This report assesses the biodiversity contributions from all sources of development finance over 2011-2020: bilateral members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), non-DAC members, providers of South-South and triangular co-operation, multilateral institutions, flows from the private sector mobilised by public official development finance (ODF), and private philanthropy.

Using a comprehensive methodology to identify biodiversity-related development co-operation flows in the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) and total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD) databases, it identifies the main biodiversity-related priorities and challenges, and formulates actionable policy recommendations to enhance biodiversity-related investments, and implement the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Chapter 1 provides an overview of biodiversity-related development finance.

Chapter 2 analyses biodiversity-related development finance over 2011-20 from all sources.

Chapter 3 explores biodiversity funding flows by region and country category – including the situation of small island developing states and fragile contexts – and looking at trends in marine and terrestrial biodiversity; the main sectors targeted by donors; cross-cutting issues, including climate change, nature-based solutions, desertification and gender equality; capacity development; as well as ODF for illegal wildlife trade and indigenous peoples and local communities.

Chapter 4 takes a forward-looking perspective, exploring the opportunities for biodiversity-related development finance to become more strategic, coherent and effective.

Chapter 5 concludes with recommendations for each of the main development co-operation actors to meet the biodiversity challenge and help close the funding gap.

By providing a better understanding of biodiversity-related ODF, the report facilitates stronger collaboration across development co-operation stakeholders and supports donors to be more effective. In particular, it can help reach the new resource mobilisation goals (i.e., target 19a on international finance flows) adopted in December 2022 at the 15th Conference of the Parties of the CBD, in which Parties agreed the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.

The report also contributes to the implementation of the OECD DAC Declaration on a new approach to align development co-operation with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.

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