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Annex B. Comparative tables: Data sources and definitions

The following table includes data sources and definitions used in the two comparative tables included in Chapter 3, namely:

  • Table 3.1. Economy, population and higher education in Ohio, Texas, Virginia and Washington

  • Table 3.2. Scorecard: Labour market outcomes of higher education graduates, 25-34 year-olds

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Table B.1. Sources and definitions for overview and scorecard indicators, 2018

Indicator

Definitions

Overview indicators

Source for Indicator 1: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2019[1])

1

Per capita real GDP, in USD

The state GDP per capita is expressed in real US dollars, using chained 2012 dollars. The indicator was retrieved from the Bureau of Economic Analysis Interactive Data Tables (SAGDP10N).

Source for Indicators 2 to 11: U.S. Census Bureau (2019[2])

2

Employment rate, 25-64 (%)

Persons were considered employed if they worked at least one hour for pay or profit during the week preceding the survey, worked at least 15 hours as "unpaid family workers," or had a job from which they were temporarily absent (e.g., because of illness or vacation time).

3

Annual median earnings, 25-64, in USD

Annual median earnings are computed based on individuals’ total pre-tax wage and salary income. Full-time, full-year workers are included and the self-employed are included for the purpose of international comparisons. This differs from American Community Survey (ACS) earnings data used in Chapters 4 to 7, where self-employment earnings are excluded.

4

Total population

Total population resident in the state/country of reference, all ages

5

Total population under 18

Total population resident in the state/country of reference, persons under 18 years-old

6

Higher education attainment rate, associate’s degrees (%), 25-34 and 35-64

Share of individuals resident in the state/country of reference in each age group whose highest educational qualification is an associate’s degree

7

Higher education attainment rate, bachelor’s degrees (%), 25-34 and 25-64

Share of individuals resident in the state/country of reference in each age group whose highest educational qualification is an associate’s degree

8

Higher education attainment rate, associate’s degrees and above (%), 25-34 and 25-64

Share of individuals resident in the state/country of reference in each age group who hold an associate’s degree or above

9

Degree holders who migrated to the state within the past year as a share of all degree holders (%)

Degree holders who migrated to the state within the past year refer to graduates holding an associate’s degree or above who took residence in the state within the past year, whether they arrived from another state or country. This indicator is computed by dividing the number of degree holders who migrated in the state in a given year by the total number of degree holders in the state during that year.

10

Share of employed bachelor’s graduates by birthplace, 25-64 (%), in the state, out-of- state or outside of the United States

Share of bachelor’s graduates resident in the state/country of reference with at least one hour of paid employment in the week preceding the survey, by place of birth

11

Share of the population enrolled in post-secondary education (undergraduate level) (%), 18-24 and 25-44

Share of the population resident in the state/country of reference in each age group who reported being enrolled in college (first, second, third or fourth year) in the 3 months before the survey was taken

Source for Indicators 12 to 15: NCES (2019[3])

12

12-month enrolment by post-secondary sector as a share of total enrolment, 2017/18, (%), public four-year institutions, public two-year institutions, private non-profit institutions, private for-profit institutions

12-month enrolment refers to full-time equivalent students who enrolled from July 1 of one year through June 30 of the next. Total enrolment refers to all full-time equivalent enrolment in post-secondary education, both public and private, at all levels of education. Enrolment data cover all post-secondary institutions (degree-granting and non-degree-granting).

In this indicator, the category “public four-year institutions” also include public institutions that only provide graduate-level education. For both public four-year and two-year institutions, the share of institutions that only provide graduate-level education or only provide non-degree programmes (such as certificates) is below 3%.

13

Completion rate within 150% of the nominal duration, by type of institution

Share of degree/certificate-seeking post-secondary students in a given cohort who completed their programme within 150% of the nominal time (e.g. four years for a bachelor’s degree and two years for an associate’s degree). Calculations are based on the adjusted entry cohort, i.e. the cohort excluding students removed for the following reasons: death, permanent disability or entry into service in armed forces, foreign aid missions, or church missions. The indicator presents completion rates for 2018, thus referring to the cohort of students entering post-secondary education in 2012 in four-year institutions and the cohort entering post-secondary education in 2015 for two-year institutions.

14

150% completion rate in public 4-year institutions, by race/ethnicity

Share of degree/certificate-seeking post-secondary students in a given cohort who completed their programme within 150% of the nominal time for three racial and ethnic groups: White, Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino. Racial and ethnic categories are mutually exclusive. Calculations are based on the adjusted entry cohort, i.e. the cohort excluding students removed for the following reasons: death, permanent disability or entry into service in armed forces, foreign aid missions, or church missions.

Source for Indicators 15 to 17: SHEEO (2019[4]). See tables 4 and 6 in SHEF: FY2018 State Higher Education Finance report. The indicators refer only to public higher education institutions.

15

Total educational revenue per full-time equivalent enrolment (public and private sources) in USD

Full-time equivalent (FTE) enrolment is a measure of enrolment in which each unit of measurement is equal to one student enrolled full-time for one academic year, based on all credit hours (including summer sessions). The SHEF data capture FTE enrolment in public institutions of higher education from those credit or contact hours associated with courses that apply to a degree or certificate, excluding non-credit continuing education, adult education, and extension courses.

16

Educational appropriations per full-time equivalent enrolment (public sources only), in USD

This indicator is a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses. They exclude spending for research, agriculture-related programmes, and medical education.

17

Net tuition revenue as a share of total education revenue (public post-secondary institutions)

Net tuition revenue is the total amount of tuition and fees minus state financial aid, institutional tuition waivers or discounts, and medical student tuition and fees. This includes revenue tuition and fees from in-state and out-of-state students as well as undergraduate and graduate students. While net tuition revenue reflects the share of instructional support received from students and their families, it does not consider many factors that contribute to a student’s net price and does not directly measure tuition rate increases.

Total education revenue is the sum of educational appropriations and net tuition revenue. In some states, a portion of tuition revenue is used to fund capital debt service and similar non-operational activities. These sums are excluded from the total educational revenue, which measures the amount of revenue available to public institutions to support instruction.

Source for Indicators 18 and 19: TICAS (2019[5]). Indicators cover undergraduate students only, and loans from both public and private sources. The data were provided voluntarily by approximately half of all public and non-profit bachelor’s degree-granting four-year institutions, representing more than 70% of graduates.

18

Percentage of bachelor’s degree graduates (public and private non-profit) with debt (%)

Share of graduates from public four-year and non-profit four-year institutions who graduated in 2018 with debt

19

Average debt of bachelor’s degree graduates with loans (USD)

Average debt of students from public four-year and private non-profit four-year institutions who graduated in 2018 with student loans

Source for Indicator 20: NCES (2019[3]).

20

Degrees/certificates conferred in selected fields of study as a share of the total, all levels

The four fields of study used for this indicator aggregate several fields of study from the Classification of Instructional Programmes (CIP) 2010. They are similar but not identical to International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) fields of study. The four fields include the following CIP codes:

  • Education: 13 - Education

  • Information and Communications Technology: 10 - Communications Technologies/Technicians and Support Services; 11 - Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services

  • Business and Law: 22 - Legal Professions and Studies; 52 - Business, Management, Marketing, and Related Support Services

  • Arts and Humanities: 16 - Foreign Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics; 23 - English Language and Literature/Letters; 24 - Liberal Arts and Sciences, General Studies and Humanities; 25 - Library Science; 38 - Philosophy and Religious Studies; 39 - Theology and Religious Vocations; 50 - Visual and Performing Arts; 54 – History.

Scorecard Indicators

Sources:

US data: All indicators have been computed using data from the 2018 American Community Survey (2019[2]).

International data: Indicators have been computed using the OECD database (2020[6]). The reference year is 2018 or the latest year available. The employment rate by educational attainment (indicator 1) and employment rate by gender (indicator 3) are based on 2017 for Chile, while employment by field of study (indicator 2) is calculated using 2017 information for Chile and the United States. For annual median earnings by educational attainment (indicator 5) and by field of study (indicator 6), data are from 2017 for most OECD countries. Data from 2016 are used for Australia, Canada, Finland, Luxembourg, Mexico, Poland and Spain; 2015 for the Czech Republic, France and Italy; and 2014 for Lithuania.

1

Employment rate by educational attainment (%)

Ratio of the employed population aged 25-34 to the total population in that age group. Persons were considered employed if they worked at least one hour for pay or profit during the week preceding the survey, worked at least 15 hours as "unpaid family workers," or had a job from which they were temporarily absent (e.g., because of illness or vacation time).

Educational attainment levels include:

  • Upper secondary education, which corresponds to ISCED Level 3.

  • Some college, no degree” includes individuals who started but did not complete a post-secondary qualification and individuals who completed post-secondary qualifications shorter than associate’s degrees, such as certificates. This category is not tracked in international data collections.

  • Associate’s degree corresponds to ISCED Level 5.

  • Bachelor’s degree corresponds to ISCED Level 6.

For fields of study used in Indicator 2, see Table B.2. International comparisons of employment and earnings by field of study.

Race and ethnicity: White, Black/African American, and Hispanic/Latino. The racial and ethnic categories are mutually exclusive.

2

Employment rate of bachelor’s degree holders by selected fields of study (%)

3

Employment rate by gender, bachelor’s degree holders (%)

4

Employment rate by race and ethnicity, bachelor’s degree holders (%)

5

Annual median earnings (full-time full-year workers) by educational attainment (USD)

Annual median earnings are computed based on individuals’ total pre-tax wage and salary income. Full-time, full-year workers are included and the self-employed are included for the purpose of international comparisons. This differs from ACS earnings data used in Chapters 4 to 7, where self-employment earnings are excluded.

Earnings indicators for the US states and US average and maximum are reported in absolute and in relative terms. As earnings have not been adjusted based on different costs of living in the four states, absolute figures have to be interpreted with caution, and in light of the context indicators (Table 2.1, Chapter 3).

Annual median earnings for OECD countries are computed based on individuals’ total pre-tax wage and salary income, with the exception of Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico and Turkey, which consider earnings net of income tax. Full-time, full-year workers are included. Earnings indicators are reported only in relative terms. See Annex 3 of OECD Education at a Glance (2019[7]) for detailed information about the sources for each country.

For educational attainment, fields of study, and race and ethnicity: see above.

6

Annual median earnings (full-time full-year workers) of bachelor’s degree holders by selected fields of study (USD)

7

Annual median earnings (full-time full-year workers) by gender, bachelor’s degree holders (USD)

8

Annual median earnings (full-time full-year workers) by race and ethnicity, bachelor’s degree holders (USD)

9

Share of the population with a degree (associate’s and above) earning above the median wage for the 25-64 year-old population (all earners) (%)

The share is calculated based on individuals’ total pre-tax wage and salary income. It includes all earners, namely individuals working full-time and full-year as well as people working part-time and part-year and the self-employed, to allow for international comparisons with indicators on median earnings from the OECD database (2020[6]).

This indicator reflects the effects of degree attainment, as well as other factors such as work experience and earnings, and should be interpreted with caution.

Scorecard Indicators 2 and 6 report employment and earnings comparisons by field of study between the four US states, the US average and international jurisdictions. For the US states and the US average, Census codes used in the American Community Survey were used. For international jurisdictions, the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) was used. The correspondence between these classifications used in this report is outlined in Table B.2.

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Table B.2. International comparisons of employment and earnings by field of study

Employment rate by selected fields of study (Scorecard Indicators 2 and 6, Table 3.2, Chapter 3)

ISCED 2011, when applicable

American Community Survey (Census codes)

01 - Education

23 - Education Administration and Teaching

ISCED does not include a “STEM” aggregate. The OECD aggregate, also used in the OECD’s annual Education at a Glance publication, includes the following ISCED fields of study:

- 05 Natural sciences, Mathematics and Statistics

- 06 Information and Communications Technologies

- 07 Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM):

14 – Architecture

20 – Communication Technologies

21 – Computer and Information Sciences

24 – Engineering

25 – Engineering Technologies

36 – Biology and Life Sciences

37 – Mathematics and Statistics

38 – Military Technologies

50 – Physical Sciences

51 – Nuclear, Industrial Radiology, and Biological Technologies

56 – Construction Services

57 – Electrical and Mechanic Repairs and Technologies

06 - Information and Communications Technology

20 – Communication Technologies

21 – Computer and Information Sciences

04 - Business, Administration and Law

32 – Law

62 – General Business

02 - Arts and Humanities

15 – Area, Ethnic, and Civilization Studies

26 – Linguistics and Foreign Languages

33 – English Language, Literature, and Composition

34 – Liberal Arts and Humanities

35 – Library Science

48 – Philosophy and Religious Studies

49 – Theology and Religious Vocations

60 – Fine Arts

64 – History

Sources: Degrees conferred by selected fields of study: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015[8]), International Standard Classification of Education, Fields of Education and Training 2013 (ISCED-F 2013), Detailed field descriptions, http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/international-standard-classification-of-education-fields-of-education-and-training-2013-detailed-field-descriptions-2015-en.pdf; U.S. Census Bureau (2019[2]), American Community Survey 2018 (database), https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data.html.

References

[3] NCES (2019), Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (database), National Center for Education Statistics, https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/use-the-data (accessed on 18 January 2020).

[6] OECD (2020), OECD Education Statistics, https://doi.org/10.1787/edu-data-en.

[7] OECD (2019), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/f8d7880d-en.pdf?expires=1568316502&id=id&accname=ocid84004878&checksum=FEF13445781E06CE49671ADC97573E5B (accessed on 12 September 2019).

[4] SHEEO (2019), SHEF: FY 2018 State Higher Education Finance, State Higher Education Executive Officers Association, http://www.sheeo.org/shef (accessed on 30 July 2019).

[5] TICAS (2019), Student Debt and the Class of 2018, The Institute for College Access and Success, https://ticas.org/interactive-map/. (accessed on 23 October 2019).

[1] U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2019), Interactive Data Tables (database), https://apps.bea.gov/itable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=70&step=1 (accessed on 17 April 2020).

[2] U.S. Census Bureau (2019), American Community Survey 2018 (database), https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data.html (accessed on 18 January 2020).

[8] UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015), International Standard Classification of Education Fields of education and training 2013 (ISCED-F 2013)-Detailed field descriptions, http://dx.doi.org/10.15220/978-92-9189-179-5-en.

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