Climate change

Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from human activities disturb the radiative energy balance of the earth-atmosphere system. They exacerbate the natural greenhouse effect, leading to temperature changes and other disruption of the earth's climate. Land use changes and forestry also play a role by altering the amount of greenhouse gases captured or released by carbon sinks. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation is a major contributor to greenhouse gases. CO2 makes up the largest share of greenhouse gases and thus is a key factor in countries’ ability to mitigate climate change. National emissions are also affected by changes in global demand and supply patterns with increasing trade flows and the displacement of carbon-intensive production abroad. Reductions in domestic emissions can thus be partially or wholly offset elsewhere in the world.

Climate change is of global concern for its effects on green growth and sustainable development. It threatens ecosystems and biodiversity, affects water resources, human settlements and the frequency and scale of extreme weather events, with significant consequences for food production, human well-being, socio-economic activities and economic output.

The main challenges are to mitigate GHG emissions and stabilise GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would limit dangerous interference with the climate system, and to adapt to and manage risks from climate change.

  • This implies implementing national and international low-carbon strategies and further decoupling GHG emissions from economic growth. It also implies increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the supply mix, and reducing energy intensity by adopting energy-efficient production processes and increasing the energy efficiency of consumer goods and services.

  • With increasing trade flows, interdependent global value chains and the relocation of carbon-intensive production abroad, reductions in domestic emissions can be partially or wholly offset elsewhere in the world. Domestic mitigation efforts must thus be placed in a global context and must build on a good understanding of carbon flows associated with international trade and final domestic demand.

  • Ensuring a proper mix of market-based instruments, for example by promoting carbon pricing, environmentally-related taxation and removing government subsidies and other support for fossil fuels, plays an important role in this transition.

  • Beyond these steps, governments must align policies across a diverse range of non-climate areas including transport, housing, construction, spatial planning, agriculture and development cooperation. And they must consider synergies between emissions reduction, adaptation strategies and broader well-being objectives such as reduced air pollution and improved health.

Environmental performance can be assessed against domestic objectives and international goals and commitments. Tackling climate change and underlying drivers is part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (New York, September 2015) under Goal 13: “Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts”; Goal 12: “Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns”; Goal 9: “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation” and Goal 7: “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”.

The main international agreement is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) which is the basis of:

  • The Kyoto Protocol (1997) that sets internationally binding and differentiated emission reduction targets for six GHGs for 2008-12. It has been ratified by 177 parties, including all but two OECD countries, and has been in force since 2005. 37 industrialised countries and the European Union committed to reduce GHG emissions by an average of 5% below 1990 levels. The "Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol" (2012), includes new commitments for the period 2013-20 and a revised list of GHGs. Parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by an average of at least 18% below 1990 levels over 2013-20. The amendment is not yet in force.

  • The Paris Agreement (2015) that strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change. The objective is to keep the average global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius and as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Parties have expressed their commitments to 2025 or 2030 through nationally determined contributions (NDCs), including a regular report on their emissions and implementation efforts.

This is supported by the commitment in September 2009, of the Leaders of the Group of Twenty (G20) economies to “phase out and rationalize over the medium term inefficient fossil fuel subsidies while providing targeted support for the poorest.” To follow up on this commitment, G20 members have since engaged in a voluntary process of periodically reporting on their fossil-fuel subsidies.

The indicators presented here include the following:

They can be read in conjunction with other indicators on the driving forces and impacts of climate change, which are presented under other Environment at a Glance themes:

  • Global GHG emissions have increased by 1.5 fold since 1990, driven by economic growth and increasing fossil energy use.

  • In almost all OECD countries however, emissions have been declining in recent years partly due to the economic slowdown following the 2008 financial crisis, but also to strengthened climate policies.

  • The rate of progress in reducing emissions varies significantly across individual OECD countries. Progress overall is insufficient and GHG emissions are expected to rise again due to recent increase of energy use and CO2-related emissions.

Despite some progress achieved in decoupling GHG emissions from GDP growth, emissions are still growing in some countries. Global GHG emissions have increased by 1.5 fold since 1990, driven by economic growth and increasing fossil energy use in developing countries. Historically, OECD countries emitted the bulk of global GHGs, but the share of BRIICS countries in global emissions has been increasing to over 40% since 2010. CO2 determines the overall trend. Together with CH4 and N2O, it accounts for about 98% of GHG emissions (IEA, 2019).

Emissions of OECD countries peaked in 2007, have been gradually falling over the past 12 years (-10%). Emissions have been declining in most OECD countries, partly due to a slowdown in economic activity following the 2008 economic crisis, but also to strengthened climate policies and changing patterns of energy consumption. Emission intensities per unit of GDP and per capita decreased since 2005 in almost all OECD countries, revealing a strong overall decoupling from economic growth. Under the Kyoto Protocol, most OECD countries met their emission reduction commitments for the first period 2008-12 and are on track to meet their 2020 target.

Overall progress is however insufficient. GHG emissions are expected to rise again due to recent increase of energy use and CO2-related emissions. Climate change is increasingly impacting people’s lives, national economies, biodiversity and ecosystems, including the ocean.

On average, energy industries generate 29% of GHG emissions in OECD countries, followed by transport (24%), manufacturing industries (12%), agriculture, (9%), industrial processes (7%) and waste (3%). While the share of emissions from energy industries have slightly decreased since 2005, those from transport and agriculture increased. In some countries such as Luxembourg, Slovenia, Sweden and Switzerland, emissions from transport account for more than 30% of total emissions, while in New Zealand and Ireland, agriculture is the first GHG emitter (above 30%).

Individual OECD countries’ rates of progress vary significantly, whether emissions are considered in absolute numbers, per capita amounts or per unit of GDP. This partly reflects different national circumstances, such as composition and rate of economic growth, socio-demographic developments, energy supply and consumption patterns, energy prices, and the extent to which the countries have taken steps to reduce emissions from various sources and to price carbon.

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Data on GHG emissions display a good level of comparability. The high per-GDP emissions of Estonia result from the use of oil shale for electricity generation (oil shale has a high carbon emission factor). The high per-capita emissions of Luxembourg result from a high number of cross-border workers and the lower taxation of road fuels compared to neighbouring countries, which attracts drivers to refuel in the country.

Reductions in national emissions may also be the result of offshoring domestic production (and the associated emissions). Evidence of decoupling based on domestic emissions per unit of GDP or per capita, therefore, may reveal only part of the story.

For further details, see the metadata in the source databases listed under Sources below.

  • Despite a slowdown in the OECD area, global CO2 emissions continued to grow. Very few countries have managed to reduce emission levels in absolute terms.

  • Today, OECD countries emit about 35% of global CO2 emissions from energy use, compared to more than 50% in 1990.

  • A more nuanced picture emerges when emissions are considered from the perspective of final demand. The carbon footprint of OECD countries is generally higher than emissions from domestic production.

CO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass accounts for about 90% of total CO2 emissions and two third of total GHG emissions, therefore determining overall GHG emissions trend. After three years of stability, global energy-related CO2 emissions picked-up again and reached a record high of 33.5 billion tonnes in 2018. Emissions are still growing in many countries mainly due to increases in the transport and the energy sectors.

Since 2000, OECD energy-related CO2 emissions have decreased while economic growth has been positive. This is due to structural changes in industry and energy supply and improvements in energy efficiency in production processes. Most countries have achieved only a relative decoupling between emissions and economic growth, although some managed to reduce emission levels in absolute terms. While decreasing in OECD America and OECD Europe, energy-related CO2 emissions continue to grow in the OECD Asia-Oceania region. This is due to energy supply and consumption patterns and trends, often combined with relatively low energy prices.

Since 1990, energy-related CO2 emissions have grown more slowly in OECD countries as a group than they have worldwide. Today, OECD countries emit about 35% of global CO2 emissions from energy use, compared to more than 50% in 1990.

On a per-capita basis, OECD countries still emit far more CO2 than most other world regions, with 8.7 tonnes of CO2 emitted per capita on average in OECD countries in 2018, compared to 4.4 tonnes in the rest of the world. Individual OECD countries’ rates of progress vary significantly, regardless of whether they are considered in absolute numbers, per capita amounts or per unit of GDP.

A more nuanced picture emerges when emissions are considered from the perspective of final demand. The carbon footprint of OECD countries, that accounts for all carbon emitted anywhere in the world to satisfy domestic final demand is generally higher than emissions from domestic production. This is because OECD countries have increasingly outsourced the production of consumer goods to other countries.

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CO2 emissions from energy use, intensities per capita
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The CO2 emission estimates are affected by the quality of the underlying energy data, but in general the comparability across countries is quite good. The low CO2 emissions productivity of Estonia result from the use of oil shale for electricity generation. Oil shale has a high-carbon emission factor. The high per-capita emissions of Luxembourg result from the lower taxation of road fuels compared to neighbouring countries, which attracts drivers to refuel in the country.

Carbon productivity indicators inform about the relative decoupling between economic activity and carbon emissions into the atmosphere. They provide insight into how much carbon productivity has improved. They also measure how much of the improvement is due to domestic policies and how much to displacement or substitution effects. The demand perspective helps explain production-based trends.

Reductions in national emissions can also be achieved by offshoring domestic production and, thus, the related emissions. Evidence of decoupling based on domestic emissions, therefore, may reveal only part of the story.

For further details see the metadata in the source databases listed under Sources below.

  • OECD countries continue to rely on fossil fuels for about 80% of their energy; renewables still play only a relatively minor role in energy mixes.

  • Energy intensity decreased for OECD countries overall, but while some decoupling of environmental effects from growth in energy use has been achieved, results to date are insufficient to effectively reduce air and GHG emissions from energy use.

The supply structure varies considerably among countries. It is influenced by demand from industry, transport and households, by national energy policies and by national and international energy prices. Developments in TPES were accompanied by changes in the fuel mix. Since 2000, OECD countries’ reliance on fossil fuels declined although it remains close to 80%. The shares of solid fuels and oil slightly fell, while those of natural gas and renewable energy rose. Biofuels and waste, followed by hydro represent the largest renewable sources.

In the 1990s and 2000s, energy intensity per unit of GDP decreased for OECD countries overall as a consequence of structural changes in the economy and energy conservation measures, and, since 2009, as a consequence of the slowdown in economic activity following the economic crisis. In some countries, the decrease was due to the transfer of energy-intensive industries to other countries. Such outsourcing may increase pressures on the global environment if less energy efficient techniques are involved. Progress in per capita terms has been slower, reflecting overall trends in energy supply and energy demand for transport.

Variations in energy intensity among OECD countries are wide. They depend on national economic structure and income, geography, energy policies and prices, and countries’ endowment in different types of energy resources. While some decoupling of environmental effects from growth in energy use has been achieved, results to date are insufficient to effectively reduce air and GHG emissions from energy use. Relative decoupling between TPES and GDP is occurring in all regions of the OECD, however, in OECD Asia-Oceania, it began much later (2003) than in OECD Europe and OECD America (1990).

TPES per capita has declined by 10% on average across the OECD, with about two thirds of countries reducing their TPES intensity per capita. The highest decrease occurred in the United Kingdom. However, intensities per capita have risen in several Eastern European countries, Turkey and Iceland.

Renewables (i.e. solar, wind, liquid biofuels and biogases) with the lowest shares in TPES exhibited the highest growth rates over the last decade, now making up almost a quarter of electricity production. The largest renewable sources are biofuels and waste, followed by hydro. The growth in renewables was less affected by the economic crisis and was driven by OECD Europe, mostly due to the implementation of policies that promote renewable energy. Europe’s energy mix also has the lowest share of fossil fuels and oil among OECD regions.

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Data quality is not homogeneous for all countries. In some countries, data are based on secondary sources, and where incomplete, estimates were made by the IEA. In general, data are likely to be more accurate for production and trade than for international bunkers or stock changes; and statistics for biofuels and waste are less accurate than those for traditional commercial energy data. The high values for Iceland are due to a significant increase in the production of hydro- and geothermal power mainly used in aluminium smelters. The supply structure, which may vary considerably among countries is dependent on final demands by industry, transport and the household sector, and is highly influenced by national energy policies and endowments in energy resources.

For further details see the metadata in the source databases listed under Sources below.

  • In the OECD area, climate change-related taxes raised USD 793 billion in 2019, representing the majority of environmentally related tax revenue (90%).

  • The bulk of climate change related tax revenue comes from taxing energy and transport; pollution and resource tax bases play a minor role in generating revenue.

  • Overall, the share of environmentally related tax revenue (ERTR) continues to decline in OECD countries, amounting to 5.2% of total tax revenue in 2019, down from 6.1% in early 2000s. Compared to GDP, ERTR is also decreasing and reached 1.5% of GDP in 2019

In the OECD area, climate change-related taxes raised USD 793 billion in 2019, representing the majority of environmentally related tax revenue (90%). This share has remained relatively unchanged since 2000. The bulk of revenue coming from taxes directed at climate change is raised from taxing energy (77%), in particular motor fuels, and transport (22%), while pollution and resource tax bases play a minor role in generating revenue. Pricing CO2 and energy remains the most economically efficient tool to bend the direction of carbon emissions globally, and create favourable conditions to mobilise private finance and investment required to achieve global mitigation objectives. Taxes on tax bases such as logging, forestry products and land use change, in turn, can help safeguard planetary carbon sinks and encourage carbon sequestration.

Overall, the share of environmentally related tax revenue (ERTR) continues to decline in OECD countries, amounting to 5.2% of total tax revenue in 2019, down from 6.1% in early 2000s. Compared to GDP, ERTR is also decreasing and reached 1.5% of GDP in 2019. The decreasing trend is a combination of factors, namely, that tax rates are typically defined in physical units (e.g. per litre) and hence are set in nominal terms. Without inflation adjustment, these rates decrease in real terms over time. While countries such as Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden have implemented such adjustments, most OECD countries do not yet apply inflation adjustments to environmentally related taxes. Another factor contributing to this trend is the increase in crude oil prices up until mid-2014, which triggered substitution away from motor fuel use, also making adjustments in nominal tax rates on motor fuels politically difficult. Yet some countries, such as Slovenia, Costa Rica, Turkey and Estonia strengthened the role of environmentally related taxes and have tripled their share of tax revenue since 2000.

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The indicators on environmentally related taxes should not be used to assess the “environmental friendliness” of the tax systems. For such analysis, additional information, describing the economic and taxation structure of each country, is required. Moreover, a number of environmentally related taxes can have important environmental impacts even if they raise little (or no) revenue. In addition, revenue from fees and charges, and from royalties related to resource management, is not included.

Comparisons of ERTRs in OECD countries provide a useful starting point for analysing the impact of environmental taxation, however, comparing only the levels of revenue does not provide the full picture of a country’s environmental policy, as it does not provide information on the levels of tax rates or the exemptions applied. Other parts of the OECD PINE database, including information on tax rates and exemptions, allows deeper assessment of the environmental impacts of these taxes. In addition, governments may choose to implement environmental policy using a range of other instruments, including fees and charges, expenditures (both direct and subsidies) and regulation, some of which are also detailed in the PINE database (see http://oe.cd/pine for information on the use of alternative instruments in countries).

For further details see the metadata in the source databases listed under Data sources below.

  • OECD countries provided around USD 108 billion in support for fossil fuels in 2019, 18% higher than in 2018. Government support for fossil-fuel production and use has risen again driven largely by increased support to the fossil-fuel production sector.

  • In 2019, increases in production support were largely driven by the additional incentives benefitting the oil and gas sector, mostly through direct budgetary support to absorb corporate debt, fossil-fuel infrastructure investments, and tax provisions that provide preferential treatment on capital expenditures for fossil-fuel production. .

  • Hard-coal industry in Western Europe has been phased out and efforts to end state aid to coal-fired power generation in the European Union are continuing.

Many governments continue to support fossil fuel production and use financially, in particular oil and gas. This undermines the effectiveness of environmental policies by lowering the cost of emitting carbon and is a barrier to moving towards a more energy efficient and low-carbon economy. It can also impose a strain on government budgets.

OECD countries provided around USD 108 billion in support for fossil fuels in 2019, 18% higher than the previous year.

The recent increase in support is in large part explained by increases seen in general services support estimates (GSSE) and producer support estimates (PSE). Most of the support in OECD countries (70%) goes to the consumption of fossil fuels, and in particular petroleum. For several countries, estimates of support pertain exclusively to consumption, a feature that has much to do with geological factors and the decline in coal production observed throughout Europe. In the cases of countries possessing abundant fossil resources, the share of producer support tends to be higher.

On the production side, the subsidised hard-coal industry in Western Europe has been phased out and efforts to end state aid to coal-fired power generation in the European Union are continuing. A recent EU decision aims at ending state aid to high-emission power plants and effectively eliminating subsidies to coal by 2025. At the same time, the oil and gas sector continues to benefit from government incentives in several countries, mostly through direct budgetary support to absorb corporate debt, fossil-fuel infrastructure investments, and tax provisions that provide preferential treatment on capital expenditures for fossil-fuel production. Such policies could go against domestic efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

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The OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels, which covers 44 OECD and G20 economies, identifies and estimates policies that support the production or consumption of fossil fuels. It includes direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that may provide a benefit or preference for fossil-fuel production or consumption relative to alternatives. Unlike direct budgetary expenditures, where outlays can usually be measured, tax expenditures are estimates of the fiscal revenue that is foregone due to a particular feature of the tax system that reduces a tax rate relative to a benchmark tax rate. It is important to note that definitions of tax expenditures, and the benchmarks used to estimate their size, are nationally determined. Therefore, tax expenditure estimates require caution when used for international comparability of fossil fuel support.

For further details see the metadata in the source databases listed under Data sources below.

Government support for the production and consumption of fossil fuels totalled USD 468 billion in 2019, according to OECD and IEA analysis of 81 economies. This analysis uses a combined OECD-IEA estimate of support for fossil fuels that merges OECD Inventory estimates and IEA price-gap estimates (IEA Energy subsidies - Tracking the impact of fossil-fuel subsidies).

The combined OECD-IEA estimate shows an 19% decline from USD 577 billion in 2018 that is due mostly to the mechanical effect of the drop in global oil prices on consumption subsidies. Lower oil prices meant governments spent less subsidising energy costs for end-users. It does not reflect real efforts to phase out inefficient subsidies. The plunge in oil prices during the covid-19 pandemic offers a clear chance to wean economies off this support.

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  • Carbon pricing encourages the shift of production and consumption choices towards low-carbon options. It is not yet used to its full potential according to the latest data. Overall progress with carbon pricing remains modest. Around 60% of carbon emissions from energy use in OECD and G20 countries remained entirely unpriced in 2018.

  • With a Carbon Pricing Score of only 19%, the 44 OECD and G20 countries analysed still have 80% of the way to go to reach the EUR 60 per tonne of CO2 benchmark that would be needed to move towards a low-carbon economy. Less than a quarter of the countries studied are more than halfway to the EUR 60/tCO2 benchmark, and just three countries achieved more than two-thirds of the benchmark in 2018.

  • In most countries effective carbon rates (ECR) in the road transport sector are higher than in other sectors. About 53% of emissions from road transport are already priced above EUR 60/tCO2 and around 24% are priced at above EUR 120/tCO2. ECRs are particularly low in the electricity and the industry sectors. In the residential and commercial sector, there is significant heterogeneity, where a handful of countries price a significant share of carbon emissions above EUR 60/tCO2, but with very low carbon prices in other countries.

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  • Public expenditures on energy-related research, development and demonstration (RD&D) increasingly target renewable energy in most OECD countries. At the same time, there have been sharp cuts in publicly-funded RD&D on fossil fuel energy.

  • OECD countries represent the vast majority of worldwide patents on climate change mitigation technologies. The share of “high-value” climate change mitigation inventions (filed for protection in at least two jurisdictions) in all technologies has increased from around 4% in the early 1990s to over 9% in latest years.

  • Among selected technologies, the increase in filed inventions since 1990 has been more marked for road transport and energy storage. Renewable energy generation technologies have increased the fastest up to 2011, to then decline. Overall, the number of filed patents in climate change mitigation technologies has increased till 2013, to then level off and stabilise.

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Share of climate change mitigation technologies in all technologies
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  • About 27% of Official development assistance (ODA) targets climate action to some degree. In 2019, donors of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) committed USD 34.3 billion in bilateral allocable ODA that principally or significantly targeted climate action (screened against the Rio markers). This represents an increase in volume of 45% since 2014. 43% went to climate change mitigation activities, 33% to climate change adaptation, and 24% to projects that addressed both climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  • While this growth is promising, the majority of ODA flows have still not been aligned with the objectives of the Paris Agreement. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that limiting global warming to 1.5°C will require average investments in energy systems of between USD 1.6 and USD 3.8 trillion per year between 2016 and 2050.

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Disclaimer: the statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

IEA, "Emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6", IEA CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00431-en.

IEA, "Detailed CO2 estimates", IEA CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00429-en.

IEA, "World energy statistics", IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00510-en.

ITF, "Transport performance indicators", ITF Transport Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/2122fa17-en.

OECD, "Air and climate: Greenhouse gas emissions by source", OECD Environment Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00594-en.

OECD, "Air and climate: Air and greenhouse gas emissions by industry", OECD Environment Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00735-en

OECD, “Carbon dioxide embodied in international trade”, OECD Structural Analysis Statistics: Input- Output (database), http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=IO_GHG_2019.

OECD, "Environmentally related tax revenue", OECD Environment Statistics (database), http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=ERTR

OECD, "Green growth indicators", OECD Environment Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00665-en.

OECD, “OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels” (database), http://www.oecd.org/fossil-fuels.

OECD, "Patents in environment-related technologies: Technology development by inventor country", OECD Environment Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00760-en

OECD, “Policy Instruments for the Environment (PINE)” (database), http://oe.cd/pine

References and further reading

OECD Data Portal, https://data.oecd.org/environment.htm.

OECD work in support of climate action: http://oe.cd/climate-action

OECD Climate-related Development Finance Data: https://www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance-topics/climate-change.htm

OECD (2021), OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2021, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/e670c620-en.

OECD (2021), Effective Carbon Rates 2021: Pricing Carbon Emissions through Taxes and Emissions Trading, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/0e8e24f5-en

OECD (2020), Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2013-18, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/f0773d55-en. (and http://oe.cd/cf-2013-18)

OECD/IEA (2019), "Update on recent progress in reform of inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption", https://oecd.org/fossil-fuels/publication/OECD-IEA-G20-Fossil-Fuel-Subsidies-Reform-Update-2019.pdf.

OECD (2019), Revenue Statistics 2019, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/0bbc27da-en

OECD (2019), Taxing Energy Use 2019: Using Taxes for Climate Action, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/058ca239-en.

OECD (2018), Effective Carbon Rates 2018: Pricing Carbon Emissions Through Taxes and Emissions Trading, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264305304-en.

OECD (2015), Aligning Policies for a Low-Carbon Economy, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264233294-en.

OECD (2015), Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Progress, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10/1787/9789264238787-en.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, https://unfccc.int/.

Wiebe, K.S. and N. Yamano (2016), “Estimating CO2 Emissions Embodied in Final Demand and Trade Using the OECD ICIO 2015: Methodology and Results”, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, No. 2016/05, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jlrcm216xkl-en.

OECD, "Environment at a Glance: Climate change", Environment at a Glance: Indicators, www.oecd.org/environment/env-at-a-glance.

Disclaimers

This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries.

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

Note by Turkey
The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”.

Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union
The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.

Photo credits: Cover © Mike Pellinni/Shutterstock.com.

Corrigenda to publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/about/publishing/corrigenda.htm.

© OECD 2021

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