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This chapter includes data on the income taxes paid by workers, their social security contributions, the family benefits they receive in the form of cash transfers as well as the social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by their employers. Results reported include the marginal and average tax burden for eight different family types.

Methodological information is available for personal income tax systems, compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector, universal cash transfers as well as recent changes in the tax/benefit system. The methodology also includes the parameter values and tax equations underlying the data.

    
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The national currency is the Euro (EUR). In 2019, EUR 0.89 equalled USD 1. In that year, the average worker earned EUR 36 547 (Secretariat estimate1).

copy the linklink copied!1. Personal income tax system

1.1. Tax levied by the central government on 2019 income

1.1.1. Tax unit

The tax unit is aggregate family income, but children over 18 are included only if their parents claim them as dependants. Other persons may be fiscally attached on certain conditions: unlike spouses, who are always taxed jointly, children over 18 and other members of the household may opt to be taxed separately. Beginning with the taxation of 2004 income, the law provides for joint taxation of partners in a French civil union (pacte civil de solidarité, or PACS), as soon as the PACS is signed. Reporting obligations for “PACSed” partners are similar to those of married couples.

Earned income is reported net of compulsory employer and employee payroll deductions, except for 2.4 percentage points worth of CSG (contribution sociale généralisée) and the 0.5% CRDS (contribution pour le remboursement de la dette sociale), which are not deductible from the income tax base.

1.1.2. Tax reliefs and tax credits

1.1.2.1. Standard tax reliefs

  • Work-related expenses, corresponding to actual amounts or a standard allowance of 10% of net pay (with a minimum of EUR 441 and a ceiling of EUR 12 627 per earner).

  • Family status: The “family quotient” (quotient familial) system takes a taxpayer’s marital status and family responsibilities into account. It involves dividing net taxable income into a certain number of shares [two shares for a married (or “PACSed”) couple, one share for a single person, one half-share for each dependent child, an additional share for the third and each subsequent dependent child, an additional half-share for single parent, and so on]: the total tax due is equal to the amount of tax corresponding to one share multiplied by the total number of shares. The tax benefit for a half-share is limited, however, to EUR 1 567 per half-share in excess of two shares for a couple, or one share for a single person, except for the first two half-shares granted for the first child of a single parent, in which case the maximum benefit is EUR 3 697.

1.1.2.2. Main non-standard reliefs available to the average worker

Certain expenditures to improve or maintain the taxpayer’s primary residence, including outlays for heat insulation or heating adjustments, major capital expenditures and money spent to equip a home to produce energy from a renewable source (30% tax credits, subject to a multi-year maximum); compensatory allowances in case of divorce if paid in a lump sum (25% reduction, capped at EUR 30 500); child care costs for children under six (50% reduction, up to annual expenditure of EUR 2 300); dependent children attending secondary school or in higher education; donations to charities or other organisations assisting those in needs; trade union dues, etc. The exemption of the employer’s participation to the collective contracts of supplementary health cover is abolished in the budget act for 2014 (i.e. income earned in 2013).

1.1.3. Tax schedule

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Fraction of taxable income

(1 share, in Euros)

Rate (in %)

1st bracket

Up to 10 064

0

2nd bracket

From 10 064 to 27 794

14

3rd bracket

From 27 794 to 74 517

30

4th bracket

From 74 517 to 157 806

41

5th bracket

From 157 806

45

A special rebate for taxpayers with a low tax liability is applied to the amount of tax resulting from the above schedule before reductions and tax credits. To be eligible, the tax on the household’s income must be less than EUR 1 611 for single households and less than 2 653 for the couples. The rebate is equal to the three-quarter of the difference between this ceiling and the amount of tax before the rebate.

A special tax reduction has been established for the 2019 income tax. The reduction rate is 20% of the tax liable if the household income is less than EUR 19 175 (doubled for couples, plus EUR 3 835 for each dependent person) and it decreases linearly until zero for households whose income equals to EUR 21 247 (doubled for couples, plus EUR 3 835 for each dependent person).

If the final tax is less than EUR 61, no tax is payable.

1.1.4. Exceptional contribution on high revenues

An exceptional contribution on high revenues is based on the reference taxable income (“revenu fiscal de référence”). The tax rates are 3% from EUR 250 000 to EUR 500 0000 (single person), 4% over EUR 500 0000 (single person), 3% from EUR 500 000 to EUR 1 000 000 (married couple or civil union) and 4% over EUR 1 000 000 (married couple or civil unions).

1.2. Taxes levied by decentralised authorities

Local taxes levied on working households are:

  • Residency tax (taxe d’habitation), which is set by local authorities;

  • Property taxes on developed and undeveloped land;

  • There are common rules for each type of tax, to which certain municipalities make certain adjustments.

These local taxes, the rates of which vary widely, depending on the municipality, are not assessed here.

1.3. Universal social contribution (contribution sociale généralisée, or CSG)

The universal social contribution (CSG) was introduced on 1 February 1991. Since 1 January 2018, the rate of CSG has been 9.2%. This rate has been applied to a base of 98.25% as of 1st January 2012. The CSG is deductible against taxable income, but at a lower rate of 6.8%.

1.4. Contribution to the reimbursement of social debt (contribution au remboursement de la dette sociale, or CRDS)

The contribution to the reimbursement of social debt has been in effect since 1 February 1997. Like the universal social contribution, its base has passed to 98.25% of gross pay as of 1st January 2012. The rate is set at 0.5%. Unlike social security contributions, CRDS payments are not deductible from taxable income.

copy the linklink copied!2. Compulsory social security contributions to schemes operated within the government sector

Some contributions are levied on a capped portion of monthly earnings. Since 1997, this ceiling has been adjusted once a year on 1 January. In January 2019, the ceiling was EUR 3 377 (or EUR 40 524 per year).

2.1. Employee contributions

2.1.1. Pension

  • 6.9% on earnings up to the ceiling (after 6.9% in 2018).

  • 0.4% on total earnings (after 0.4% in 2018).

2.1.2. Illness, pregnancy, disability, death

  • 0.0% on total earnings (0,0% in 2018)

2.1.3. Unemployment

  • 0.0% on earnings since 1st October 2018 (0.95% between 1st January 2018 and 30 September.

2.1.4. Others

  • Supplemental pension2 for non-managers and managers: minimum 3.15% up to the ceiling and 8.64% between one and eight times the ceiling.

  • The CEG (“Contribution d’Équilibre Général”) is a new contribution that replace AGFF and GMP. The rate of this contribution is, for non-managerial workers and managers, 0.86 % of earnings up to the social security ceiling and 1,08 % between one and eight times the ceiling.

  • The CET (“Contribtion d’Équilibre Technique”): a contribution of 0.14% on total earnings up to eight times the ceiling, for employees who earnings exceed one time the ceiling.

2.2. Employer contributions

2.2.1. Pensions

8.55% (8.55% in 2018) of gross pay, up to the ceiling, plus a 1.90% (1.90% in 2018) levy on total pay.

2.2.2. Illness, pregnancy, disability, death

13.0% of total earnings (after 13.00% in 2018). The rate has been reduced to 7.00% up to 2.5 times the minimum wage since 1st January 2019 with the conversion of the CICE into a permanent cut in social contributions.

An additional contribution of 0.3% (contribution de solidarité autonomie – (CSA) is levied on total salary.

2.2.3. Unemployment

4.05% of earnings (4.05% in 2018) (4.5%, 5.5% or 7% for some temporary contracts), up to four times the ceiling; in addition, 0.15% (0.15% in 2018) up to four times the ceiling to endow the salary guarantee fund (AGS).

2.2.4. Work-related accidents

Contribution rates for work-related accidents vary by line of business and are published annually in the official gazette (Journal officiel de la République française). In 2019, the average rate is 2.22% (after 2.22% in 2018).

2.2.5. Family allowances

5.25% of total pay. The rate has been reduced to 3.45% up to 1.6 times the minimum wage from 2015 with the responsibility pact, up to 3.5 times the minimum wage from April 2016.

2.2.6. Others

  • Supplemental pension: for non-managers and managers, 4.72% up to the ceiling and 12.95% between one and eight times the ceiling.

  • The CEG (“Contribution d’Équilibre Général”) contribution is 1.29% up to the ceiling, 1.62% between one and eight times the ceiling for managers and non-managers. In the table, this is combined with the rates for supplemental pensions.

  • The CET (“Contribution d’Equilibre Technique”), a contribution of 0.21% on total earnings up to eight times the ceiling for employees who earnings exceed one time the ceiling.

  • Others (construction, housing, apprenticeship, further training): 2.646% of pay (for enterprises with more than 20 employees). The transport tax is not included because it varies geographically. Contributions to finance a fund dedicated to workers exposed to distressing work conditions (“Fonds Pénibilité”) vary with the levels of exposure of each worker and are therefore not included.

2.2.7. Reduction of employer-paid social insurance contributions

Act No. 2003-47 of 17 January 2003 on salaries, working time and the development of employment (the “Fillon Act”) amended how the reduction of contributions is calculated.

As a result, since 1 July 2005 the maximum reduction has been 26% (in companies with more than 20 employees) for a worker paid the minimum wage. It then declines gradually to zero at 160% of the annual minimum wage. It applies irrespective of the number of hours worked. From 1st January 2019 to 1st October 2019, the reduction was 28.49%. Since 1st October 2019, it is 32.54%. For companies with less than 20 employees, the reduction was 28.09% between 1st January 2019 and 1st October 2019 and has increased to 32.14% since October 2019.

The Budget Act for 2007 (Article 41 V) bolsters this measure for very small enterprises with effect from 1 July 2007. For employers with between 1 and 19 employees, the maximum deduction was raised to 28.1% at the minimum wage, declining gradually – here too – to zero at 160% of the minimum wage.

In 1 January 2011 the “Fillon act” was modified and included an annualized calculation of the general tax reliefs of employer contributions. For part-time wage-earners, the relief is computed using an equivalent full-time salary and is then adjusted proportionally to the number of hours paid.

From 2015, the Responsibility Pact (Phase 1) includes new reductions of the labour cost: total exemption of all URSSAF employer contributions on the minimum wage (except unemployment contributions); reduction of 1.8 point on employer-paid contributions for family allowance (3.45% instead of 5.25% for salary up to 1.6 times the minimum wage, and up to 3.5 times from April 2016).

The gross annual minimum wage (for 1 820 hours) in 2019 was an estimated EUR 18 255.

2.2.8. Competitive tax credit (CICE - Crédit d'impôt pour la compétitivité et l'emploi)

As for 2015, the competitive tax credit (CICE - Crédit d'impôt pour la compétitivité et l'emploi) will benefit all businesses, regardless of their legal status or economic sector, that employ salaried workers and be liable for either corporation tax or income tax, based on actual profits.

The CICE is based on all wages paid to salaried employees in a given calendar year up to 2.5 times the minimum wage (without taking into account any overtime or additional hours worked). For part-time employees and seasonal workers, the minimum wage corresponding to the working hours stipulated in the contract shall be taken into account.

Since the 1st January 2019, the CICE has been converted into a permanent cut in social contributions.

copy the linklink copied!3. Universal cash transfers

3.1. Main minimum social benefits

The RSA (revenu de solidarité active) is the minimum income benefit. However, the eight family types studied here earn too high an income to benefit from this benefit.

3.2. Main family benefits (in respect of dependent children)

Family allowances: monthly base for family allowances (BMAF) = EUR 411.92 between 1st January and 1st April 2019, since 1st April, the BMAF is EUR 413.16. The CRDS is levied on family allowances at a rate of 0.5% (no deduction). The amounts in % of BMAF are before CRDS.

  • The family allowances, granted to families with two or more children, are subject to revenue conditions since 1 July 2015:

    • Up to 68 217 (+5 684 per child after the second child), the rate is 32% for two children and 41% per additional child. An extra amount of 16% of the BMAF is reversed if the child is over 14 (the extra amount is not incorporated into the model).

    • Between 68 218 (+5 684 per child after the second child) and 90 926 (+5 684 per child after the second child), the above rates are divided by 2.

    • Beyond 90 927 (+5 684 per child after the second child), the above rates are divided by 4.

  • ASF (Allocation de soutien familial): extra child benefit for isolated parent is at most 28.13 % of the BMAF per month. It is reduced by the amount of child support paid by the other parent to the family.

  • ARS (Allocation de Rentrée Scolaire): The amount payable depends on the age of the child to reflect needs. The allowance is payable to families or persons with children aged 6 to 18 attending school, and whose income is below a certain level (not incorporated into the model).

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Age of the child

Percentage of the BMAF in 2019

6–10 years

89.72%

11–14 years

94.67%

15–18 years

97.95%

  • Family supplement (Complément Familial): 41.65% of the BMAF. Subject to revenue ceilings, this is paid to families as of the third child. An extra amount (20.83% of BMAF) is reversed for families whose incomes are below a given threshold (not incorporated into the model).

  • Early childhood benefit (not incorporated in the model) known as PAJE (Prestation d’Accueil du Jeune Enfant): subject to revenue ceilings. It includes:

    • A birth grant of 229.75% of the BMAF received at the 7th month of pregnancy.

    • A benefit (“allocation de base”) of 41.65% (or 20.83 % depending on the family income) of the BMAF a month from the birth of the child until three years of age.

3.3. Housing benefits

The housing benefits are not included in the model.

3.4. In-work benefit

The November 2014 Supplementary Budget Act eliminated the earned income tax credit (Prime pour l’emploi, PPE) so that it could be merged with the in-work income supplement (RSA Activité) and become a single in-work benefit. The in-work benefit was created by the Act of 17 August 2015 on Labour-Management Dialogue and Employment, and has been in place since 1 January 2016. The in-work benefit is better targeted to promote a return to full-time work for low-paid workers.

The amount of in-work benefit is equal to a targeted income, less the maximum between resources and a lump sum.

The targeted income is determined as the sum of three elements:

  • A lump sum of EUR 551.51 (before CRDS) modulated according to the composition of the household. For instance, it is increased by 50% for couple, then 30% for each child until two (EUR) and 40% for each additional child (EUR). The amount may be increased for a temporary period3 for an isolated parent (28.412% of the basic lump sum for the adult and then 42.804% for each child).

  • An individual bonus of 29.101% of the basic lump sum is planned for persons whose net income exceeds around 100% of the net minimum wage; this bonus grows linearly if the net income is between around 50% and 100% of the net minimum wage4.

  • 61% of the net professional income of the household.

Then ressources are assessed as the sum of the household income, plus the benefits (family benefits and others, except RSA and housing benefits)5. A lump sum depending on the composition of the household (12% of the basic lump sum (EUR 551.51) for a single person, 16% for a couple, 16.5% for three persons or plus) is used to take into account the housing benefits6.

copy the linklink copied!4. Main changes in the tax system and social benefits regime since the taxation of 2015 income

  • Tax system (2016 income)

    • Special income tax reduction.

  • Increase of 1.7 points of CSG deductible

  • Social benefits regime

    • Increased reduction of employer-paid contributions for family allowance: 3.45% instead of 5.25% for salary up to 3.5 times the minimum wage from April 2016 (1.6 times before).

    • Removal of sickness employee contribution

    • Creation of a new cash transfer benefit for low income workers (“prime d’activité”) which replace the PPE and the “RSA activité”7.

copy the linklink copied!5. Memorandum items

To assess the degree of comparability between countries, the following additional information should be taken into account:

  • Coverage is of the private and semi-public sectors of NACE sections C to K up to 2007 and NACE rev.2 sections B to N from 2008.

  • The category “employees” encompasses all full-time dependent employees (excluding apprentices and interns).

  • The figures presented are obtained by applying income tax and social contribution scales to gross salaries as listed in annual social data reports (DADS) in NACE.

There is a break in the average wage time-series starting with the year 2016. That year, the National Statistics Office (INSEE) changed their methodology for the calculations of the average wage.

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2019 Parameter values

APW earnings

Ave_earn

36 547

Secretariat estimate

Income tax

 

 

 

Work expenses

work_rel_fl

441

 

 

work_rel_ceil

12627

 

 

work_rel_rate

0.1

 

Tax schedule

tax_sch

0

10 064

 

 

0.14

27 794

 

 

0.3

74 517

 

 

0.41

157 806

 

 

0.45

 

 

limit_demipart

1567

 

 

limit_sp_demipart1

3697

 

Décote value

decote_sing

1611

 

 

decote_mar

2653

 

 

decote_pente

0.75

 

Tax reduction

red_taux

0.20

 

 

red_seuil_1

19175

 

 

red_seuil_2

21247

 

 

red_seuil_dp

3835

 

 

tax_min

61

 

CEHR

cehr_rate1

0.03

 

 

cehr_rate2

0.04

 

 

cehr_ceil1

250000

 

 

cehr_ceil2

500000

 

CSG+CRDS

CSG_CRDS_abat

0.0175

 

 

CSG_rat_noded

0.0240

 

 

CRDS_rat_noded

0.0050

 

 

CSG_CRDS_rat_noded

0.0290

 

 

CSG_rat_ded

0.0680

 

 

CRDS_special

0.0050

 

 

 

 

 

Employee contributions

 

 

 

 

pension_rate

0.069

 

 

pension_rate2

0.004

 

Sickness

sickness_rate

0.0000

 

Unemployment

unemp_rate

0.0000

 

Extra pension (non-cadres) (incl. AGFF)

pens_rate_ex

0.0401

 

 

pens_rate_ex2

0.0972

 

pens_rate_ex3

0.0014

Employer contributions

 

 

 

 

pens_empr1

0.0855

 

 

pens_empr2

0.0190

 

Sickness

sickness_empr

0.0700

 

Sickness_emp2

0.1300

Authonomous Solidarity Contribution

CSA

0.0030

 

Unemployment (incl. "garantie de salaire")

unemp_empr

0.0420

 

Accidents

accidents_empr

0.0222

 

Family Allowance

fam_empr

0.0525

 

 

fam_empr_2

0.0345

 

Extra pension (incl. AGFF)

pens_empr_ex

0.060144

 

 

pens_empr_ex2

0.14574

 

pens_empr_ex3

0.0021

Others

others_empr

0.02646

 

 

 

 

 

CS reduction & corporate tax credit

 

 

Employer SSC reduction rate

SSC_empr_redrate2

0.6

 

Employer SSC reduction maximum

SSC_empr_red_max

0.29503

 

Employer SSC reduction SMIC reference

SSC_empr_SMIC_ref

1.6

 

 

SSC_empr_SMIC2

3.5

 

SSC_empr_SMIC3

2.5

Taux de réduction CICE

cice_red

0,00

 

 

cice_max

2.5

 

Social transfers

 

 

 

Child benefit (second child)

CB_2

1585.34

 

third & subsequent before CRDS

CB_3

2031.22

 

First ceiling for CB

CB_c1

68217

 

Second ceiling for CB

CB_c2

90926

 

Increase of ceiling per child

CB_ceiling_extra_child

5684

 

Extra child benefit for isolated parent

CB_isol

1393.62

 

Prime d'activité

pa_forf

551.51

 

 

pa_maj1

0.50

 

 

pa_maj2

0.30

 

 

pa_maj3

0.40

 

 

pa_maj_isol1

0.28412

 

 

pa_maj_isol2

0.42804

 

 

pa_pct

0.61

 

 

pa_bonus

0.29101

 

 

pa_bonus1

0.3890

 

 

pa_bonus2

0.79121

 

 

pa_forf_logement1

0.12

 

 

pa_forf_logement2

0.16

 

 

pa_forf_logement3

0.165

 

Others

 

 

 

Social security contributions

SSC_ceil

40524

 

Derivation of minimum income

SMIC_horaire

10.03

 

 

SMIC_heures

1820

 

 

SMIC

18254.6

 

2019 Tax equations

The equations for the French system are mostly calculated on a family basis. Variable names are defined in the table of parameters above, within the equations table, or are the standard variables “married” and “children”. A reference to a variable with the affix “_total” indicates the sum of the relevant variable values for the principal and spouse. And the affixes “_princ” and “_spouse” indicate the value for the principal and spouse, respectively. Equations for a single person are as shown for the principal, with “_spouse” values taken as 0.

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Line in country table and intermediate steps

Variable name

Range

Equation

1.

Earnings

Earn

 

 

Quotient for tax calculation

Quotient

J

1+Married+IF(Children<3, Children/2, Children-1)+0.5*(Married=0)*(Children>0)

2.

Allowances

 

 

 

CSG deductible

CSG_ded

B

CSG_rat_ded*((1-CSG_CRDS_abat)*MIN(earn;4*SSC_ceil)+Positive(earn-4*SSC_ceil))

Salary net

earn_dec

B

earn-SSC-CSG_ded

Work related

work_exp

B

MIN(work_rel_ceil, MAX(work_rel_rate* earn_dec, MIN(work_rel_fl, earn_dec)))

Basic

basic_al

B

0

3.

Credits in taxable income

taxbl_cr

B

0

4.

CG taxable income

tax_inc

J

Positive(earn_dec_total-work_exp)

5.

CG tax before credits

 

 

 

Calculation according to schedule

sch_tax

J

MAX(quotient*Tax(tax_inc/quotient, tax_sch), IF(Married, 2*Tax(tax_inc/2, tax_sch)-limit_demipart*(quotient-2), Tax(tax_inc, tax_sch)-(Children>0)* (limit_sp_demipart1+limit_demipart*(quotient-2))))++cehr_rate1* MIN((cehr_ceil2-cehr_ceil1)*(1+Married);MAX(tax_inc-cehr_ceil1*(1+Married);0))+cehr_rate2 * MAX(tax_inc-cehr_ceil2*(1+Married);0)

Adjusted for decote

adj_tax

J

SI(Married;Positive(MINA(tax_sch; (1+decote_pente)*tax_sch- decote_pente*decote_mar));Positive(MINA(tax_sch;(1+decote_pente)*tax_sch-decote_pente*decote_sing)))

Tax liable

inc_tax

J

(adj_tax>=tax_min)*adj_tax

CSG+CRDS (non-deductible)

CSG_CRDS_noded

B

CSG_CRDS_rat_nod*((1-CSG_CRDS_abat)*MIN(earn;4*SSC_ceil)+Positive(earn-4*SSC_ceil))

CSG deductible

CSG_ded

B

CSG_rat_ded*((1-CSG_CRDS_abat)*MIN(earn;4*SSC_ceil)+Positive(earn-4*SSC_ceil))

6.

Tax credits :

tax_cr

J

adj_tax*SI((tax_inc<=red_seuil_1*(1+Married)+red_seuil_dp*Children);red_taux;SI(tax_inc<='red_seuil_2*(1+Married)+red_seuil_dp*Children;(tax_inc*red_taux'/(red_seuil_1*(1+Married)+red_seuil_dp*Children-(red_seuil_2*(1+Married)+red_seuil_dp*Children)))+(red_taux*(red_seuil_2*(1+Married)+red_seuil_dp*Children))/(red_seuil_2*(1+Married)+red_seuil_dp*Children-(red_seuil_1*(1+Married)+red_seuil_dp*Children));0))

7.

CG tax

CG_tax

J

inc_tax+CSG_CRDS_noded+CSG_ded-tax_cr

8.

State and local taxes

local_tax

J

0

9.

Employees' soc security

SSC

B

((sickness_rate+pension_rate2)*earn +

(pension_rate + pens_rate_ex )*MINA(earn;SSC_ceil) +

unemp_rate*MINA(earn;4*SSC_ceil) +

pens_rate_ex2* MAX(MIN(earn;8*SSC_ceil) - SSC_ceil;0))+SI(earn<SSC_ceil;0;SI(earn>8*SSC_ceil;8*SSC_ceil*pens_rate_ex3;pens_rate_ex3*earn))

11.

Cash transfers

cash_transf_gross

J

SI(Children<2;0;(CB_2+(Children-2)*CB_3)*SI(tax_inc<=(CB_c1+CB_ceiling_extra_child*(Children-2));1;SI(tax_inc<=(CB_c2+CB_ceiling_extra_child*(Children-2));0,5;0,25)))+SI(Isolated=1;CB_isol*Children;0)

in_work_benefit_gross

J

MAX(SI((Isolated='1);' 12*pa_forf*(1+pa_maj_isol1+pa_maj_isol2*Children); 12*pa_forf*(1+SI(Married=1;pa_maj1;0)+pa_maj2*SI(Children<=2;Children;0)+pa_maj3*SI(Children>2;Children-2;0)))+pa_pct*(earn_dec-CSG_CRDS_noded)+pa_bonus*pa_forf/(pa_bonus2-pa_bonus1)*12*SI(ET(pa_bonus1*SMIC<(earn_dec_princ-CSG_CRDS_noded_princ);pa_bonus2*SMIC>(earn_dec_princ-CSG_CRDS_noded_princ));(earn_dec_princ-CSG_CRDS_noded_princ)/SMIC-pa_bonus1;0)+pa_bonus*pa_forf/(pa_bonus2-pa_bonus1)*12*SI(ET(pa_bonus1*SMIC<(earn_dec_spouse-CSG_CRDS_noded_spouse);pa_bonus2*SMIC>(earn_dec_spouse-CSG_CRDS_noded_spouse));(earn_dec_spouse-CSG_CRDS_noded_spouse)/SMIC-pa_bonus1;0)+pa_bonus*pa_forf*12*SI((earn_dec_princ-CSG_CRDS_noded_princ)>=pa_bonus2*SMIC;1;0)+pa_bonus*pa_forf*12*SI((earn_dec_spouse-CSG_CRDS_noded_spouse)>=pa_bonus2*SMIC;1;0)-MAX(earn_dec-CSG_CRDS_noded+(family_benefit_gross-SI(Isolated='1;CB_isol*Children;0)*(1-(22,5%'/28,15%)))+((Married+Children='0)*' pa_forf_logement1*pa_forf*12+ (Married+Children='1)*pa_forf_logement2*pa_forf*1,5*12' + (Married+Children>='2)*pa_forf_logement3*pa_forf*1,8*12);' SI(ET((Married='0);(Children>0));' 12*pa_forf*(1+pa_maj_isol1+pa_maj_isol2*Children);pa_forf*12*(1+SI(Married=1;pa_maj1;0)+pa_maj2*SI(Children<=2;Children;0)+pa_maj3*SI(Children>2;Children-2;0))));0)

 

crds_cash_transf

J

cash_transf_gross*-1*CRDS_special

 

cash_transf_net

J

cash_transf_gross+crds_cash_transf

13.

Employer's soc security

SSC_empr_gross

B

(CSA + pens_empr2 + accidents_empr+others_empr)*earn +

pens_empr1*MINA(earn;SSC_ceil) +

pens_empr_ex*MINA(earn;SSC_ceil) +

pens_empr_ex2* MAX(MIN(earn;8*SSC_ceil) - SSC_ceil;0) +

unemp_empr*MIN(earn;4*SSC_ceil) +SI(earn<SSC_empr_SMIC2*SMIC; fam_empr_2*earn; fam_empr*earn)+SI(earn<SSC_ceil;0;SI(earn>8*SSC_ceil;8*SSC_ceil*pens_empr_ex3;pens_empr_ex3*earn))+SI(earn<SSC_empr_SMIC3*SMIC;sickness_empr*earn;sickness_empr2*earn)

 

SSC_empr_reduction

B

IF(OR(earn>SSC_empr_SMIC_ref*SMIC,earn='0),0,-MIN' (SSC_empr_red_max*earn,(SSC_empr_red_max/SSC_empr_redrate2)*(SSC_empr_SMIC_ref*SMIC/earn-1)*earn)) -IF(earn<cice_max*SMIC;earn*cice_red)

 

SSC_empr_final

B

SSC_empr_gross+SSC_empr_reduction

Key to range of equation B calculated separately for both principal earner and spouse P calculated for principal only (value taken as 0 for spouse calculation) J calculated once only on a joint basis.

Notes

← 1. The low compensation rate used in forecasting the average wage in 2019 (+0.6%, please see Table A.6 in the Annex) is due to a decrease in employer social contributions and not to a lower increase in gross wage.

← 2. The social protection scheme is named ARRCO for non-managers and AGIRC for managers. The two protection schemes have been merged since the 1st January 2019.

← 3. During at most 12 months over a 18-months period ; or, if there is a child under three in the family, until the child is three.

← 4. The boundaries are defined as : minimum of 59 hours paid at gross minimum wage per hour per month and maximum of 120 hours paid at gross minimum wage per hour per month.

← 5. Capital income, unemployment benefits, pensions or minimum old-age pensions are not taken into account in this model.

← 6. The complete formula uses the minimum of this lump sum tax and the amount of housing benefits, if the family is a tenant. As the model does not include housing benefits, we only use the lump sum in the formula. This method tends to minimize the amount of “prime d’activité” served.

← 7. In the previous model, for 2015 revenues, this reform only affects the income tax (no PPE in 2016) but not the benefits, since the “prime d’activité” will be served as from the beginning of 2016.

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