63.4

(1.3)

 

63.3

(1.3)

 

66.9

(1.5)

 

70.8

(1.5)

 

76.9

(1.2)

 

13.5

(1.7)

 

Germany

80.8

(1.4)

 

80.8

(1.4)

 

85.7

(1.5)

 

83.0

(1.2)

 

86.9

(1.1)

 

6.1

(1.6)

 

Greece

76.1

(1.3)

 

76.1

(1.3)

 

81.9

(1.3)

 

79.9

(1.2)

 

82.6

(1.0)

 

6.5

(1.6)

 

Hungary

76.1

(1.1)

 

76.1

(1.1)

 

79.0

(1.1)

 

82.9

(1.0)

 

83.5

(1.0)

 

7.4

(1.4)

 

Iceland

75.5

(1.8)

 

75.5

(1.8)

 

80.3

(1.3)

 

82.1

(1.2)

 

82.4

(1.3)

 

6.9

(2.3)

 

Ireland

77.1

(1.2)

 

77.0

(1.2)

 

76.7

(1.1)

 

79.5

(1.2)

 

78.6

(1.2)

 

1.6

(1.6)

 

Israel

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Italy

83.2

(1.4)

 

83.2

(1.4)

 

87.6

(1.0)

 

87.5

(0.9)

 

87.1

(0.9)

 

3.9

(1.7)

 

Japan

86.7

(1.1)

 

86.7

(1.1)

 

87.6

(0.9)

 

87.8

(0.9)

 

87.8

(1.0)

 

1.1

(1.4)

 

Korea

87.1

(0.9)

 

87.1

(0.9)

 

89.1

(0.9)

 

89.5

(0.9)

 

91.7

(0.8)

 

4.6

(1.1)

 

Latvia

77.7

(1.3)

 

77.7

(1.4)

 

79.9

(1.2)

 

81.4

(1.3)

 

85.1

(1.1)

 

7.3

(1.7)

 

Lithuania

70.8

(1.3)

 

70.6

(1.3)

 

73.8

(1.1)

 

74.4

(1.1)

 

76.0

(1.1)

 

5.3

(1.7)

 

Luxembourg

76.2

(1.2)

 

76.3

(1.2)

 

80.6

(1.1)

 

83.4

(1.2)

 

85.9

(1.1)

 

9.6

(1.6)

 

Mexico

77.0

(1.4)

77.0

(1.4)

79.3

(1.2)

 

79.5

(1.3)

 

80.6

(1.0)

 

3.6

(1.8)

Netherlands*

89.3

(1.0)

89.3

(1.0)

92.1

(0.9)

 

89.7

(1.1)

 

91.7

(0.9)

 

2.4

(1.2)

New Zealand

71.1

(1.2)

 

71.1

(1.2)

 

73.3

(1.1)

 

74.2

(1.3)

 

77.5

(1.2)

 

6.4

(1.7)

 

Norway

84.0

(1.2)

 

84.0

(1.2)

 

87.6

(0.8)

 

90.5

(0.9)

 

87.8

(1.1)

 

3.8

(1.6)

 

Poland

78.5

(1.1)

 

78.5

(1.1)

 

80.2

(1.2)

 

79.0

(1.3)

 

76.5

(1.2)

 

-2.0

(1.6)

 

Portugal*

83.6

(1.2)

 

83.6

(1.2)

 

87.4

(1.0)

 

85.5

(1.1)

 

90.7

(0.9)

 

7.1

(1.5)

 

Slovak Republic

66.0

(1.5)

 

65.9

(1.6)

 

71.0

(1.5)

 

72.4

(1.5)

 

77.3

(1.2)

 

11.4

(1.8)

 

Slovenia

77.1

(1.2)

 

77.2

(1.2)

 

78.3

(1.5)

 

80.4

(1.2)

 

82.0

(1.2)

 

4.8

(1.5)

 

Spain

86.4

(0.7)

 

86.4

(0.7)

 

88.1

(0.6)

 

89.3

(0.5)

 

90.3

(0.5)

 

3.9

(0.8)

 

Sweden

78.1

(1.1)

 

78.1

(1.1)

 

80.9

(1.1)

 

81.3

(1.1)

 

81.0

(1.2)

 

2.9

(1.9)

 

Switzerland

80.9

(1.4)

 

80.9

(1.4)

 

84.1

(1.2)

 

84.9

(1.1)

 

86.5

(1.1)

 

5.6

(1.9)

 

Turkey

74.3

(1.1)

 

74.4

(1.1)

 

76.4

(1.0)

 

76.4

(1.1)

 

78.5

(1.0)

 

4.2

(1.4)

 

United Kingdom

72.3

(1.1)

 

72.3

(1.1)

 

72.7

(1.3)

 

75.1

(1.2)

 

77.9

(1.0)

 

5.7

(1.4)

 

United States*

64.4

(1.8)

 

64.3

(1.8)

 

68.8

(1.3)

 

69.5

(1.7)

 

72.6

(1.6)

 

8.3

(2.3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OECD average

77.5

(0.2)

 

77.5

(0.2)

 

80.3

(0.2)

 

81.2

(0.2)

 

82.8

(0.2)

 

5.3

(0.3)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

copy the linklink copied!
Table II.B1.3.4 [4/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Do not feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school,3 by students’ socio-economic status

All students

By national quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Albania

86.9

(1.0)

 

86.9

(1.0)

 

88.4

(0.9)

 

88.7

(0.9)

 

91.1

(1.0)

 

4.2

(1.3)

 

Argentina

65.5

(1.8)

 

65.5

(1.8)

 

71.1

(1.5)

 

74.8

(1.3)

 

78.2

(1.1)

 

12.7

(2.1)

 

Baku (Azerbaijan)

66.9

(1.6)

66.9

(1.6)

65.6

(1.4)

70.3

(1.5)

71.3

(1.4)

4.4

(2.2)

Belarus

86.4

(1.0)

 

86.3

(1.0)

 

88.5

(0.9)

 

90.4

(0.7)

 

88.8

(0.8)

 

2.5

(1.4)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

77.0

(1.2)

 

77.1

(1.2)

 

80.2

(1.2)

 

79.6

(1.3)

 

81.2

(1.2)

 

4.1

(1.8)

 

Brazil

67.2

(1.4)

67.2

(1.4)

71.5

(1.2)

 

72.9

(1.0)

 

75.9

(1.2)

 

8.7

(1.9)

Brunei Darussalam

59.4

(1.3)

 

59.4

(1.3)

 

63.3

(1.3)

 

63.4

(1.2)

 

66.0

(1.2)

 

6.6

(1.8)

 

B-S-J-Z (China)

78.9

(1.3)

 

78.9

(1.3)

 

81.1

(1.1)

 

82.5

(0.9)

 

83.4

(1.0)

 

4.5

(1.5)

 

Bulgaria

57.4

(2.0)

 

57.4

(2.0)

 

67.6

(1.5)

 

70.8

(1.5)

 

74.2

(1.5)

 

16.8

(2.5)

 

Costa Rica

79.1

(1.1)

 

79.1

(1.1)

 

77.4

(1.0)

 

78.5

(1.3)

 

82.3

(1.1)

 

3.3

(1.5)

 

Croatia

83.4

(1.0)

 

83.4

(1.0)

 

84.6

(1.1)

 

84.5

(0.9)

 

86.8

(0.9)

 

3.4

(1.4)

 

Cyprus

74.0

(1.3)

 

74.0

(1.3)

 

75.1

(1.4)

 

75.4

(1.3)

 

77.5

(1.2)

 

3.6

(1.8)

 

Dominican Republic

58.3

(2.2)

58.3

(2.2)

65.0

(1.7)

64.2

(1.8)

69.4

(1.6)

11.0

(2.6)

Georgia

80.9

(1.6)

 

80.8

(1.6)

 

79.9

(1.3)

 

80.8

(1.5)

 

85.9

(1.1)

 

5.1

(1.8)

 

Hong Kong (China)*

66.5

(1.4)

 

66.5

(1.4)

 

72.0

(1.3)

 

71.8

(1.4)

 

74.3

(1.2)

 

7.8

(1.9)

 

Indonesia

81.6

(1.5)

 

81.6

(1.5)

 

78.4

(1.2)

 

80.9

(1.3)

 

80.2

(1.2)

 

-1.4

(2.0)

 

Jordan

63.1

(2.0)

 

63.1

(2.0)

 

65.9

(1.4)

 

66.6

(1.6)

 

69.0

(1.7)

 

5.9

(2.5)

 

Kazakhstan

78.5

(0.9)

 

78.5

(0.9)

 

78.5

(0.7)

 

79.1

(0.8)

 

79.2

(0.8)

 

0.7

(1.1)

 

Kosovo

82.2

(1.3)

 

82.2

(1.3)

 

83.2

(1.1)

 

81.1

(1.3)

 

86.4

(1.1)

 

4.2

(1.7)

 

Lebanon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Macao (China)

75.4

(1.5)

 

75.4

(1.4)

 

75.6

(1.4)

 

78.4

(1.5)

 

76.9

(1.3)

 

1.5

(1.9)

 

Malaysia

79.8

(1.1)

 

79.9

(1.1)

 

78.1

(1.3)

 

77.0

(1.2)

 

82.2

(1.6)

 

2.4

(1.8)

 

Malta

66.9

(1.7)

 

66.9

(1.7)

 

71.4

(1.8)

 

66.1

(1.6)

 

69.0

(1.6)

 

2.0

(2.2)

 

Moldova

78.8

(1.2)

 

78.8

(1.2)

 

86.5

(1.0)

 

85.9

(1.0)

 

89.1

(0.8)

 

10.3

(1.5)

 

Montenegro

78.8

(1.2)

 

78.8

(1.1)

 

79.2

(0.9)

 

81.6

(1.0)

 

79.8

(1.1)

 

1.1

(1.6)

 

Morocco

67.6

(1.6)

67.6

(1.6)

69.4

(1.4)

69.8

(1.6)

75.6

(1.4)

 

8.0

(2.2)

North Macedonia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Panama

63.9

(2.1)

63.9

(2.1)

70.8

(1.7)

67.5

(1.8)

74.7

(1.5)

10.8

(2.6)

Peru

78.8

(1.6)

78.8

(1.6)

84.3

(1.1)

83.3

(1.0)

 

84.9

(1.1)

 

6.0

(2.0)

Philippines

68.8

(1.2)

 

68.8

(1.2)

 

75.7

(1.2)

 

70.8

(1.3)

 

77.0

(1.0)

 

8.2

(1.7)

 

Qatar

65.3

(0.8)

 

65.3

(0.8)

 

67.9

(0.8)

 

74.0

(0.8)

 

73.4

(0.7)

 

8.1

(0.9)

 

Romania

77.5

(1.5)

 

77.6

(1.5)

 

81.0

(1.4)

 

85.5

(1.0)

 

88.3

(1.1)

 

10.7

(1.8)

 

Russia

70.3

(1.6)

 

70.3

(1.6)

 

75.0

(1.3)

 

74.5

(1.1)

 

77.2

(0.9)

 

6.9

(2.0)

 

Saudi Arabia

72.0

(1.6)

 

72.0

(1.6)

 

78.1

(1.3)

 

76.6

(1.4)

 

80.9

(1.4)

 

8.9

(2.0)

 

Serbia

76.3

(1.4)

 

76.3

(1.4)

 

79.1

(1.2)

 

79.3

(1.0)

 

79.2

(1.2)

 

2.9

(1.9)

 

Singapore

73.4

(1.1)

 

73.4

(1.1)

 

76.2

(1.1)

 

77.9

(1.1)

 

79.9

(1.1)

 

6.5

(1.6)

 

Chinese Taipei

82.7

(1.0)

 

82.8

(1.0)

 

86.1

(0.9)

 

86.9

(0.7)

 

88.8

(0.8)

 

6.0

(1.3)

 

Thailand

71.4

(1.7)

 

71.4

(1.7)

 

70.9

(1.6)

 

71.3

(1.3)

 

76.6

(1.2)

 

5.2

(2.1)

 

Ukraine

76.9

(1.4)

 

76.9

(1.4)

 

80.2

(1.2)

 

81.5

(1.3)

 

83.4

(1.1)

 

6.5

(1.7)

 

United Arab Emirates

70.8

(0.8)

 

70.8

(0.8)

 

73.5

(0.9)

 

73.6

(0.9)

 

73.9

(1.0)

 

3.1

(1.3)

 

Uruguay

70.9

(1.8)

70.9

(1.8)

79.0

(1.4)

 

76.4

(1.8)

 

83.1

(1.4)

 

12.1

(2.1)

Viet Nam

73.0

(1.3)

 

73.0

(1.3)

 

74.2

(1.5)

 

72.3

(1.4)

 

69.9

(1.5)

 

-3.1

(2.1)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

copy the linklink copied!
Table II.B1.3.4 [5/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Do not doubt their future plans when facing failure,4 by students’ socio-economic status

All students

By national quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

32.1

(0.9)

 

32.1

(0.9)

 

30.8

(0.9)

 

33.5

(1.0)

 

31.5

(0.9)

 

-0.6

(1.2)

 

Austria

57.5

(1.6)

 

57.5

(1.6)

 

58.9

(1.3)

 

58.5

(1.3)

 

62.1

(1.1)

 

4.6

(1.8)

 

Belgium

48.2

(1.9)

 

48.2

(1.9)

 

48.5

(1.8)

 

47.4

(1.3)

 

45.5

(1.3)

 

-2.6

(2.5)

 

Canada

32.9

(1.0)

 

32.9

(1.0)

 

31.7

(1.1)

 

32.4

(1.1)

 

29.2

(0.9)

 

-3.7

(1.4)

 

Chile

42.1

(1.5)

 

42.1

(1.5)

 

40.9

(1.3)

 

40.0

(1.4)

 

40.7

(1.1)

 

-1.4

(1.7)

 

Colombia

56.1

(1.9)

 

56.1

(1.9)

 

57.8

(1.6)

 

55.3

(1.4)

 

56.7

(1.5)

 

0.6

(2.3)

 

Czech Republic

45.8

(1.5)

 

45.9

(1.5)

 

45.7

(1.5)

 

45.8

(1.4)

 

44.1

(1.5)

 

-1.7

(2.2)

 

Denmark

50.8

(1.2)

 

50.8

(1.2)

 

51.5

(1.7)

 

52.5

(1.3)

 

56.9

(1.5)

 

6.1

(1.9)

 

Estonia

56.0

(1.7)

 

56.1

(1.7)

 

54.8

(1.5)

 

53.4

(1.4)

 

54.9

(1.6)

 

-1.2

(2.3)

 

Finland

59.7

(1.5)

 

59.7

(1.5)

 

58.7

(1.2)

 

57.4

(1.4)

 

58.9

(1.5)

 

-0.9

(2.3)

 

France

37.8

(1.4)

 

37.7

(1.4)

 

38.9

(1.4)

 

36.5

(1.4)

 

38.1

(1.3)

 

0.4

(1.9)

 

Germany

60.1

(1.4)

 

60.0

(1.4)

 

62.1

(1.4)

 

64.8

(1.7)

 

63.3

(1.4)

 

3.3

(1.8)

 

Greece

48.6

(1.3)

 

48.6

(1.3)

 

51.3

(1.3)

 

50.6

(1.3)

 

48.9

(1.1)

 

0.3

(1.7)

 

Hungary

51.1

(1.4)

 

51.1

(1.4)

 

50.5

(1.5)

 

55.5

(1.7)

 

53.0

(1.6)

 

1.9

(2.1)

 

Iceland

48.0

(1.9)

 

48.0

(1.9)

 

49.3

(1.8)

 

50.7

(1.8)

 

50.4

(1.7)

 

2.3

(2.7)

 

Ireland

36.3

(1.3)

 

36.2

(1.3)

 

35.2

(1.3)

 

36.0

(1.3)

 

32.8

(1.2)

 

-3.5

(1.9)

 

Israel

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Italy

43.0

(1.6)

 

43.0

(1.6)

 

41.0

(1.7)

 

40.6

(1.6)

 

45.4

(1.3)

 

2.4

(1.9)

 

Japan

39.4

(1.3)

 

39.4

(1.3)

 

40.0

(1.1)

 

38.7

(1.4)

 

38.3

(1.3)

 

-1.2

(1.6)

 

Korea

44.7

(1.4)

 

44.7

(1.4)

 

48.2

(1.2)

 

45.4

(1.4)

 

47.6

(1.4)

 

2.9

(2.1)

 

Latvia

50.9

(1.5)

 

50.9

(1.5)

 

49.1

(1.3)

 

51.9

(1.5)

 

51.3

(1.5)

 

0.4

(2.2)

 

Lithuania

50.2

(1.7)

 

50.3

(1.7)

 

51.1

(1.3)

 

48.8

(1.4)

 

50.1

(1.5)

 

-0.2

(2.4)

 

Luxembourg

44.0

(1.3)

 

43.9

(1.3)

 

47.0

(1.4)

 

48.2

(1.4)

 

46.1

(1.6)

 

2.1

(2.0)

 

Mexico

40.5

(2.0)

40.5

(2.0)

39.9

(1.4)

 

43.6

(1.7)

 

46.5

(1.3)

 

6.0

(2.4)

Netherlands*

64.9

(1.7)

64.9

(1.7)

65.3

(1.6)

 

65.6

(1.8)

 

62.0

(1.5)

 

-2.9

(2.3)

New Zealand

34.9

(1.2)

 

34.8

(1.2)

 

33.7

(1.2)

 

30.5

(1.3)

 

30.4

(1.3)

 

-4.4

(1.6)

 

Norway

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Poland

44.8

(1.4)

 

44.8

(1.4)

 

41.7

(1.4)

 

43.5

(1.6)

 

38.3

(1.7)

 

-6.5

(1.9)

 

Portugal*

47.3

(1.8)

 

47.2

(1.8)

 

47.9

(1.7)

 

42.3

(1.4)

 

45.7

(1.6)

 

-1.5

(2.4)

 

Slovak Republic

47.9

(1.7)

 

47.9

(1.7)

 

48.0

(1.4)

 

46.8

(1.6)

 

46.2

(1.4)

 

-1.7

(2.3)

 

Slovenia

48.6

(1.7)

 

48.7

(1.6)

 

44.8

(1.5)

 

46.2

(1.4)

 

45.4

(1.8)

 

-3.3

(2.4)

 

Spain

50.4

(1.0)

 

50.4

(1.0)

 

51.5

(0.9)

 

51.7

(0.8)

 

54.1

(0.7)

 

3.7

(1.3)

 

Sweden

45.8

(1.4)

 

45.9

(1.4)

 

47.6

(1.4)

 

47.3

(1.3)

 

49.0

(1.3)

 

3.2

(1.9)

 

Switzerland

53.5

(1.6)

 

53.5

(1.6)

 

55.6

(1.7)

 

56.9

(1.5)

 

52.4

(1.4)

 

-1.1

(2.4)

 

Turkey

37.3

(1.4)

 

37.3

(1.4)

 

35.5

(1.1)

 

35.1

(1.2)

 

34.4

(1.3)

 

-2.9

(2.0)

 

United Kingdom

27.8

(1.2)

 

27.9

(1.2)

 

29.4

(1.2)

 

29.4

(1.1)

 

30.3

(1.2)

 

2.5

(1.8)

 

United States*

39.2

(1.3)

 

39.1

(1.3)

 

37.4

(1.6)

 

35.7

(1.6)

 

29.4

(1.3)

 

-9.7

(1.8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OECD average

46.2

(0.3)

 

46.2

(0.3)

 

46.3

(0.2)

 

46.2

(0.2)

 

46.0

(0.2)

 

-0.2

(0.3)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

copy the linklink copied!
Table II.B1.3.4 [6/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Do not doubt their future plans when facing failure,4 by students’ socio-economic status

All students

By national quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Albania

50.8

(1.5)

 

50.8

(1.5)

 

54.8

(1.6)

 

53.4

(1.4)

 

57.7

(1.5)

 

6.9

(2.3)

 

Argentina

43.1

(1.7)

 

43.1

(1.7)

 

45.5

(1.4)

 

50.8

(1.2)

 

55.2

(1.0)

 

12.1

(2.1)

 

Baku (Azerbaijan)

39.0

(1.6)

 

39.0

(1.6)

 

42.3

(1.5)

 

43.2

(1.2)

 

43.8

(1.5)

 

4.8

(2.2)

 

Belarus

49.6

(1.6)

 

49.6

(1.6)

 

52.9

(1.5)

 

49.7

(1.4)

 

54.9

(1.2)

 

5.3

(2.1)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

50.6

(1.3)

 

50.6

(1.3)

 

54.2

(1.3)

 

55.2

(1.4)

 

56.1

(1.4)

 

5.5

(1.7)

 

Brazil

46.0

(1.5)

46.0

(1.5)

43.6

(1.0)

 

45.1

(1.3)

 

38.3

(1.3)

 

-7.7

(2.1)

Brunei Darussalam

28.0

(0.9)

 

27.9

(0.9)

 

27.1

(1.1)

 

27.3

(1.2)

 

25.9

(1.1)

 

-2.1

(1.4)

 

B-S-J-Z (China)

48.5

(1.3)

 

48.5

(1.3)

 

49.5

(1.4)

 

47.9

(1.1)

 

51.8

(1.5)

 

3.3

(1.7)

 

Bulgaria

47.3

(1.8)

 

47.3

(1.8)

 

49.0

(1.3)

 

48.9

(1.7)

 

51.0

(1.4)

 

3.8

(2.2)

 

Costa Rica

56.9

(1.4)

 

56.9

(1.4)

 

58.7

(1.4)

 

59.8

(1.4)

 

58.4

(1.3)

 

1.5

(2.0)

 

Croatia

56.5

(1.3)

 

56.5

(1.3)

 

52.7

(1.3)

 

55.4

(1.2)

 

50.1

(1.6)

 

-6.4

(2.1)

 

Cyprus

51.3

(1.2)

 

51.2

(1.2)

 

54.6

(1.5)

 

50.8

(1.5)

 

48.7

(1.4)

 

-2.6

(1.8)

 

Dominican Republic

45.8

(1.8)

45.8

(1.8)

47.6

(1.9)

48.0

(1.4)

54.6

(1.8)

 

8.8

(2.7)

Georgia

51.0

(1.6)

 

50.9

(1.5)

 

54.8

(1.5)

 

60.4

(1.3)

 

64.3

(1.5)

 

13.4

(2.0)

 

Hong Kong (China)*

30.1

(1.2)

 

30.1

(1.2)

 

26.7

(1.0)

 

27.2

(1.2)

 

26.7

(1.4)

 

-3.4

(1.7)

 

Indonesia

65.7

(1.9)

 

65.8

(1.9)

 

60.3

(1.4)

 

62.2

(1.6)

 

56.6

(1.5)

 

-9.2

(2.3)

 

Jordan

48.8

(1.8)

 

48.8

(1.8)

 

51.8

(1.3)

 

51.3

(1.4)

 

53.7

(1.2)

 

4.9

(2.0)

 

Kazakhstan

65.7

(1.0)

 

65.7

(1.0)

 

66.0

(0.8)

 

65.2

(0.9)

 

65.5

(0.8)

 

-0.1

(1.2)

 

Kosovo

33.8

(1.3)

 

33.7

(1.2)

 

36.7

(1.4)

 

40.0

(1.5)

 

46.1

(1.7)

 

12.4

(2.0)

 

Lebanon

46.3

(2.2)

 

46.3

(2.2)

 

45.4

(1.8)

 

47.2

(1.4)

 

46.2

(1.3)

 

-0.1

(2.4)

 

Macao (China)

34.1

(1.6)

 

34.1

(1.6)

 

34.6

(1.6)

 

33.4

(1.7)

 

33.4

(1.5)

 

-0.7

(2.1)

 

Malaysia

35.4

(1.3)

 

35.4

(1.3)

 

31.0

(1.2)

 

31.2

(1.3)

 

34.3

(1.6)

 

-1.1

(2.2)

 

Malta

27.1

(1.6)

 

27.1

(1.6)

 

28.1

(1.7)

 

26.8

(1.4)

 

29.0

(1.6)

 

1.9

(2.4)

 

Moldova

42.0

(1.5)

 

42.0

(1.5)

 

50.8

(1.5)

 

51.9

(1.5)

 

56.7

(1.6)

 

14.8

(2.1)

 

Montenegro

57.0

(1.4)

 

57.0

(1.4)

 

59.9

(1.4)

 

62.1

(1.3)

 

60.4

(1.2)

 

3.4

(2.0)

 

Morocco

45.8

(1.6)

45.8

(1.6)

46.4

(1.5)

46.0

(1.5)

 

47.7

(1.5)

 

1.9

(2.2)

North Macedonia

41.2

(1.4)

 

41.2

(1.4)

 

45.3

(1.5)

 

45.4

(1.4)

 

49.4

(1.6)

 

8.2

(2.1)

 

Panama

43.8

(2.2)

43.7

(2.2)

53.4

(1.9)

51.9

(1.7)

50.0

(1.8)

 

6.3

(2.9)

Peru

58.4

(2.0)

58.4

(2.0)

57.1

(1.2)

58.4

(1.5)

 

57.7

(1.3)

 

-0.7

(2.3)

Philippines

36.6

(1.5)

 

36.6

(1.5)

 

35.8

(1.1)

 

36.9

(1.2)

 

37.3

(1.5)

 

0.7

(2.0)

 

Qatar

45.9

(1.1)

 

45.9

(1.1)

 

43.4

(0.9)

 

39.7

(0.8)

 

38.1

(0.9)

 

-7.8

(1.5)

 

Romania

56.8

(1.6)

 

57.0

(1.6)

 

57.9

(1.5)

 

60.9

(1.3)

 

59.8

(1.3)

 

2.9

(2.0)

 

Russia

49.8

(1.3)

 

49.8

(1.3)

 

50.8

(1.2)

 

51.9

(1.2)

 

51.4

(1.5)

 

1.5

(2.1)

 

Saudi Arabia

55.9

(1.6)

 

56.0

(1.6)

 

58.9

(1.6)

 

59.7

(1.4)

 

61.4

(1.1)

 

5.4

(1.9)

 

Serbia

49.5

(1.2)

 

49.5

(1.3)

 

52.3

(1.1)

 

52.9

(1.1)

 

52.9

(1.3)

 

3.3

(1.9)

 

Singapore

20.7

(0.9)

 

20.6

(0.9)

 

22.0

(1.1)

 

23.0

(0.9)

 

24.0

(1.0)

 

3.4

(1.4)

 

Chinese Taipei

22.1

(0.9)

 

22.2

(0.9)

 

23.0

(1.1)

 

23.0

(1.2)

 

24.9

(1.1)

 

2.7

(1.4)

 

Thailand

35.0

(1.3)

 

35.0

(1.3)

 

36.3

(1.3)

 

34.0

(1.1)

 

38.7

(1.0)

 

3.7

(1.7)

 

Ukraine

57.4

(1.4)

 

57.5

(1.4)

 

60.9

(1.5)

 

60.9

(1.6)

 

63.7

(1.3)

 

6.2

(1.7)

 

United Arab Emirates

39.5

(0.9)

 

39.5

(0.9)

 

37.8

(1.0)

 

33.3

(0.9)

 

32.5

(1.3)

 

-7.0

(1.7)

 

Uruguay

41.5

(1.6)

 

41.6

(1.6)

 

45.9

(1.3)

 

46.5

(1.6)

 

48.2

(1.5)

 

6.5

(2.3)

 

Viet Nam

48.2

(1.7)

 

48.3

(1.7)

 

49.3

(2.1)

 

45.7

(1.5)

 

46.7

(1.8)

 

-1.6

(2.4)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

copy the linklink copied!
Table II.B1.3.4 [7/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Students with positive wellbeing,5 by socio-economic status

All students

By national quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Austria

41.5

(0.8)

 

37.8

(1.5)

 

42.6

(1.2)

 

41.0

(1.3)

 

45.3

(1.2)

 

7.4

(1.8)

 

Belgium

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Canada

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Chile

26.4

(0.6)

 

24.2

(1.3)

 

25.9

(1.4)

 

26.6

(1.3)

 

28.9

(1.3)

 

4.7

(1.7)

 

Colombia

38.2

(0.8)

 

39.1

(1.9)

 

37.6

(1.2)

 

37.9

(1.2)

 

38.1

(1.2)

 

-1.1

(2.0)

 

Czech Republic

28.8

(0.8)

 

24.3

(1.7)

 

28.2

(1.5)

 

30.4

(1.3)

 

31.4

(1.5)

 

7.1

(2.3)

 

Denmark

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Estonia

39.6

(0.8)

 

36.2

(1.6)

 

38.5

(1.7)

 

39.4

(1.4)

 

44.3

(1.6)

 

8.1

(2.4)

 

Finland

46.9

(0.7)

 

44.1

(1.6)

 

46.9

(1.4)

 

46.9

(1.3)

 

49.8

(1.4)

 

5.7

(2.3)

 

France

22.9

(0.6)

 

20.3

(1.1)

 

21.5

(1.3)

 

23.3

(1.2)

 

26.1

(1.0)

 

5.8

(1.3)

 

Germany

41.6

(0.9)

35.4

(1.5)

44.0

(1.5)

 

41.1

(1.8)

 

45.2

(1.4)

 

9.8

(1.8)

Greece

33.0

(0.5)

 

30.3

(1.3)

 

34.4

(1.2)

 

34.1

(1.2)

 

33.2

(1.2)

 

2.9

(1.8)

 

Hungary

35.0

(0.8)

 

30.9

(1.5)

 

32.0

(1.5)

 

38.8

(1.6)

 

38.0

(1.6)

 

7.1

(2.1)

 

Iceland

34.9

(0.9)

 

30.9

(1.9)

 

32.5

(1.9)

 

38.2

(1.6)

 

37.8

(1.8)

 

6.9

(2.7)

 

Ireland

24.1

(0.6)

 

23.5

(1.1)

 

24.6

(1.3)

 

24.3

(1.2)

 

23.9

(1.2)

 

0.4

(1.7)

 

Israel

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Italy

29.9

(0.7)

 

27.1

(1.5)

 

29.8

(1.4)

 

28.7

(1.4)

 

33.7

(1.2)

 

6.6

(1.9)

 

Japan

20.9

(0.6)

 

20.4

(0.9)

 

21.3

(1.0)

 

20.7

(1.2)

 

21.3

(1.1)

 

0.9

(1.6)

 

Korea

31.8

(0.7)

 

29.0

(1.1)

 

32.4

(1.2)

 

32.0

(1.3)

 

33.7

(1.2)

 

4.7

(1.7)

 

Latvia

34.6

(0.7)

 

29.9

(1.1)

 

33.0

(1.3)

 

34.8

(1.5)

 

40.5

(1.8)

 

10.6

(2.2)

 

Lithuania

33.1

(0.7)

 

30.9

(1.5)

 

33.7

(1.3)

 

33.2

(1.3)

 

34.7

(1.4)

 

3.7

(2.0)

 

Luxembourg

31.6

(0.6)

 

25.0

(1.3)

 

31.4

(1.3)

 

34.5

(1.4)

 

35.3

(1.4)

 

10.4

(2.0)

 

Mexico

32.3

(0.8)

28.2

(1.4)

31.1

(1.5)

 

32.4

(1.8)

 

35.8

(1.4)

 

7.7

(2.0)

Netherlands*

52.0

(0.9)

 

52.9

(1.8)

50.2

(1.7)

 

52.6

(1.7)

 

52.5

(1.6)

 

-0.4

(2.5)

New Zealand

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Norway

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Poland

25.8

(0.7)

 

25.8

(1.3)

 

26.4

(1.3)

 

26.6

(1.4)

 

24.4

(1.5)

 

-1.4

(1.8)

 

Portugal*

33.8

(0.9)

 

33.5

(2.0)

 

34.2

(1.4)

 

29.7

(1.5)

 

37.3

(1.6)

 

3.8

(2.6)

 

Slovak Republic

29.5

(0.8)

 

25.1

(1.6)

 

28.6

(1.2)

 

30.5

(1.4)

 

33.0

(1.3)

 

7.8

(2.1)

 

Slovenia

31.9

(0.8)

 

34.2

(1.7)

 

30.5

(1.3)

 

29.9

(1.3)

 

33.3

(1.8)

 

-0.8

(2.3)

 

Spain

38.9

(0.4)

 

34.9

(1.0)

 

37.6

(1.0)

 

39.8

(0.8)

 

42.8

(0.6)

 

7.9

(1.2)

 

Sweden

32.3

(0.7)

 

29.5

(1.4)

 

31.6

(1.3)

 

34.0

(1.4)

 

34.3

(1.2)

 

4.8

(1.8)

 

Switzerland

39.5

(0.8)

 

34.7

(1.6)

 

41.1

(1.7)

 

40.4

(1.8)

 

41.0

(1.5)

 

6.3

(2.4)

 

Turkey

13.7

(0.5)

 

12.5

(0.8)

 

13.5

(0.8)

 

13.8

(1.1)

 

15.1

(1.1)

 

2.5

(1.3)

 

United Kingdom

18.1

(0.5)

 

15.0

(0.9)

 

17.1

(1.0)

 

18.7

(0.9)

 

20.5

(1.1)

 

5.5

(1.4)

 

United States*

22.3

(0.7)

 

21.9

(1.2)

 

23.4

(1.5)

 

22.5

(1.4)

 

21.0

(1.2)

 

-0.9

(1.6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OECD average

32.2

(0.1)

 

29.6

(0.3)

 

31.9

(0.2)

 

32.6

(0.3)

 

34.4

(0.3)

 

4.8

(0.4)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

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Table II.B1.3.4 [8/8]. Students’ well-being, by socio-economic status
Percentage of students; based on students’ reports

 

Students with positive wellbeing,5 by socio-economic status

All students

By national quarter of ESCS

Bottom quarter

Third quarter

Second quarter

Top quarter

Difference Top - Bottom

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

Partners

Albania

45.9

(0.8)

 

42.2

(1.4)

 

46.7

(1.9)

 

44.2

(1.6)

 

50.5

(1.6)

 

8.3

(2.2)

 

Argentina

31.4

(0.7)

 

22.2

(1.5)

27.0

(1.4)

 

34.2

(1.3)

 

40.2

(1.2)

 

18.0

(1.9)

Baku (Azerbaijan)

23.1

(0.6)

19.6

(1.4)

22.3

(1.5)

24.6

(1.2)

25.3

(1.1)

5.8

(1.9)

Belarus

42.5

(0.7)

 

39.6

(1.7)

 

43.2

(1.6)

 

42.0

(1.4)

 

45.3

(1.1)

 

5.7

(2.1)

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

39.2

(0.7)

 

34.7

(1.3)

 

39.8

(1.3)

 

40.5

(1.4)

 

41.4

(1.2)

 

6.7

(1.7)

 

Brazil

26.3

(0.6)

27.5

(1.4)

25.7

(0.9)

27.5

(1.2)

25.1

(1.1)

 

-2.4

(1.9)

Brunei Darussalam

9.8

(0.4)

 

8.5

(0.7)

 

9.6

(0.8)

 

9.4

(0.7)

 

11.5

(0.9)

 

2.9

(1.0)

 

B-S-J-Z (China)

31.5

(0.7)

 

27.9

(1.5)

 

32.0

(1.5)

 

31.4

(1.1)

 

34.6

(1.3)

 

6.7

(1.8)

 

Bulgaria

28.1

(0.8)

20.8

(1.6)

27.1

(1.3)

 

29.0

(1.5)

 

34.6

(1.3)

 

13.8

(2.1)

Costa Rica

42.6

(0.7)

 

41.9

(1.4)

 

40.8

(1.3)

 

43.8

(1.4)

 

43.8

(1.4)

 

2.0

(2.1)

 

Croatia

41.1

(0.7)

 

41.7

(1.3)

 

40.2

(1.3)

 

42.5

(1.2)

 

40.1

(1.6)

 

-1.6

(2.1)

 

Cyprus

30.9

(0.6)

 

27.3

(1.3)

 

31.7

(1.5)

 

32.0

(1.4)

 

32.4

(1.3)

 

5.1

(1.9)

 

Dominican Republic

31.3

(1.1)

24.5

(1.9)

29.6

(1.8)

29.5

(1.8)

37.4

(1.6)

12.8

(2.2)

Georgia

39.9

(1.0)

 

33.0

(1.7)

36.1

(1.5)

 

42.4

(1.5)

 

47.4

(2.0)

 

14.3

(2.4)

Hong Kong (China)*

14.1

(0.6)

 

12.7

(0.9)

 

12.5

(0.9)

 

15.7

(1.0)

 

15.7

(1.2)

 

3.0

(1.4)

 

Indonesia

40.2

(1.0)

 

43.7

(2.2)

 

37.8

(1.4)

 

41.4

(1.9)

 

38.0

(1.5)

 

-5.7

(2.5)

 

Jordan

28.4

(0.7)

 

23.5

(1.7)

 

28.9

(1.3)

 

29.0

(1.3)

 

32.3

(1.2)

 

8.8

(2.0)

 

Kazakhstan

50.1

(0.6)

 

50.1

(1.2)

 

50.1

(0.8)

 

49.2

(0.9)

 

51.0

(1.1)

 

0.9

(1.5)

 

Kosovo

29.8

(0.6)

 

25.0

(1.2)

 

26.3

(1.4)

 

29.5

(1.3)

 

38.0

(1.5)

 

13.0

(1.9)

 

Lebanon

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Macao (China)

17.5

(0.7)

 

15.8

(1.3)

 

17.3

(1.3)

 

19.0

(1.4)

 

18.1

(1.2)

 

2.3

(1.8)

 

Malaysia

19.6

(0.5)

 

18.5

(1.0)

 

17.9

(1.0)

 

18.6

(0.9)

 

23.5

(1.2)

 

5.0

(1.6)

 

Malta

15.6

(0.6)

 

13.8

(1.1)

 

18.1

(1.4)

 

14.0

(1.4)

 

16.0

(1.1)

 

2.2

(1.6)

 

Moldova

39.1

(0.8)

 

29.1

(1.4)

 

37.3

(1.5)

 

41.4

(1.5)

 

48.0

(1.5)

 

18.9

(2.0)

 

Montenegro

41.3

(0.6)

 

37.6

(1.2)

 

42.1

(1.4)

 

42.3

(1.5)

 

43.3

(1.3)

 

5.7

(1.9)

 

Morocco

25.8

(0.8)

22.9

(1.8)

24.3

(1.3)

25.6

(1.5)

29.2

(1.3)

6.3

(2.1)

North Macedonia

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Panama

33.4

(1.0)

28.7

(2.6)

35.7

(1.9)

32.3

(1.9)

35.2

(1.9)

6.5

(3.4)

Peru

38.7

(1.0)

38.5

(1.9)

38.5

(1.7)

38.1

(1.6)

 

39.5

(1.3)

 

1.0

(2.3)

Philippines

21.1

(0.7)

 

18.2

(1.2)

 

21.6

(1.1)

 

21.4

(1.2)

 

22.9

(1.2)

 

4.7

(1.6)

 

Qatar

23.0

(0.4)

 

22.4

(0.9)

 

22.9

(0.8)

 

23.9

(0.7)

 

22.7

(0.8)

 

0.3

(1.2)

 

Romania

46.1

(0.8)

 

40.1

(1.5)

 

43.7

(1.7)

 

49.3

(1.2)

 

51.2

(1.5)

 

11.1

(2.2)

 

Russia

32.5

(0.9)

 

28.5

(1.4)

 

31.6

(1.4)

 

34.0

(1.5)

 

35.7

(1.5)

 

7.1

(2.0)

 

Saudi Arabia

37.1

(0.9)

 

33.5

(1.7)

 

38.1

(1.6)

 

36.0

(1.5)

 

41.3

(1.3)

 

7.8

(2.1)

 

Serbia

36.3

(0.7)

 

33.3

(1.4)

 

35.9

(1.3)

 

37.0

(1.2)

 

38.6

(1.3)

 

5.3

(1.9)

 

Singapore

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Chinese Taipei

14.1

(0.5)

 

11.7

(0.7)

 

13.8

(1.0)

 

14.7

(1.1)

 

16.2

(1.0)

 

4.5

(1.1)

 

Thailand

23.6

(0.8)

 

22.5

(1.3)

 

23.3

(1.3)

 

21.5

(1.1)

 

26.8

(1.0)

 

4.3

(1.5)

 

Ukraine

44.9

(0.9)

 

38.7

(1.6)

 

45.0

(1.5)

 

46.4

(1.7)

 

49.5

(1.5)

 

10.8

(2.2)

 

United Arab Emirates

21.0

(0.5)

 

21.0

(0.8)

 

21.1

(0.8)

 

20.6

(0.9)

 

21.3

(1.1)

 

0.3

(1.5)

 

Uruguay

31.5

(0.8)

23.3

(1.6)

32.2

(1.3)

31.5

(1.6)

 

37.6

(1.7)

 

14.3

(2.3)

Viet Nam

28.9

(1.0)

 

29.9

(1.7)

 

30.7

(1.6)

 

27.0

(1.5)

 

28.2

(1.6)

 

-1.7

(2.3)

 

* Honk Kong (China), Netherlands, Portugal and United States: Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes A2 and A4).

1. In PISA 2018, students were asked “Overall, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”. Students who rated their life with values from 7 to 10 were considered satisfied with their lives.

2. ESCS refers to the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status.

3. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “I feel like an outsider (or left out of things) at school”.

4. Students who disagreed with the following statement: “When I am failing, this makes me doubt my plans for the future”.

5. Students who are satisfied with their lives, do not feel like outsiders at school and do not doubt their future plans when facing failure.

Notes: Information regarding the proportion of the sample covered is shown next to the standard error. No symbol means at least 75% of the population was covered; one dagger (†) means at least 50% but less than 75%; and one double-dagger (‡) means less than 50% was covered. For comparisons across cycles, the coverage information corresponds to the cycle with the lowest sample coverage.

Values that are statistically significant are indicated in bold (see Annex A3).

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934038628

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Table II.B1.4.3 [1/4]. School admissions policies, by school type
Based on principals’ reports

 

Sample size

Coverage1

Percentage of students in schools whose principal reported that the following criterion is “always” considered for admission to school:

Residence in a particular area

All students

By type of school

Public

Private government-dependent

Private independent

Private - Public2

Number of schools

%

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

%

S.E.

s

% dif.

S.E.

s

OECD

Australia

665

87.3

47.6

(1.5)

 

74.6

(1.9)

 

15.9

(3.1)

 

3.0

(2.0)

 

-63.7

(2.9)

 

Austria

291

m

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Belgium

m

m

4.2

(1.4)

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

m

m

 

Canada

767

96.1

68.4

(2.3)

 

74.3

(2.5)

 

6.5

(6.2)

 

0.0

c

 

-71.7

(3.2)

 

Chile

203

85.0

9.8

(2.4)

 

15.4

(5.2)

 

8.5

(3.2)

 

2.6

(1.8)

 

-8.2

(5.8)

 

Colombia

245

99.0

18.8

(3.0)

 

18.1

(3.4)

 

c

c

 

21.9

(6.8)

 

3.5

(7.4)

 

Czech Republic

319

95.3

29.7

(2.1)

 

31.9

(2.3)

 

0.0

c

 

c

c

 

-31.9

(2.3)

 

Denmark

260

77.8

39.8

(2.7)

 

54.5

(3.7)

 

2.5

(2.4)

 

4.0

(4.1)

 

-51.7

(4.3)

 

Estonia

224

99.5

64.5

(2.1)

 

66.7

(2.1)

 

19.9

(17.7)

 

0.0

c

 

-55.0

(11.2)

 

Finland

209

98.8

74.0

(3.2)

 

75.6

(3.2)

 

37.5

(20.2)

 

m

m

 

-38.1

(20.8)

 

France

156

73.1

63.0

(2.8)

 

76.9

(2.8)

 

14.2

(8.8)

 

12.6

(9.3)

 

-63.6

(7.3)

 

Germany

183

81.5

52.9

(4.1)

 

53.4

(4.1)

 

38.7

(24.8)

 

c

c

 

-6.0

(21.7)

 

Greece

200

92.5

73.1

(3.2)

 

76.1

(3.3)

 

m

m

 

13.8

(10.2)

 

-62.3

(10.6)

 

Hungary

158

88.2

11.2

(2.6)

 

12.7

(3.2)

 

6.4

(3.7)

 

c

c

 

-6.8

(4.6)