Annex A. Data sources on Georgian emigrants

The Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries (DIOC) covers the OECD destination countries for which data were collected both in 2000/01, 2005/06, 2010/11 and 2015/16. The main sources of DIOC data are national administrative registers and population censuses. In the censuses carried out in 2000/01, almost all OECD countries collected information on the country of origin of emigrants, so that it became possible to have an comprehensive overview of the numbers of migrants in OECD countries (for more general information on DIOC, see d’Aiglepierre et al. (2020[1]). Where censuses were not available or incomplete, labour force surveys were used as a substitute.

DIOC contains information on populations from more than 200 countries of origin residing in OECD destination countries. The main variables are country of residence, country of birth, gender and level of education. Other variables – age, duration of stay, labour force status and occupation – can be cross-tabulated with the core variables but not always with each other. Data on employment and occupation are available for the population aged 15 years or older. In Chapter 3 of the review, the focus is on individuals of working age, that is those between 15 and 64 years. Two variables contain information on citizenship.

The OECD International Migration Database covers annual flows of legal migration. The annual flows of foreign population inflows and outflows by nationality are estimated on the basis of national population registers, residence and/or work permits, and specific national surveys. This database is largely based on the individual contributions of national correspondents (the OECD Expert Group on Migration) and covers most OECD countries as well as the Baltic countries, Bulgaria and Romania. The data has not necessarily been harmonised internationally and should therefore be interpreted with caution. For example, flows to the United States only include permanent migrants, while other countries also include temporary migrants such as seasonal workers, students or refugees. In addition, the registration criteria and the conditions for obtaining a residence permit vary across countries, which has important repercussions on the measurements obtained. Finally, irregular migration is only partially covered, so it is important to note that actual migration flows are likely to be higher than legal migration flows.

Data on residence permits concern third-country nationals (persons who are not citizens of the European Union) receiving a residence permit or authorisation to reside in one of the European Union member states, the EFTA countries (Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) or the United Kingdom. Data are based on administrative sources, with the exception of the United Kingdom, and are provided mainly by home departments or immigration agencies. As the United Kingdom does not have a residence permit system, the data for this country relate rather to the number of citizens from outside the European Union who arrive in the territory and are authorised to enter the country under certain immigration categories. A residence permit corresponds to any authorisation valid for at least 3 months issued by the authorities of a member State allowing a third-country national to legally reside on its territory.

The Gallup World Poll covers a large range of behavioural and economic topics and provides information on self-reported emigration intentions of the Georgian population. This survey is conducted in approximately 140 countries based on a common questionnaire, translated into the predominant language of each country. Each year since 2006, more than 100 questions have been asked to a representative sample of around 1 000 persons aged 15 and above. In some countries, Gallup collects oversamples in cities or regions of special interest. The survey collected a total of more than 15 000 observations from Georgia (about 1 000 per year from 2006 to 2020). However, data related to emigration intentions are not available for 2020.

The Caucasus Barometer Survey is an annual household survey conducted by the Caucasus Research Resources Centre (CRRC) in Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan since 2004. The Survey covers social, economic and political issues as well as political attitudes and perceptions. The Caucasus Barometer Survey conducted in Georgia provides information on the intention to emigrate temporarily or permanently within the Georgian population aged 18 years old and above (excluding populations living in territories affected by military conflict, South Ossetia and Abkhazia). Sample sizes vary between 1 800 and 2 500 across years. In 2019 the sample size was 2 317 respondents. Questions relating to emigration intentions are not available in 2020 Survey.

The UNESCO-OECD-Eurostat (UOE) data collection on education statistics is compiled from national administrative sources, as reported by ministries of education or national statistical offices. To capture student mobility, a distinction is made between resident foreign students – i.e. foreign students who are resident because of their parents’ prior migration or their own – and non-resident foreign students, who came to the country expressly to pursue their education. International students are defined as students with permanent residence outside the reporting country, and data on non-citizen students are used only where information on non-resident foreign students is unavailable. Data on international students are only available from 2013 onwards.


[1] d’Aiglepierre, R. et al. (2020), “A global profile of emigrants to OECD countries: Younger and more skilled migrants from more diverse countries”, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 239, OECD Publishing, Paris,

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