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Schools in Germany have more favourable disciplinary climates in science lessons than in other OECD countries, according to students’ reports in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, with an index of disciplinary climate of 0.05 (the OECD average index value was 0.00). Student truancy in 2015 was also lower than the OECD average: 8.9% of 15-year-olds reported skipping at least one day of school in the two weeks before the PISA 2015 test, compared to the OECD average of 19.7%. However, students in Germany were less likely to report that their science teachers adapt their instructions more frequently than the OECD average, with an index of adaptive instruction of -0.22 (the average index value was 0.01) (OECD, 2016[1]).

The PISA 2015 index of instructional educational leadership (measuring the frequency with which principals report doing leadership activities specifically related to instruction) was also lower than the OECD average (-0.02 compared to 0.01) (OECD, 2016[1]). The proportion of lower secondary teachers in Germany in 2016 aged 50 or over was 46.6%, compared to the OECD average of 35.4%. In 2017, teachers in Germany had more net teaching hours for general programmes than their peers in other OECD countries. Teachers annually taught 801 hours at primary level and 747 hours at lower secondary level, compared to OECD averages of 784 and 696 hours, respectively (OECD, 2018[2]). According to school principals’ self-reports in PISA 2015, schools in Germany have higher levels of autonomy over curriculum than on average: 79.5% of principals reported that the school has primary autonomy over curriculum, compared to the OECD average of 73.4% (OECD, 2016[1]). In 2016, lower secondary teachers in Germany earned 99% of the average salary of a full-time, full-year worker with tertiary education, compared to the OECD average of 91% (OECD, 2018[2]).

According to school leaders’ reports in PISA 2015, school leaders in Germany are less likely than average to conduct self-evaluations of their schools (88.4% of students were in schools whose principal reported this, compared to the OECD average of 93.2%) and also less likely to undergo external evaluations of their schools (72.4% of students were in schools whose principal reported this, compared to the OECD average of 74.6%). The share of students enrolled in secondary schools whose principal reported in PISA 2015 that standardised tests are used to make decisions on students’ promotion or retention was 13%, which was below the OECD average of 31% (OECD, 2016[1]).

In 2017, state autonomy levels over resource management (allocation and use of resources for teaching staff and principals) were held mainly at state to sub-regional levels, with no decisions taken at the central, local or school level: 50% of decisions in Germany were taken only at the state level, compared to 9% on average among OECD countries. Annual expenditure per student at primary level in 2015 was USD 8 619, which was similar to the OECD average of USD 8 631. At secondary level, Germany spent USD 11 791 per student, compared to the OECD average of USD 10 010, while at tertiary level (including spending on research and development), Germany spent USD 17 036 per student compared to USD 15 656. In 2015, expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Germany as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) was 4.2%, compared to the OECD average of 5%. The proportion coming from private sources (including household expenditure, expenditure from other private entities and international sources) was below the OECD average (13.6% compared to 16.1%). Between 2010 and 2015, the relative proportion of public expenditure on primary to tertiary education decreased by 0.8 percentage points, compared to an OECD average decline of 1.3 percentage points. During this same period, private expenditure increased by 4.8 percentage points, which was less than the OECD average change of an increase of 10.6 percentage points (OECD, 2018[2]).

Evolution of key education policy priorities

Germany’s key education policy priorities have evolved in the following ways over the last decade (Table 8.11).

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Table 8.11. Evolution of key education policy priorities, Germany (2008-19)

Identified by

Selected OECD country-based work, 2008-191

Evolution of responses collected by the Education Policy Outlook, 2013-192

School improvement

The OECD had identified a need for teachers and trainers in Fachschulen need to maintain and update their skills due to rapid changes in technology and the labour market affect, recommending more flexibility in their employment and to encourage full-time teachers and trainers to spend some time in industry. [2013]

More recently, also in a context of rapid technological evolution, the OECD recommended Germany to expand information and communication technology (ICT) equipment at schools, improve teachers’ digital teaching skills and the offer of digital courses at schools. [2018]

Germany reported the ongoing priority of developing new initiatives in teacher training to tackle the challenge posed by having a high proportion of older teachers and the potential impact when they retire. [2013]

More recently, Germany reported the priority to improve ICT education with measures being taken. [2019]

Evaluation and assessment

According to OECD evidence, the lack of a national monitoring system for early childhood education and care (ECEC) and autonomy in designing and implementing monitoring systems has been identified as a significant challenge as it results in great diversity in the monitoring of quality across the Länder. [2016a]

Monitoring children’s views, in particular, was found to not yet be common practice, while being crucial in helping both ECEC staff and parents to gather information and knowledge on children’s skills and development. [2016a]

The OECD has previously identified challenges in the VET systems’ exam quality and occupational licensing. [2013]

More recently, Germany reported the priority to monitor the ECE as well C system with measures being taken to support the implementation and the regular national monitoring processes obligatory for all Länder receiving subsidies to improve ECEC quality. Germany has undertaken as well measures to address shortcomings in VET examination quality and occupational licensing. [2019]


According to previous OECD evidence, Fachschulen faced challenges due to changes on the German labour market both in terms of job content and the mix of jobs offered. [2013]

Fachschulen’s governance arrangements were also found to be diverse and sometimes poorly equipped for managing change. The OECD had also identified signs of under- as well as over-provision, at Fachschulen. [2013]

The OECD has also previously identified the need to make tertiary education more attractive and responsive to labour-market requirements by increasing Fachschulen’s input flexibility with measures taken later by Germany. [2010; 2016b]. Further reforming the VET system and strengthening continuous learning were other needs identified. [2016b; 2018]

An ongoing challenge reported in Germany is setting national priorities while responding to the different Länder needs. [2013; 2019]


The OECD has previously identified the challenge of weak government investments, especially in poor municipalities, and the existence of constitutional barriers to federal co-funding for full-day primary education. [2016b]

Germany reported an ongoing need to ensure investment in education and to focus on policies that help bring greater equity to the system. More recently, Germany reconfirmed this priority with measures being taken since 2018 to promote and support schools in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods and with integration related tasks, for example. [2013, 2019]


1. See Annex A (OECD publications consulted).

2. See Reader’s Guide (years and methods of collection).


Selected education policy responses

School improvement

  • In Germany, the Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (Kultusministerkonferenz, KMK) (2013) provided recommendations for students’ suitability to become teachers, including information, advice and feedback at all stages of training and after graduation. The KMK also agreed on common guidelines to meet the demand for teachers (2009). In 2013, it published a calculation model combining an estimate of the future demand for teachers with a forecast of students completing the Second State Examination.

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Progress or impact: An update of the calculation model took place in 2018, and some Länder have implemented teacher orientation tests. For example, the university state law of Baden-Württemberg, (Landeshochschulgesetz), obliges prospective student teachers to pass an online self-assessment called Career Counselling for Teachers (CCT) to enrol in teacher training courses (MWK, 2018[246]). The results of the tests are only visible to the teacher candidate (MWK, 2018[246]). According to national information reported to the OECD, the main focus of the tests is on self-assessment or consultation, while the tests are not used for admission.

  • In 2012, Germany’s Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs adopted common requirements of the Länder for the preparatory service (the practical placement at schools, Referendariat) and the concluding state examination in teacher training (Ländergemeinsame Anforderungen für die Ausgestaltung des Vorbereitungsdienstes und die abschließende Staatsprüfung). The resolution took into account recent developments in the school sector and further enhanced comparability and mobility in the education system. Furthermore, in 2013, the regulations and procedures to increase the mobility and quality of teachers (Regelungen und Verfahren zur Erhöhung der Mobilität und Qualität von Lehrkräften) passed.

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Progress or impact: The 2017 report of the Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs found that all Länder guaranteed mobility according to the 2013 implemented regulations and procedures (KMK, 2018[247]). The 2018 report put forward that, nevertheless, the school and training structures differ between the Länder. Hence, several alleged mobility barriers can be explained by state-specific organisational frameworks, such as a combination of school subjects and subject-specific offers. In such cases, restrictions of mobility in access to preparatory service are no violation of the regulations and procedures. The same accounts for access to school service after completion of demand-oriented special measures. The KMK recommended to the Länder and universities, among others, to support the mobility of students during their teaching-oriented studies with the consistent implementation of the Lisbon Convention (KMK, 2018[247]). In addition, the Länder have passed common decisions on preparing teachers for increasingly diverse classrooms, including courses to teach German as a second language, and support high-achieving students during the initial preparation as well as providing professional development opportunities (KMK, 2019[248]; KMK, 2019[249]).

Evaluation and assessment

  • In 2006, Germany’s Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs adopted a comprehensive strategy for education monitoring. The strategy, which was revised in 2015, covers four interconnected areas: 1) international comparative studies of student achievement; 2) central assessment of the achievement of educational standards (the basis for comparison between the Länder); 3) comparative studies to review the efficiency of individual schools within the Länder; and 4) joint education reporting of the Federation and the Länder. As part of this strategy, in 2012, Germany implemented educational standards for the general higher education entrance qualification (Allgemeine Hochschulreife) in German, mathematics, English and French. For its modifications in 2015, the KMK aimed, among others, to not only describe developments in the education sector but to improve the quality of conclusions drawn from empirical data, and implement changes accordingly (KMK, 2015[250]).

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Progress or impact: Thanks to the strategy for education monitoring, the different education monitoring instruments were arranged more systematically, allowing for comparisons and conclusions drawn from a wider and more complex range of data. In addition, the national assessment of the achievement of educational standards entered its second phase, which means that trends and developments can now be described. To further measure student performance, Germany participates in international comparative studies of student achievement (e.g. the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study [TIMSS], the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study [PIRLS] and PISA) (National information provided to the OECD).

Additional education policies of potential interest to other countries

Evaluation and assessment

  • In Germany, the national programme, Local Learning (Lernen vor Ort, 2009-14) brought together education experts from districts and cities, and more than 180 foundations to develop local-level, integrated, data-based education management. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF) and the European Social Fund (ESF) funded the programme. The implementation of the transfer initiative for municipal education management (Transferinitiative Kommunales Bildungsmanagement, 2014) aims to extend the results of the programme to the municipality level with nine transfer agencies, support counties and cities all over Germany in implementing the data-based models, developed as part of the Local Learning programme since 2014/15 (Transferinitiative, 2018[251]).

    • With the goal of structurally implementing Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) at all levels of the German education system, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) has taken the lead on the national implementation of UNESCO’s Global Action Programme on ESD (GAP; 2015-2019). In June 2017, the National Platform has adopted the National Action Plan on ESD (BMBF, 2017[252]).


Selected education policy responses


  • Germany’s Quality Pact for Teaching in Higher Education (Qualitätspakt Lehre, 2010) aims to improve study conditions and teaching quality in public higher education institutions. It is part of the Higher Education Pact 2020 (2007-20). It is a joint measure between the federal government and the Länder. The federal government provides EUR 2 billion between 2011 and 2020 (BMBF, 2019[253]). More specifically, the measures target training for university staff with special incentives for teaching commitment, conferences and workshops on best practices and networking (BMWi, 2017[254]).

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Progress or impact: Out of the 186 higher education institutions that received funding in the first round, 156 received further funding in the second round (BMBF, 2017[255]). The evaluation report of the first funding period (2011-16) revealed that a shift in attitudes and culture on higher education had been achieved (Schmidt et al., 2016[256]). This subsequently placed the question of what constitutes good higher education teaching at the centre of the discussion. In addition, the perception of the overall application, selection and approval procedure for the first funding period was positive. Most projects target higher education didactic, further education, improvement of the situation of personnel, and measures for competence-oriented teaching and learning.

A key success factor identified during the implementation of the project was the close co-ordination between centralised steering and decentralised employees, as well as support from university management and transparency on decisions. The results further show manifold exchanges and networking within and between programmes and funded universities. The cost-benefit of the process was also perceived as positive overall. In conjunction with other funding programmes and initiatives, the programme made a positive contribution to improving staffing. Additionally, more staff participated in further education programmes and the overall level stabilised at an advanced level. Finally, the value and appreciation of good teaching had noticeably increased (Schmidt et al., 2016[256]).

In mid-2019, the federal government and the Länder decided to set up a new organisational entity on innovation in higher education teaching with an annual budget allocation of EUR 150 million, financed solely by the federal government and as of 2024 will be partially funded (EUR 40 million) by the Länder (BMBF, 2019[257])

  • Germany’s Higher Education Pact 2020 (2007-20), a joint measure between the federal government and the Länder, includes a pledge to guarantee a sufficient number of university places, even in times of increasing numbers of university entrants. The aim of the third funding phase from 2016 to 2020 is to provide and finance up to 760 000 additional higher education entrants in response to increasing study demand, according to data reported to the OECD. Between 2007 and 2020, the Higher Education Pact is funded with EUR 20.2 billion by the federal government and EUR 18.3 billion by the Länder (National information reported to the OECD).

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Progress or impact: A 2017 impact assessment focused on the first two funding periods (2007-10 and 2011-15). The third funding phase covers 2016-20. Since other measures were also carried out during this period, it would be difficult to pinpoint the individual impact of the pact; thus, the analysis only suggests tendencies (Winterhager, N. et al., 2017[258]).

Until 2017, the following overall goals were reached: additional university entrants; investment of EUR 14.7 billion by the federal government and the Länder; creation of new course offers; and reduction of barriers to education. In addition, a larger number of overall tertiary graduates then increased the graduates’ potential to pursue a career in research. From 2005 to 2015, the number of research staff increased. There was a strong focus on teaching, and an increase in the number of lectures, but the overall research qualifications for staff were found to be unclear.

The assessment found that for the following areas, the results did not show clear tendencies. The faculty-student ratio increased, but only partially at the applied science universities. Measures taken on the maintenance of the quality of teaching and studies by the Länder and tertiary institutions were also found to show unclear results. With regard to the distribution of financial means by the Länder, the assessment found that the goals of employing additional personnel, increasing the places of new student entrants at applied science universities and increasing the proportion of women appointed as professors and other positions was reached. At the same time, the goal to increase the number of new students enrolling in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects was only partially reached (Winterhager, N. et al., 2017[258]). According to government data, the number of new students enrolling in STEM increased from 177 362 in 2007 to 350 968 in 2016.

As a follow up after 2020, in mid-2019, the federal government and the Länder signed an agreement to strengthen education and teaching in higher education (Zukunftsvertrag “Studium und Lehre stärken”) that moves the focus beyond the target of increasing enrolment numbers (BMBF, 2019[257]). The federal government and the Länder each provide an annual EUR 2 billion (National information reported to the OECD).

  • In the context of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF), Germany established the German Qualifications Framework (Deutscher Qualifikationsrahmen für lebenslanges Lernen, DQR, 2013), an eight-level national qualifications framework (NQF) based on learning outcomes with the primary aim to promote transparency and comparability of qualifications. The DQR came into being through a joint resolution of the Standing Conference of the Ministers for Education and Cultural Affairs, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the Conference of Ministers for Economics of the Länder and the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy. At the time of writing of this report, qualifications from general, vocational education and training, and higher education had been allocated to the levels of the DQR. A complete list of allocated qualifications to DQR levels and the DQR manual can be found on line (DQR, 2019[259]).

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Progress or impact: Developing and implementing the German Qualifications Framework (DQR) was intended to engage stakeholders from the education sector and the labour market, which the government held would contribute to improving understanding and trust among education sectors. There were also efforts to improve the equality of status between VET and higher education by allocating qualifications on DQR levels 6 and 7 (National information reported to the OECD).

A 2016 study on the potential use of the DQR found that although DQR users were at the time often implementing it individually in their organisations, respondents expected that awareness and dissemination would increase significantly within the next ten years (FHAM, 2016[260]). Overall, 34 potential uses of the DQR could be identified as well. DQR was also found useful for all target groups, especially in the context of human resource work (including, among others, recruitment and employee development). It was found that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which do not have their own competency model and few resources in human resources, benefit most from the DQR.

Regarding the content, it was found the DQR offers two advantages. In the education context, it places personal competences on the same level as professional competences. The emphasis of the DQR on competence areas and levels was found to be valuable as it allows, for example, for assessments of the status of employees, learners and tertiary students, and then to target individual support (FHAM, 2016[260]).


  • In Germany, the Pact for Research and Innovation (2005, and renewed in 2014 until 2020) is a joint effort by the federal government and the Länder. It increases research and development (R&D) funding of major public research institutes in Germany, including the German Research Foundation, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association, the Max Planck Society and the Leibniz Scientific Association. Its objective is to enable these organisations to continue and improve strategic measures, enhance the quality and quantity of existing instruments, and develop, test and establish new instruments to achieve defined research policy goals (Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany, 2019[261]). Based on annual monitoring reports conducted by the Joint Science Conference, the federal government, the Länder and the research institutions found that the pact and the Excellence Initiative had initiated a structural change that required support through longer-term measures (GWK, 2016[262]). In 2014, it was decided to renew the pact with an increase of 3% of the annual budget (equal to EUR 3.9 billion additional funding for R&D) from 2016 and 2020 for the major public research institutions (BMBF, 2019[263]). Funding is fully covered by the federal government for this round (BMBF, 2019[263]). The main goals for this period are improving the overall development of the research sector, strengthening networking, strengthening international and European co-operation, improving collaboration between the research sector and industry and society, attracting talent, ensuring adequate and family-friendly structures and processes (BMBF, 2018[264])

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Progress or impact: The Joint Science Conference has monitored the Pact for Research and Innovation since 2007, including annual publications of monitoring reports (BMBF, 2019[263]). Since the pact was established, it was found, among others, that co-operation between the research institutes and higher education institutions has improved, measured by the increase in joint scientific publications (BMBF, 2019[263]; GWK, 2018[265]). It was also found that the research institutions strengthened co-operation on the international and European levels due to their contribution to funding projects received through the EU Horizon 2020 project, and securing almost one-third of all funding granted to Germany for outstanding research projects by the European Research Council (BMBF, 2019[263]; GWK, 2018[265]). With regard to collaboration with the industry sector, in 2017, more than EUR 795 million in funding was secured by the research institutions from the industry sector (GWK, 2018[265]). In a joint effort with the universities, the research institutes supervised a growing number of PhD students, and in 2017, EUR 310 million was spent on young researchers’ research projects (BMBF, 2019[263]; GWK, 2018[265]). The number of female staff in leadership positions in the research sector has been comparatively low in Germany, while it has increased with further measures being taken (BMBF, 2019[263]; GWK, 2018[265]).

  • Since 2008, Germany has launched four investment programmes to support the expansion (investment and operating costs) of ECEC services throughout the country. The federal government provided EUR 3.28 billion in the first three investment programmes for the expansion of ECEC places for under 3-year-olds (BMFSFJ, 2019[266]). The fourth investment programme (2017-20) aims to support the increase of up to 100 000 additional ECEC places for 3-year-olds with an allocation of EUR 1 126 billion (BMFSFJ, 2017[267]). The federal government supports the Länder by granting them tax releases (valued-added tax [VAT]) to subsidise the operating costs of services for children under the age of three. In addition, in 2019, a new law on ECEC quality (Gutes-Kita-Gesetz) took effect with a total budget allocation of EUR 5.5 billion from 2019 to 2022 (BMFSFJ, 2019[268]).

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Progress or impact: Within the first three investment programmes, from 2008 to 2018, 400 000 additional places for children under three were created (BMFSFJ, 2019[266]). As of 2018, it was put forward that in early childhood education and care, unsatisfied demand and demographic changes necessitate more than 600 000 additional places until 2025 for children up to school age (European Commission, 2018[269]). Issues persist around service quality and flexibility (European Commission, 2018[269]). The federal and Länder governments have taken further initiatives to improve access to and quality of early childhood education and childcare, such as with the programme “Entry into ECEC – Building bridges to early education” (KitaEinstieg – Brücken bauen in Frühe Bildung), the programme “KitaPlus” or “child care centres with a focus on language education and development” (Sprach-Kitas). The government has also supported improving the qualifications of daycare staff. The federal government and the Länder have also taken stock of progress in improving quality and identified further steps to be taken (OECD, 2018[270]).

  • Germany implemented the Quality Initiative for Enhancing the Quality of Teacher Education (Qualitätsoffensive Lehrerbildung, 2013-23) to improve the quality of teacher preparation. This funding scheme focuses on strengthening initial teacher education and raising the attractiveness of the teaching profession, particularly for young people. This also includes improving the structure of initial teacher education at universities, better bridging the theory-practice divide, targeting support during studies, dealing with heterogeneity and inclusion in the classroom and improving the connection between pedagogical elements and subject knowledge (BMBF, 2019[271]). In the funding period from 2015 to 2023, a total budget of EUR 500 million is made available (BMBF, 2019[271]).

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Progress or impact: In the first funding phase (2015-18), 49 projects received funding with the participation of 59 universities (BMBF, 2018[272]). For the second funding phase (2019-23), an interim review took place in 2018, and 48 projects from 58 universities passed the review, receiving further project funding for 2019-23 (BMBF, 2018[272]). The 2018 mid-term evaluation report found, among others, that the design of the programme as a funding competition has helped universities critically reflect on the situation of teacher education programmes at their institutions, as well as establish organisation and co-operation structures during the application phase (Ramboll Management Consulting GmbH, 2019[273]). The objectives of the programme allow universities a certain leeway to adopt the measures to their specific contexts. Some areas had so far not been sufficiently addressed, such as digitalisation, vocational schools, teacher shortage and internationalisation. Further results showed that the programme allows for the unique possibility to optimise governance structures in teacher education. Also, the programme increased the variety of knowledge on practical relevance and led to the establishment of, for example, more functional structures and co-operation at the university level. The programme has also triggered the development of new formats and approaches to professional guidance and consultation for students in teacher education. Teacher education has also been improved in regard to heterogeneity and inclusion (Ramboll Management Consulting GmbH, 2019[273]). In response, the federal government and the Länder decided to introduce a new funding stream for projects on digitalisation of and VET teacher education (BMBF, 2019[274]). As of 2020, 43 projkects will be funded in this area.

  • Germany allocated a total of EUR 250 million for the federal funding programme, Advancement through Education: Open Universities (Aufstieg durch Bildung: offene Hochschulen, 2011) from 2011 to 2020. This programme from the federal government and the Länder is part of the qualification initiative, Getting Ahead through Education (Aufstieg durch Bildung, 2011). The programme seeks to encourage higher education institutions to put forward innovative, demand-based and sustainable qualities to qualify individuals further, secure the long-term supply of highly skilled staff, improve transfer opportunities between VET and academic education, and accelerate the transfer of new knowledge into practical applications. The aim is also to strengthen the international competitiveness of the science system through sustainable profile development in lifelong academic learning. The programme is made up of two funding rounds.

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Progress or impact: A total of 50 higher education institutions participated in the first funding round (2011-17) (BMBF, 2019[275]). The number of institutions in the second funding round (2014) rose to 77 funded projects. In the funding round until 2020, 40 projects are funded at 61 universities and 1 non-university research institution. In addition, as of the time of writing this report, 295 new study courses had been implemented at funded higher education institutions across Germany (BMBF, 2019[275]).

Additional education policies of potential interest to other countries


  • The Excellence Strategy (2018) is a joint measure between the federal government and the Länder that aims to promote cutting-edge research at German universities along two funding lines: the Excellence Clusters and the Universities of Excellence. The strategy is based on the previous Excellence Initiative programme (2007-17) (BMBF, 2019[276]). The total annual budget is set at EUR 533 million with 75% covered by the federal government and 25% by the Land that is home to the Excellence Cluster or University of Excellence (BMBF, 2019[276]). After a two-year selection process, 57 Excellence Clusters had been selected by the end of 2018, with funding made available as of 2019 (BMBF, 2019[276]).


  • Another co-operation project between the federal government and the Länder is the “Innovative University” funding initiative (2016-27). It aims to promote the transfer of ideas, knowledge and technologies at universities of applied sciences and small and medium-sized universities. The measure intends to help expedite the translation of innovative ideas into new products. The total financial allocation is EUR 550 million (BMBF, 2018[277]). The first selection round took place from 2016 to 2017, with funding provided from 2018 to 2022 (BMBF, 2019[278]). The second selection is scheduled for 2021 to 2022, with funding provided from 2023 to 2024 (BMBF, 2019[278]). By 2017, 29 projects were selected supporting 48 universities of applied sciences and small and medium-sized universities with funding as of 2018 (BMBF, 2017[279]). The universities collaborate with 26 direct and 260 associated partners from industry, culture and society (Innovative University, 2019[280]).

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