Policies for the Future of Farming and Food in Spain is part of a series of country studies that apply the OECD Agro-Food Productivity-Sustainability-Resilience Policy Framework (PSR), an evidence-based approach to assess if the policy environment is conducive to achieving sustainable agricultural productivity growth and increased resilience. To date, the PSR Framework has been applied to reviews of Australia, Brazil, Canada, the People’s Republic of China, Estonia, the European Union, Japan, Korea, Latvia, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Türkiye, and the United States.

Reconciling agro-food productivity, sustainability and resilience is a challenge common to all countries, while also unique to a country’s specific context and objectives. Following an evidence-based analysis and the comparison of performance indicators across countries, PSR reviews offer country-specific policy recommendations that aim to improve agriculture and food systems policies.

Spain has a dynamic and productive agro-food sector that is competitive in international markets. However, higher productivity has not always reduced environmental pressures, including water stress which is an important challenge for Spain. The Spanish agricultural innovation and knowledge system has much potential to help address environmental challenges and to improve the sector’s resilience, but it must be supported by improved co-ordination and an enabling policy and regulatory environment.

This review presents evidence and policy recommendations that aim to inform future actions by Spain to strengthen its agricultural innovation and knowledge system and improve productivity, as well as the sustainability and resilience of the agro-food sector. The proposed recommendations focus on the institutional and regulatory framework that guides and supports agricultural innovation to take full advantage of its potential.

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