copy the linklink copied!5. Strengthening the governance of the skills system in Poland

Effective governance arrangements are essential to support Poland’s performance in developing and using people’s skills. The success of skills policies typically depends on the responses and actions of a wide range of actors, including government, learners, educators, workers, employers and trade unions. A whole-of-government approach, effective stakeholder engagement, integrated information systems and co-ordinated financing arrangements are essential to improve skills development and use. This chapter explores three opportunities to strengthen the governance of the skills system in Poland: 1) strengthening co-operation on skills policy at the national level; 2) strengthening vertical and subnational co-operation on skills policy; and 3) integrating and using skills information effectively.

    

copy the linklink copied!The importance of governance for Poland’s skills system

Effective governance arrangements are essential to support Poland’s performance in developing and using people’s skills, and for achieving the goals of the Integrated Skills Strategy (Zintegrowana Strategia Umiejętności, ZSU).

Across OECD countries the success of policies to develop and use people’s skills typically depends on the responses and actions of a wide range of actors, including government, learners, educators, workers, employers and trade unions. In many regards, skills policy is fundamentally different from other policy areas. On the one hand, investing in skills is widely popular across different electoral and political constituencies (Busemeyer et al., 2018[1]) as the benefits for economic development and social inclusion are broadly recognised. On the other hand, skills policy is more complex than many other policy areas because it is located at the intersection of education, labour market, industrial and other policy domains. Skills policies therefore implicate a diverse range of government ministries, levels of governments and non-government stakeholders. For instance, labour market policy typically involves trade unions and employers’ associations, and education policy involves parental and student associations, teacher associations and educational institutions, and others (OECD, 2019[2]).

The OECD Skills Strategy (2019[2]) identifies four building blocks for strengthening the governance of skills systems (Figure 5.1).

copy the linklink copied!
Figure 5.1. The building blocks of strong governance for skills systems
Figure 5.1. The building blocks of strong governance for skills systems

Source: OECD (2019[2]), OECD Skills Strategy 2019: Skills to Shape a Better Future, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264313835-en.

It is essential that a whole-of-government approach is taken to increase skills development and use. A wide range of actors have roles and responsibilities in Poland’s skills system (Table 5.2). Promoting co-ordination, co-operation and collaboration across the whole of government can lead to more effective and efficient skills policies. This approach typically requires a shared conviction of the importance of skills, co-ordination between central and subnational authorities, mapping the policies and actors in the skills system, and institutions that adopt a “life course perspective” and monitor and evaluate the skills system. For Poland, as in other countries, whole-of-government co-ordination is essential on at least two levels:

  1. 1. Horizontal (inter-ministerial): co-ordination between the ministries of the national government on skills policy.

  2. 2. Vertical: co-ordination between ministries and subnational authorities (region [voivodeship or województwo], county [powiat] and municipalities [gmina]) on skills policy.

Government engagement with non-government stakeholders (employers, trade unions, education and training providers, civil society organisations, etc.) on skills policy throughout the policy cycle is also important as it can help policy makers tap into on-the-ground expertise and foster support for policy reform and implementation. Effective stakeholder engagement requires that the costs of participation are minimised for stakeholders, and that the benefits are maximised by ensuring visible impacts on policies. It also involves avoiding “capture” by individual interest groups (OECD, 2019[2]).

Building integrated information systems harnesses the potential of data and information to optimise the design and implementation of skills policies. Such systems ensure that policy makers, firms, individuals and others have access to accurate, timely, detailed and tailored information on skills development activity and outcomes across the life course, available learning opportunities, and current and anticipated skills needs. These systems also employ a “user-centred” approach to ensure that data become actionable information, including as evidence in skills policy making.

Aligning and co-ordinating financing arrangements is essential to ensure the sufficiency and sustainability of skills investments. Skills funding should rely on flexible cost-sharing mechanisms from multiple sources, with public funds allocated to achieve outcomes and ensure equal opportunities for developing and using skills. Aligning and co-ordinating financing typically involves identifying funding gaps in the system, aligning investments to the government’s medium-term priorities, and ensuring that those with responsibilities for skills have the resources to fulfil their role effectively (see Chapter 3 for a discussion on financing adult learning).

This chapter provides an overview of Poland’s current arrangements and performance in relation to governing the skills system. It then explores opportunities for Poland to strengthen skills governance arrangements by strengthening co-operation on skills policy at the national level, strengthening vertical and subnational co-operation on skills policy, and integrating and effectively using skills information. For each opportunity, the available data are analysed, relevant national and international policies and practices are discussed, and recommendations are given.

copy the linklink copied!Overview and performance of skills governance in Poland

Overview of current roles and responsibilities for skills policy

Current roles and responsibilities for skills policy in Poland are linked to the country’s political and administrative structure of four levels of government. The European Commission is also an important part of this structure at the supranational level (Table 5.1).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.1. Poland’s political and administrative structure

Governmental tier

Count

Political structure

Political executive

Supranational (European Union)

1

The European Parliament is a directly elected body that consists of 751 Members of the European Parliament (MEP).

The Council of the European Union is the decision-making body whose members are the government ministers from European Union (EU) countries.

The European Council is made up of the heads of state or government from EU member countries and defines the political agenda and priorities.

Central government

1

A directly elected president and a prime minister who is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm.

Lower house (Sejm) of 460 members (poslowie) and Senate of 100 members (Senat).

Region (voivodeship)

16

Regional directly elected assembly (voivodeship sejmik).

Regional representative of central government (voivode).

Marshal (marszalek), deputy marshals and board members elected among the assembly’s ranks or outside the assembly from the executive office (zarząd województwa).

County (powiat)

314 (including 66 cities with county [powiat] status)

Directly elected council.

County chairman (starosta), deputy county chairman and board members elected by county council from the county executive (zarząd powiatu).

Commune/municipality (gmina)

2 478

Directly elected council.

Directly elected mayor.

Source: OECD (2018[3]), Rural Policy Reviews: Poland 2018, https://doi.org/10.1787/19909284; The Economist Intelligence Unit (2019[4]), Political structure, http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=1507485734&Country=Poland&topic=Summary&subtopic=Political+structure; European Union (2018[5]), Institutions and bodies, https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/institutions-bodies_en.

As a result of the political and administrative structure, a diverse range of actors have roles and responsibilities in developing and using people’s skills in Poland (Table 5.2).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.2. Roles and responsibilities for developing and using people’s skills

Actor

Roles and responsibilities

Central authorities

Ministry of National Education (MEN)

Oversees education (up to ISCED 4) policy and funding. Co-ordinates the Lifelong Learning Perspective and leads the development of the ZSU. Co-ordinates the Integrated Qualifications System (Zintegrowany System Kwalifikacji, ZSK) to consolidate qualifications acquired outside the education system, including vocational education and training (VET), higher education, and non-formal learning. Develops model programmes for vocational qualifications courses, vocational skills courses, general competence courses and multimedia courses for distance learning.

Ministry of Science and Higher Education

Sets and finances higher education policies affecting ISCED 5-8, although ISCED 5 has yet to be implemented after the reform of the system of higher education and science (known as “Constitution for a Science”). Authorises new study programmes in higher education institutions (HEI) that provide non-degree postgraduate programmes. Manages the national platform to provide massive open online courses (MOOCs) to facilitate users developing skills in language, digital literacy, problem solving, communication and entrepreneurship.

Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy

Manages the Labour Fund, including the National Training Fund (Krajowy Fundusz Szkoleniowy, KFS), and finances active labour market policies, including vocational and education training and guidance. Develops tools such as “Infodoradca+”, which provides detailed descriptions of tasks and skills required for different occupations. Conducts European Social Fund (ESF) financed projects to develop the skills of those socially excluded on the labour market. Designs the legislative framework of the functioning of public employment services and the labour code.

Ministry of Digital Affairs

Oversees the development of the information society and counteracting digital exclusion. Is responsible for strategic co-ordination of the operational programme “Digital Poland”, which involves training activities for the development of digital skills in Polish society among students, teachers and adults.

Ministry of Investment and Economic Development

Manages and implements all ESF-funds directed to skills-related programmes. Co-ordinates and undertakes direct actions in areas that impact the realisation of objectives included in the Strategy for Responsible Development.

Subnational authorities

Voivodeship marshal’s offices

Administer public education, including higher education. Operate public in-service teacher training centres, educational resource centres/libraries, and networks of schools and institutions at regional and supra-regional levels. Manage European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) programmes (regional operational programmes). Responsible for the works of voivodeship labour offices.

Voivodes

Regional representative of central government that adapts governmental policies to local needs. Administer regional educational authorities (kuratoria).

Voivodeship labour offices (public employment service)

Responsible for active labour market policies at a regional level, which includes skills forecasting or setting training priorities for a region. Maintain the register of training institutions operating within their jurisdiction. Monitor local labour markets, with a special role of regional labour market observatories.

District (county) authorities (powiat)

Establish, administer and finance public post-primary schools and continuing education centres, practical training centres and further and in-service training centres.

Municipal (commune) authorities

Establish, administer and finance public pre-primary education and primary schools (and lower secondary schools until they are phased out).

County (powiat) labour offices (Public employment service)

Implement active labour market policy instruments, Organise and provide training, internships, postgraduate studies, training loans, training vouchers, internship vouchers, tripartite training agreements and apprenticeships for adults. Distribute funds for lifelong learning through the KFS.

Government agencies

Polish Agency for Enterprise Development (PARP)

Supports employers, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through various programmes, such as the Database of Development Services and PARP Academy that seek to provide development information catered to entrepreneurs and employees. Creates, together with business representatives, sectoral skills councils to identify skills needs and develop appropriate strategies to enhance vocational education. Provides programmes that target managers and improve their skills.

Educational Research Institute (Instytut Badań Edukacyjnych, IBE)

Conducts interdisciplinary research concerning the functioning and effectiveness of the education system, participates in national and international research projects, prepares reports and expert opinions, and carries out advisory functions. Main research areas include new core curriculum and teaching methods, measurement and analysis of educational achievement, relationship between education and the labour market, lifelong learning and national qualifications framework, economic determinants of education, teaching conditions and quality, and institutional issues in education and policy. The institute is supervised by the MEN.

Centre for Education Development (Ośrodek Rozwoju Edukacji, ORE)

Undertakes and implements activities to improve the quality of education in accordance with the state education policy, adapted to or in accordance with changes introduced into the education system. Areas of work include teacher training, management of education at the regional level, education supervision, labour market education, educational and vocational counselling, key competencies development, and special needs education.

Foundation for the Development of the Education System (Fundacja Rozwoju Systemu Edukacji, FRSE)

Co-ordinates the implementation of EU educational programmes in Poland, including Lifelong Learning Programme initiatives Erasmus and Erasmus+, Leonardo da Vinci, Cemenius and Grundtvig, and the Youth in Action programme in Poland. Responsible for European informational and educational initiatives such as European Language Label, eTwinning, Eurodesk, Europass and Eurydice, as well as operating the Scholarship and Training Fund as part of the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and the European Economic Area (EEA) Mechanism.

Central Examination Board (Centralna Komisja Egzaminacyjna)

Preparing, determining and disseminating materials for the eighth grade, matriculation, professional and extramural examinations.

Industrial Development Agency

Provides initiatives that benefit skills development and use, including various support programmes for specific sectors where comprehensive development plans for industries are created.

Polish Accreditation Committee

(Polska Komisja Akredytacyjna, PKA)

Responsible for the accreditation of HEIs, which need PKA approval to open a study programme. Provides support for public and non-public higher education institutions to enhance the quality of education and build a quality culture. Conducts programme evaluation.

Non-governmental actors

Education and training providers

Provide formal education and training to students and adults (ISCED 1-8), non-formal education and training programmes to adults and enterprises (e.g. market qualifications), and offer guidance services and recognition of prior learning. Retain autonomy of provision depending on the level and type of provider.

Employer associations and trade unions

Set additional priorities for the distribution of funds from the KFS reserve (20%) and decide on the allocation of these funds in accordance with the adopted priorities. Provide input to draft strategies, programmes and other government documents regarding planned activities of the Council of Ministers.

Sectoral skills councils

Established in 2016 in for the health, construction, finance, tourism, fashion, information and communication technology (ICT), and automotive sectors. Co-ordinate a dialogue between sectoral representatives (employers organisations, trade unions, other institutions) and ministries on meeting sectoral skills needs with competencies and qualifications. Make proposals on new occupations, provide opinions on qualifications in the ZSK, set funding priorities for sectoral training, and advise employees to be prepared for changes to the sector.

Note: ISCED is the International Standard Classification of Education.

Source: Eurydice (2019[6]), Poland Overview, https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/poland_en; PKA (2019[7]), Polska Komisja Akredytacyjna [Polish Accreditation Commission], www.pka.edu.pl/en/.

Whole-of government co-ordination on skills

Several mechanisms are in place for the inter-ministerial co-ordination of skills policies. The Chancellery of the Prime Minister, as an executive office for the prime minister, serves as a gatekeeper of the policy agenda. Before draft bills go to the Chancellery’s Council of Ministers (Cabinet) they are reviewed by the Cabinet Committee Department (Matthes and Markowski, 2018[8]). There are not many cabinet committees, but in 2016 the government set up an Innovativeness Council of nine ministries to improve inter-ministerial development and the co-ordination of innovation policies, as well as an Economic Committee to co-ordinate implementation of the Strategy for Responsible Development (Breznitz and Ornston, 2017[9]; Wielądek, 2016[10]). Deputy ministers co-ordinate with each other through the Cabinet’s Permanent Committee, which prepares all meetings of the Cabinet, and in the Committee for European Affairs, which is in charge of EU co-ordination. Inter-ministerial oversight bodies have been created to support specific reforms and strategies, such as the Inter-ministerial Team for the Lifelong Learning Perspective.

Some mechanisms are in place for vertical co-ordination between ministries and subnational authorities on skills policies:

  • The Joint Central Government and Local Government Committee established a forum to determine a common national and local government position on state policy towards self-government (OECD, 2018[3]). It is composed of a minister responsible for public administration along with 11 national appointees and representatives of local government from national organisations, and is supported by experts. The forum develops joint opinions on legislation, programme documents and policies that have the potential to impact local governments, including their finances. A national Social Dialogue Council (Rada Dialogu Społecznego) provides a forum for trilateral dialogue between central government and Poland’s 16 regional councils (described below).

  • The regions have a centrally appointed head of regional administration (voivode) who is responsible for ensuring that national policies are implemented and that state institutions operating in the region perform their functions properly. In education and employment policy, the main task of the vovoide is to elect and supervise the regional education authority (kurator oświaty), which supervises schools in a region and implements national education policies.

  • Territorial contracts aim to enhance co-ordination vertically between subnational and central levels, and horizontally at the subnational level (OECD, 2013[11]). They are written agreements between central and subnational governments that seek to facilitate a partnership. They set priority goals, methods of policy co-ordination and funding mechanisms for key initiatives. For example, a territorial contract for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie region regulated policies for 2014 to 2023, with a main focus on the realisation of the regional operational programme, which allocates funding from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) for a region. Increasing the level of education and competences of the regional population was one of ten priorities for the region (Marshal's Office of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, 2014[12]).

Stakeholder engagement with policy makers

The government is obliged by law to consult all parties affected by proposed legislation. Since 2001, Poland has established a relatively comprehensive system of regulatory impact assessment (RIA), which remains in place today. Online consultation with citizens is limited, but government agencies are obliged to provide public information online, and government services are increasingly delivered online (e.g. through the e-PUAP system). The government established a Social Dialogue Council in 2015 to improve the implementation of socio-economic development policies, including for education quality. The members are appointed by the president and include representatives of the government, employees and employers. The council replaced the traditional Tripartite Commission, which ceased operations in June 2013 (Matthes and Markowski, 2018[8]).

Additional stakeholder engagement mechanisms have been created for specific skills-related strategies and reforms. For example, the Integrated Qualifications System (Zintegrowany System Kwalifikacji, ZSK) reform introduced the Board of Stakeholders of Integrated Qualifications System, which is composed of representatives of various stakeholders groups such as ministries, employer organisations, trade unions, and higher education institutions to ensure that policies related to the ZSK reflect their needs. The Labour Market Council brings together representatives of trade unions, employer associations, the Joint Commission of Central Government and local governments and gives opinions on the priorities and distribution of a portion (20%) of the National Training Fund (Krajowy Fundusz Szkoleniowy, KFS). The ZSU is also an example of a process involving various stakeholders, as political decisions on its scope were preceded by a variety of consultations and seminars co-ordinated by Educational Research Institute (Instytut Badań Edukacyjnych, IBE).

A variety of mechanisms are in place in Poland to facilitate co-operation between actors at the subnational level (OECD, 2018[3]):

  • Regional councils for social dialogue (Wojewódzka Rada Dialogu Społecznego) in each of the 16 regions convene representatives of the marshal of the region (marszałek województwa), the regional governor (voivode, wojewoda), employers and trade unions to co-operate on regional development (OECD, 2018[3]).

  • Regional labour market councils (wojewódzkie rady rynku pracy) bring together regional representatives of employer organisations, trade unions and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) appointed by voivodeship marshals. Their main task is to stimulate the development of the regional labour market, including by giving opinions on new vocational programmes (professions) to be taught in VET schools, and assessing how the KFS is spent.

  • County labour market councils (powiatowe rady rynku pracy) bring together local representatives of employer organisations, trade unions and NGOs appointed by county starosta. They advise on new professions to be taught in VET institutions, discuss the financial plan of the county labour office (public employment service), and assess the county’s programmes.

  • ERDF-funded programmes can spur intra-regional and public-private partnerships. Funds are often allocated at a regional level, and stakeholders need to co-operate to successfully bid for and access the funds. Acknowledging this potential, the Pomorskie Region Development Strategy 2020 (Strategia Rozwoju Województwa Pomorskiego 2020) identifies co-operation between researchers and businesses as a major weakness to be addressed through ERDF-funded programmes (Sejmik Województwa Pomorskiego, 2012[13]; Pomorski Urząd Wojewódzki, 2019[14]).

  • Regional agencies can also facilitate co-operation between provinces, counties, districts, communes, employers, unions, education and training providers, and civil society organisations. For example, the Poznań Centre for Entrepreneurship Support operates within the framework of the Poznań county labour office to provide information, consulting and education services to bolster entrepreneurship for small businesses. The centre co-operates with the Poznań Department of Economic Activity and Agriculture and local stakeholders, including labour market institutions, business institutions, training providers and universities (OECD, 2016[15]; POWP, 2019[16]).

  • Territorial contracts aim to enhance co-ordination horizontally at the subnational level (OECD, 2013[11]). So far, they are focused on infrastructure projects (e.g. a major road linking Małopolskie and Śląskie regions). However, the Dolnośląskie region’s contract includes the trans-regional co-operation of higher education institutions.

  • Poland currently has two main legal forms of co-operation between municipalities (as specified in the Law on Local Government, 1990) (OECD, 2018[3]):

    • Inter-municipal unions are corporations of public law created by local governments. Their primary objective is to implement specific public tasks. There are presently 313 such unions in Poland. The vast majority have been adopted to manage the sewage system, but some have also been adopted to promote investment in areas such as the agri-food sector or the development of tourism, sport and leisure.

    • Inter-municipal agreements do not constitute a separate legal entity, but allow a municipality to entrust certain public tasks, rights and obligations to another municipality (usually for transport or sewage). The supported municipality finances at least part of the costs related to the implementation of these tasks.

  • Local authorities can create shared service centres whereby schools, kindergartens and social welfare centres in one municipality can share common accounting, information technology services, and human resource systems, etc. Such local service centres also enable one municipality to act as a co-lead for others; for example, one accounting service for schools and kindergartens can be adopted across several municipalities.

  • The Metropolitan Union Act in Śląskie Voivodeship (2017) formalised a framework for inter-municipal collaboration. Some 41 municipalities with more than 2 million inhabitants participate in the union, which aims to co-ordinate tasks such as integrating public transport and supporting regional social and economic development. The union receives 5% of the personal income tax paid by inhabitants, and allocates its budget to regional services and infrastructure such as transportation.

  • Regional territorial observatories (RTOs) provide analyses of regional development in all 16 voivodships. They co-operate with institutions at the national level (e.g. Statistics Poland, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Development, other RTOs) and the regional level (e.g. voivodeship labour offices, regional bureaus and agencies).

  • Local action groups (LAGs) under the EU LEADER Programme (https://enrd.ec.europa.eu) are a form of inter-municipal partnership, usually in rural territories, that involve other private sector and non-profit actors. Poland currently has 324 LAGs that have undertaken a range of development projects, such as small business incubators, tourism promotion networks, and training and skills upgrading for marginalised groups.

  • Subnational authorities of various types and levels form associations in order to enhance inter-regional co-operation. Examples include the Association of Polish Cities (Związek Miast Polskich), the Association of Polish Counties (Związek Powiatów Polskich), the Association of Rural Municipalities in Poland (Związek Gmin Wiejskich Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej), and the Convention of Marshals (Konwent Marszałków Województw Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej).

Building integrated information systems

Responsibilities for gathering, disseminating and using information on skills and learning in Poland are fragmented and sometimes undefined, with several ministries, agencies, institutions and social partners currently involved (Table 5.3). The ministries of education and higher education manage the main databases on students and institutions. With the exception of the Polish graduate tracking system (Ogólnopolski system monitorowania Ekonomicznych Losów Absolwentów szkół wyższych, ELA), information on learning outcomes is generated by ad hoc evaluations. Three bodies operate websites on learning opportunities, but with different target groups. The Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy oversees various skills assessment and anticipation exercises, but these are largely conducted by subnational authorities.

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.3. Responsibilities for skills and learning information in Poland

Actor

Information on learning participation, expenditure and outcomes

Information on available learning opportunities

Information on current and anticipated skills needs

Ministry of National Education

Operates the System of Education Information (System Informacji Oświatowej), an administrative database with detailed data on participation, students and schools.

Prepares the prognosis of labour demand for professions delivered in the vocational education system. Uses information on skills shortages to direct funding to specific VET programmes.

Ministry of Science and Higher Education

Operates a POL-on, which is a database of HEIs with information on students, fields of study, academic staff, etc.

Operates the ELA, a higher education graduate tracking system that collects information on the labour market outcomes of higher education graduates (employability and salaries).

Administers/funds the http://studia.gov.pl/ online portal that provides students with information on study options and benefits.

Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy

Collects information on active labour market policy (ALMP) expenditure and effectives, and on KFS expenditure and outcomes.

Administers the Register of Training Institutions together with voivodeship labour offices.

Oversees subnational agencies in their conducting of skills assessment and anticipation (SAA) exercises. Manages some national SAA exercises.

Ministry of Finance

Collates and publicly reports central expenditure on skills-related programmes.

Central Examination Board (Centralna Komisja Egzaminacyjna)

Collects and presents data on external exam scores, including on “educational value added”, which is a measure of school performance.

Provides information on external exams, including those for non-formal learners.

PARP

Surveys of adult skills and learning through the Human Capital Survey (Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego, BKL).

Administers a database of development services for adult education and training opportunities (https://uslugirozwojowe.parp.gov.pl/) and PARP Academy, a web platform offering online training for entrepreneurs.

Voivodeship labour offices (public employment service)

Run ad hoc regional surveys and evaluation studies on KFS utilisation.

Collects information on local labour market needs via regional observatories of labour market.

Regional territorial observatories

Collect and analyse data in order to evaluate the impact of development policies locally.

Educational Research Institute

Ad hoc evaluation of student, school or programme outcomes.

Runs an Integrated Qualifications Register that has information on all the qualifications included in the Integrated Qualifications System.

Note: For more detailed information see Table 5.9, Table 5.10 and Table 5.11.

Source: MEN (2019[17]), Education Information Centre, https://cie.men.gov.pl/; MNiSW (2019[18]), Integrated System of Information on Science and Higher Education, https://polon.nauka.gov.pl/; ELA (2019[19]), How do graduates spend their time?, https://ela.nauka.gov.pl/pl/infographics; Studia (2019[20]), Better studies, http://studia.gov.pl/; CKE (2019[21]), Central Examination Board website, www.cke.gov.pl/; PARP (2019[22]), The Database of Development Services, https://serwis-uslugirozwojowe.parp.gov.pl/; Provincial Labor Office in Krakow (2019[23]), Małopolska Observatory of the Labour Market and Education, http://wupkrakow.praca.gov.pl/-/848672-malopolskie-obserwatorium-rynku-pracy-i-edukacji; MEN (2019[24]), Integrated Qualification Register, https://rejestr.kwalifikacje.gov.pl/.

Poland’s performance

Whole-of-government co-ordination on skills

Several government and stakeholder representatives (participants) consulted during this project stated that Poland lacks a tradition of collaboration between ministries. As a result, civil servants working on skills policies are often unaware of what other ministries are doing on skills, which threatens the coherence and efficiency of skills policy.

According to the Bertelsmann Foundation’s 2018 Sustainable Governance Indicators (SGI), Poland is ranked 32nd out of 41 OECD and European Union countries on inter-ministerial co-ordination (Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2018[25]). While not specific to skills policy, this reflects relatively low performance in several areas (Figure 5.2).

In most cases, informal co-ordination mechanisms are relatively effective and support inter-ministerial co-ordination. The policy expertise of the Chancellery of the Prime Minister, “Government office expertise”, to evaluate draft bills is consistent with the average for OECD countries. However, the number and role of cabinet committees in reviewing or co-ordinating cabinet proposals is limited. The gatekeeping role of the prime minister’s office has also been limited by several factors, including the proliferation of ministries (now 21) and the enhanced role of some ministers. While senior ministry officials play a substantial role in inter-ministerial co-ordination (“ministerial bureaucracy”), co-ordination at lower levels of the hierarchy is still relatively limited.

copy the linklink copied!
Figure 5.2. Poland’s performance on inter-ministerial co-ordination
International rankings based on scores given by experts in 36 OECD and EU countries.
Figure 5.2. Poland’s performance on inter-ministerial co-ordination

Note: The highest rank (1) denotes the highest performance, and is shown on the outer edge of the figure.

Source: Bertelsmann Stiftung (2019[26]), Sustainable Governance Indicators, https://www.sgi-network.org/2018/Downloads.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934036690

Vertical co-ordination between ministries and subnational authorities is more limited, and the relationship between these authorities is sometimes strained. The competencies of centrally appointed and locally elected officials have been a growing point of contention. The Polish ministries involved in this project indicated that political differences often inhibit effective vertical co-ordination. Furthermore, subnational governments regard the implementation of some central government policies, especially the introduction of the two-tier school system, as shifting unfunded/underfunded mandates to them (Matthes and Markowski, 2018[8]). Some national laws and regulations tightly constrain the actions of subnational governments, making it difficult for them to innovate or tailor policies locally (OECD, 2018[3]). The limited subnational evaluations of territorial contracts as a co-ordination mechanism in Poland suggest that subnational actors generally see the contracts as effective, but their scope as too narrow or not sufficient due to conditional rules of financing (Instytut Badań nad Gospodarką Rynkową; Taylor Economics, 2017[27]; Dębczyński et al., 2018[28]). The participants in this project stated that different regions have very different levels of capacity for effectively co-ordinating with central authorities and fulfilling their responsibilities for skills policy.

Stakeholder engagement with policy makers

Poland’s performance in the government engagement of stakeholders is relatively low overall, but with some good recent examples of engagement on skills reforms. Trust underpins government-stakeholder engagement, while high-quality engagement with visible results also builds trust. By various international measures, trust in parliament, government and public institutions is relatively low in Poland (European Commission, 2014[29]; World Values Survey, 2014[30]).

Results from the SGI suggest that the Polish government’s performance in engaging stakeholders is below the EU and OECD averages (Figure 5.3), reflecting several factors. Government consultation with stakeholders does not consistently motivate or facilitate stakeholder acceptance of policies. Furthermore, few citizens appear to be well-informed of government policies (“policy knowledge”). The shares of Polish citizens who voice their opinions to officials (15%) or vote in elections (51%) are among the lowest of 41 OECD and EU countries.

copy the linklink copied!
Figure 5.3. Poland’s performance on stakeholder engagement
International rankings based on scores given by experts in 36 OECD and EU countries.
Figure 5.3. Poland’s performance on stakeholder engagement

Note: The highest rank (1) denotes the highest performance, and is shown on the outer edge of the figure.

Source: Bertelsmann Stiftung (2019[26]), Sustainable Governance Indicators, https://www.sgi-network.org/2018/Downloads.

 StatLink https://doi.org/10.1787/888934036709

However, there are recent examples of wide-ranging stakeholder engagement on specific skills policies and reforms. The passage of the Integrated Qualification System Law through parliament was preceded by several years of preparation involving stakeholders (pre-consultation) and feasibility studies. Most parties in the Sejm (parliament) voted in favour of the law (Sejm, 2015[31]). In addition, there were extensive consultations in sectoral seminars in relation to the VET reform, which introduced the restructuring of basic vocational institutions, secondary technical institutions and sectoral vocational schools, as well as redefined International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) level 3 and 4 qualifications. The reforms were adopted unanimously by the Sejm (with one abstaining vote) (Sejm, 2018[32]).

Furthermore, Poland has made progress with digital stakeholder engagement. According to the World Economic Forum’s 2018 Global Competitiveness Index, Poland is ranked 31st of 140 countries, and is outperforming Switzerland, Austria and Belgium for e-participation. However, Poland’s performance is driven largely by the use of online services to facilitate the provision of information by governments to citizens (“e-information sharing”), rather than interaction with stakeholders (“e-consultation”) and engagement in decision-making processes (World Economic Forum, 2018[33]).

Poland’s performance in subnational government co-ordination and stakeholder engagement is limited overall, but with some very promising examples in particular regions. A recent OECD review found limited co-operation among municipalities and among the regional arms of national ministries, as well as ongoing conflicts between municipal, county and regional authorities over regional spending priorities (OECD, 2018[3]). The extent and quality of co-ordination, integration and communication between different actors varies across regions. Existing co-operation is often formal, limited to information sharing and reliant on the motivation of individuals (OECD, 2016[15]). County representatives involved in this project contrasted improvements in policy co-ordination at the regional level to disjointed and incoherent policies and strategies at the municipal and county levels. For example, there are examples of neighbouring counties offering VET qualifications for the same occupations, even when one school could meet demand in both counties. However, some regions have highly developed co-operation mechanisms, such as the lifelong learning partnership in Krakow. In the case of local labour market councils, their limited capacity, strategic leadership and/or statutory authority has restricted their ability to convene and guide diverse actors (OECD, 2016[15]). Municipal government engagement with enterprises is generally weak (OECD, 2018[3]).

Building integrated information systems

Poland has several data systems for learning participation, expenditure and outcomes, available learning programmes, and labour market skills needs. However, participants in this project stated that there are gaps in existing information collections, and that they are not well integrated. There are no administrative data collections on non-formal adult education, and expenditure data for adult education are limited and fragmented. With the exception of the ELA graduate tracking system, there is little information on learning outcomes in VET and post-secondary education. None of the existing bodies overseeing skills policies has responsibility for co-ordinating skills and learning information. The participants in this project stated that Poland’s greatest informational challenges for skills policy relate to disseminating information in a user-friendly way, and using the information effectively in evidence-based policy making. The public agencies holding skills and learning information increasingly release it online, but it is often not tailored to the needs of different user groups. Poland has high potential for evidence-based skills policy making, for example from the Human Capital Survey (Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego, BKL). However, there is not a culture of evaluating skills policies, which undermines evidence-based policy making.

copy the linklink copied!Opportunities to strengthen skills governance in Poland

According to the participants in this project and research evidence, a range of factors likely inhibit the effectiveness of skills governance arrangements in Poland. At the core appears to be the lack of a co-operation culture. Several government representatives in this project referred to “departmental Poland” (“Polska resortowa”), and stated that the country lacks the “social capital” required for deep co-operation. According to the World Economic Forum’s 2018 Global Competitiveness Index, Poland is ranked 70th out of 140 countries for “Social Capital”, a concept that captures the strength of social cohesion and engagement, community and family networks, political participation and institutional trust. Building attitudes, social capital and trust to underpin co-operation will require a systemic, multi-pronged and long-term approach. Poland has opportunities to strengthen the governance of the skills system by:

  1. 1. Strengthening co-operation on skills policy at the national level.

  2. 2. Strengthening vertical and subnational co-operation on skills policy.

  3. 3. Integrating and using skills information effectively.

Opportunity 1: Strengthening co-operation on skills policy at the national level

A holistic approach to skills requires effective co-operation mechanisms. To foster whole-of-government, cross-sectoral and regional co-operation on skills policies, governments may use: vision setting and strategies; co-ordinating bodies; legal mechanisms and standard setting; contracts, agreements and pacts; subnational mergers, structures or authorities; and performance measurement (OECD, 2019[2]) (OECD, 2018[34]).

Strengthening skills strategies and oversight of the skills system

Strategies and co-ordinating bodies for skills can play a vital role in supporting whole-of-government and cross-sectoral co-operation on skills. However, they must be well designed and monitored to ensure their impact.

Strategies and action plans are important for setting goals and clarifying roles to co-ordinate the efforts of government and stakeholders in the skills system. They can articulate and raise awareness of the challenges that require co-operation; clarify important concepts such as “lifelong learning” and “skills use”; establish goals, priority groups and targets; allocate responsibility; and foreshadow accountability arrangements. The Polish ministries that responded to a questionnaire at the outset of this project cited Poland’s Strategy for Responsible Development and ZSU as providing important opportunities for ministries to collaborate on cross-cutting policies.

A holistic approach to skills requires effective co-ordination structures that encompass all stages of, and contexts for, skills development and use. Many OECD countries have institutions to co-ordinate skills policies. Oversight bodies can establish priorities, define appropriate financial incentives, and improve the quality of policy through collaboration among the different partners involved. The level of responsibility given to these institutions can range from “advisory” to “policy making” (Table 5.4).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.4. Oversight bodies for skills policy with varying degrees of policy responsibility

Advisory bodies

These focus on including partners and providing advice to the central authorities in charge of skills policies or to the relevant ministries. They traditionally include the social partners, private or public suppliers of learning, and local development agents.

Co-ordination bodies

These focus on developing mechanisms for joint planning or delivery where appropriate. They seek to improve information or to set up better evaluation efforts, rather than simply offering a forum for providers to share information about their activities.

Policy-/decision-making bodies

These focus on improving provision of services, research, information and guidance – in short, they function as a central authority for skills policies. Their role is to establish national priorities to balance education and labour market programmes, vocational and non-vocational programmes, and the relative roles of national and local governments. They also set training priorities for specific groups such as women and immigrants, and for potential new programmes and services.

Source: Adapted from OECD (2005[35]), Promoting Adult Learning, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264010932-en.

Poland has sought to take a whole-of-government and cross-sectoral approach to skills via several major strategies (see Table 1.B.1 in Chapter 1). These include the 2013 Lifelong Learning Perspective (Perspektywa Uczenia się przez całe życie), the Strategy for Responsible Development (Strategia na rzecz Odpowiedzialnego Rozwoju) and the ZSU (in progress). Poland is now embarking on an OECD Skills Strategy to strengthen the performance and governance of its skills system. It has also established a range of oversight bodies to co-ordinate policies or support the development of specific strategies and reforms (Table 5.5).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.5. Poland’s national oversight bodies with a role in skills development and use

Body

Purpose

Level of decision-making authority

Members

Economic Committee of the Council of Ministers

Co-ordinating the finalisation and implementation of the Strategy for Responsible Development.

Co-ordination

President of the Council of Ministers. Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Council of Ministers.

Ministers of: Culture and National Heritage; Energy; Finance; Maritime Affairs; Infrastructure; Investment and Economic Development; Entrepreneurship and Technology; Family, Labour and Social Policy; Agriculture; and Environment.

State Secretary for European Affairs.

Committee for European Affairs

In charge of EU co-ordination and the strategy of operation of Poland within the EU.

Co-ordination

MSZ, Council of Ministers, sometimes also representatives of other institutions e.g. National Bank of Poland (Narodowy Bank Polski)

Social Committee

Co-ordinating government initiatives in areas of support for families; supporting employment and educational activities; support for elderly.

Co-ordination

Ministers of: Culture and National Heritage (chairman); Science and Higher Education; National Education; Finance; Investment and Economic Development; Family, Labour and Social Policy; Agriculture and Rural Development; Sport and Tourism; Environment; Justice; Interior and Administration; Health.

Other persons.

Public Benefit Committee

Co-ordinating co-operation between public administration and NGOs; participation in various initiatives supporting civic society.

Co-ordination

Representatives of ministries (ministers or state secretaries) and a director of the National Institute of Freedom.

Social Dialogue Council

Giving opinions on draft strategies, draft programmes and projects of other government documents (including the Strategy for Responsible Development, SOR). Ongoing monitoring and evaluation of SOR implementation. Recommending solutions and proposals for legal changes, particularly in employment policies.

Advisory

Representatives of four employer organisations, three nationwide trade unions, the government and one representative each of the president, the National Bank of Poland governor and the Central Statistical Office.

General Council for Science and Higher Education

Co-operating with the Minister of Science and Higher Education and other public authorities in developing national policies for higher education, research and innovation. Giving opinions and submitting proposals in all matters concerning higher education, research and culture.

Advisory

Academics, representatives of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) and other research institutes, students, representatives of trade unions and employer organisations.

Labour Market Council

Giving opinions on the priorities and distribution of the KFS, and deciding on the allocation of the KFS reserve (20%). Issuing opinions on legislation related to employment promotion and professional activation.

Advisory

All representative trade unions and employers’ organizations, one representative from Joint Commission of Central Government and Local Government

Inter-ministerial Taskforce for Lifelong Learning and the Integrated Qualifications System (ZSK)

Monitoring the implementation of lifelong learning.

Monitoring the Implementation of ZSK.

Co-operating with partners and institutions important for the development of lifelong learning, including the ZSK Stakeholder Council.

Co-ordination

Ministries of: National Education (co-ordination); Digital Affairs; Maritime Affairs; Culture and National Heritage; Science and Higher Education; National Defence; Family, Labour and Social Policy; Investment and Economic Development; Sport and Tourism; Interior and Administration; and Health.

Minister from the Chancellery of the Prime Minister.

ZSK Stakeholder Council

Discussing systemic questions of ZSK and setting priorities for the development of a system. Setting opinions on the market qualifications and sectoral qualifications frameworks to be included in the ZSK. Taking part in accreditation of external quality assurance bodies.

Co-ordination

Social partners (representatives of trade unions, employer organisations, educational institutions, training providers), local government and central administration.

Programme Council on Competences/Advisory Council on Competences

Co-ordinating work of sectoral skills councils.

Proposing amendments of law and public policies in the area of skills.

Setting strategic objectives concerning matching the educational offer to the needs of the economy.

Co-ordination

19 members, including the representatives of the Ministries of National Education; Family, Labour and Social Policy; and Entrepreneurship and Technology; civic and economic organisations; employers’ associations and educational institutions.

Sector skills councils

Stimulating public debate on skills and qualifications.

Proposing sector qualifications frameworks.

Recommending legislative solutions and changes in the field of education.

Advisory

Depending on council: entrepreneurs; employer and employee organisations; and representatives of education, science, administration and labour market institutions.

The large number of oversight bodies and strategies that cover skills is a positive sign of growing awareness, but may complicate national co-ordination. There has been a proliferation in bodies in recent years, often arising from particular strategies and reforms. While there are benefits to highly tailored oversight bodies, it has resulted in some overlap of remit and membership. For example, the ZSK Stakeholder Council and the Programme Council on Competences both monitor demand for skills and qualifications and share some of the same members (Table 5.5). The hierarchy and reporting lines between these bodies are largely undefined and/or underdeveloped. Participants in this project highlighted the risks of “too many meetings” and the negative impact they can have on willingness to co-ordinate. Looking for opportunities to reduce the quantity and increase the quality of skills oversight bodies and strategies could improve co-ordination at the national level.

Awareness of “skills” and the ZSU could be increased at the national level. Some stakeholders in this project displayed limited familiarity with the strategy and process. In general, many business leaders report that the government lacks a long-term vision. According to the World Economic Forum’s 2018 Global Competitiveness Index, Poland is ranked 106th out of 140 countries for “government’s long-term vision”. Raising awareness of skills and the ZSU is particularly important at the subnational level (see section below on Strengthening mechanisms for vertical co-ordination) and to boost adult learning (see Chapter 3).

The ZSU has very limited focus on how workers’ skills are used within workplaces. It does cover activating people’s skills in the labour market. For example, priority 6 emphasises the need for policies to support disadvantaged adults with tailored training and lower barriers to labour market integration. However, in addition to getting adults into jobs, it is essential to consider whether their skills are fully utilised within their jobs. There is a strong correlation between a country’s labour productivity and the level of skills use in workplaces. Skills use and its key drivers, such as high-performance workplace practices in firms, are a growing area of policy interest (OECD, 2019[2]). Raising skills use in Poland will be essential for the country to reap the benefits of people’s skills (see Chapter 4).

Clear responsibilities, targets and accountability will be essential for the ZSU to have its intended impact. Participants in this project reported that Polish strategies often lack measurable targets, clear responsibilities and accountability for achieving goals (such as public reporting, or performance-based budgeting). This was described as one reason why the Poland 2030 strategy was dropped after acceptance of the Strategy for Responsible Development (MIiR, 2017[36]). The ZSU sets important priorities for skills development in Poland, including creating effective mechanisms for inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral co-operation in skills development. It will be essential that the ZSU action plan makes these goals and the responsibilities for achieving and monitoring them more concrete, and that subnational authorities and social partners are effectively engaged in the action plan.

The government does not monitor the effectiveness of oversight bodies in order to improve their functioning over time. Government and stakeholder representatives consulted for this project stated that existing bodies sometimes lose momentum and don’t fulfil their initial remit in the implementation phase, providing the Inter-ministerial Taskforce for Lifelong Learning as an example (Table 5.5). However, there is no other qualitative or quantitative evidence on the performance of these oversight bodies, which inhibits their ability to adapt to changing needs and maximise their effectiveness.

Subnational authorities and representatives of micro- and small-sized firms are under-represented in existing oversight bodies. Only a few bodies include representatives of regions, counties or municipalities; for example, in the Labour Market Council there are representatives of the Union of Powiats and the Union of Voivodeships, while the ZSK Stakeholder Council includes representatives of the Joint Central Government and Local Government Committee. A more fundamental issue is that entrepreneurs and micro- and small-sized businesses in Poland lack their own chambers and associations. They are represented in existing bodies only if they are members of the larger employer associations who are members of those bodies.

None of the oversight bodies with responsibility for skills have decision-making authority in policy making or implementation. At most, they have co-ordination capacity on specific policy areas, such as priority setting for market-based qualifications under the ZSK (Table 5.5). Assigning decision-making capacity is difficult for something as broad as “skills policy”, as responsibilities are dispersed in legislation. However, giving some decision-making capacity to the body overseeing implementation of the ZSU, for example on co-funded programmes between ministries, could help ensure its impact on skills.

It is not yet clear whether it will be an existing or a new body that will oversee implementation of the ZSU. However, it will be important that this body has whole-of-government (inter-ministerial and multi-level) and cross-sectoral representation.

The Norwegian Strategy for Skills Policy 2017-2021 is an example of a high-level skills strategy overseen by a whole-of-government, cross-sectoral council (Box 5.1).

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.1. Relevant international example: Strengthening skills strategies and oversight

In 2017, Norway adopted the Norwegian Strategy for Skills Policy 2017-2021, following up on the recommendations of the 2012-14 OECD Skills Strategy Project. This advised Norway to develop a skills strategy that incorporated a whole-of-government approach and strong stakeholder involvement.

The Norwegian strategy is a binding agreement among the strategy partners, namely the government, employer associations, trade unions, the voluntary sector and the Sami Parliament. It delineates the roles and responsibilities of each partner. For example, the government (ministries), in co-operation with social partners, is responsible for the development and implementation of the skills policy and for ensuring co-ordination across policy sectors and levels of government. Municipalities, including local and regional authorities, are the school owners and provide numerous services to the end user. Employers provide training in the workplace, often in collaboration with other partners. The Sami Parliament ensures that the authorities enable the Sami people to have the necessary linguistic and cultural expertise to develop Sami society and businesses. The voluntary sector contributes to skills development both within and outside the labour market.

The strategy also notes the importance of partners working together to develop and implement measures. For example, Norwegian county municipalities are responsible for the development of regional skills policy, with other skills policy partners. Vocational and professional institutions and employers co-operate to allow work placements during the period of study.

The Norwegian strategy is overseen by the Skills Policy Council and includes the Future Skills Needs Committee. The council consists of representatives of all strategy partners and is in charge of the follow-up of the strategy. The council meets regularly during the strategy period and discusses feedback from the Future Skills Needs Committee, as well as other relevant issues. It is responsible for assessing the strategy and will decide whether it should be renewed. The committee is in charge of compiling and analysing information about Norway’s skills needs, both national and regional, and consists of researchers, analysts and representatives of all strategy partners.

Source: (OECD, 2019[37]) Getting Skills Right: Future-Ready Adult learning Systems https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264311756-en,

Government of Norway (2017[38]), Norwegian Strategy for Skills Policy 2017-2021, www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/3c84148f2f394539a3eefdfa27f7524d/strategi-kompetanse-eng.pdf.

Recommendations for strengthening skills strategies and oversight of the skills system

  • Clearly define targets, responsibilities, resources and accountability for the Integrated Skills Strategy (ZSU). Ministries, subnational authorities and social partners should collaborate to: establish specific, measurable and time-bound targets for achieving the main objectives and goals in the ZSU; allocate responsibility for achieving the targets; document how public and private resources will be allocated to achieving the objectives and goals; and develop accountability mechanisms, for example through monitoring and reporting to parliament and possibly through the performance-based public funding of service providers.

  • Make a whole-of-government and cross-sectoral body responsible for overseeing implementation of the ZSU. This body should include all key ministries; representatives of regions, counties and municipalities; social partners; and other stakeholders. It should have ministerial leadership and report to the Cabinet, the Chancellery of the Prime Minister, and/or the parliament on progress in implementing the ZSU. The government should consider the scope to give this body some decision-making capacity and budget, for example to support inter-ministerial and/or public-private partnerships to achieve the goals of the ZSU. The relationship, hierarchy and reporting lines between this body and existing bodies should be clearly articulated.

  • Review and monitor the effectiveness of existing oversight bodies for skills policy, and improve them over time. The goals of each body should be clearly and formally articulated, and performance indicators developed. The government should regularly monitor the effectiveness of the bodies against these indicators. This monitoring should involve consultations with members themselves and identify areas for continuous improvement to improve the impact of bodies on skills policies. Monitoring should inform decisions about closing down or merging bodies.

  • Raise awareness of the Integrated Skills Strategy at the subnational level and among stakeholders. See Opportunity 2: Strengthening vertical and subnational co-operation on skills.

Strengthening other mechanisms for co-ordination at the national level

Inter-ministerial co-ordination and stakeholder engagement on skills policy could be strengthened through mechanisms other than strategy setting and oversight bodies.

Poland has no council or committee responsible for co-ordinating skills policies in the centre of government, but there are five major committees comprised of ministers for cross-cutting policies. For example, the Development Policy Co-ordination Committee is a body of the Chancellery of the Prime Minister that plans consultation for medium- and long-term national development strategies and relevant sub-strategies (OECD, 2018[3]). There are inter-ministerial taskforces responsible for more specific issues (including one for lifelong learning), as well as government proxies – individuals nominated to oversee a single area on behalf of the Council of Ministers (e.g. a proxy for children’s social development in schools). Some participants in this project suggested appointing a committee for skills in the Chancellery of the Prime Minister to co-ordinate and raise the profile of the skills agenda in Poland.

Ministries do not have specific individuals or units devoted to inter-ministerial co-ordination on skills policies. As a result, staff voluntarily take on extra responsibilities to participate in cross-cutting skills projects, such as the ZSK. Staff from multiple ministries and the IBE have taken on additional responsibilities to co-ordinate market-based qualifications, but are often overburdened by the workload. Examples of inter-ministerial co-ordination in other OECD countries include Slovenia, where some ministries have appointed individuals and/or units to work on cross-cutting policy issues such as adult learning (OECD, 2018[34]), and Canada, where deputy minister committees advance integrated policy development and policy coherence (OECD, 2016[39]).

The capacity of Polish stakeholders to effectively engage in the skills policy process is limited in some areas. As noted earlier, the capacity of citizens to participate is limited and few are politically active. Poland has a relatively developed network of employer associations and trade unions, which have become increasingly professional over time. However, self-employed, micro- and small-sized enterprises lack their own representation. Most OECD countries, including Austria, Canada, Slovenia and Sweden, have employer associations specialised in representing these groups (OECD, 2017[40]). Poland has a large number of non-work-related interest associations, but their capacity is limited. These civil society groups are relatively small, and only a few focus on and are capable of developing policy proposals (Matthes and Markowski, 2018[8]). The United Kingdom has implemented programmes to build the capacity of government officials and stakeholders to co-ordinate in policy making (Box 5.2).

Sector skill councils are one way for government and stakeholders to engage on VET policy, and their capacity is supported by ESF funds. However, although there has been relative success in the finance sector (Box 5.3), the performance of these councils in other sectors has varied widely. Some participants in this project stated that a major problem sector skill councils face is insufficient legal recognition, which precludes skills councils from responding to public tenders to develop VET curricula or engaging in broader government engagement with stakeholders on skills policy. The total budget for the councils over the period 2016-2022 is EUR 30.3 million, EUR 25.6 million of which is from the ESF. In the future, the councils will face the problem of sourcing funds once ESF funding ceases.

More information is needed on the capacity of civil servants and stakeholders for effective co-ordination at the national level. The Ministry of Interior and Administration’s strategy, Efficient State Strategy 2020, identifies co-ordination and co-operation on policy implementation as a priority goal. It proposes the introduction and promotion of various forms of co-operation, designing a clear legal framework with rules and procedures of co-operation, and increasing the role of public-private and public-social partnerships in the implementation of policies (Council of Ministers, 2013[41]). The Ministry of Interior and Administration could assess the capacity of ministries through a survey and provide recommendations to increase their co-ordination capacity, for example through training. The government could also survey key stakeholder groups to identify opportunities to build capacity for engagement on skills policy, and increase the benefits and decrease the costs of engaging.

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.2. Relevant international example: Building capacity for national co-ordination

United Kingdom – Building government capacity to create better services

Building capacity in officials

Communities of practice bring together practitioners from across government who share common job roles, responsibilities or remits so that they can share challenges, best practices and develop their capabilities. This supports better services for users and a better working environment for civil servants. Exchanges within these communities allow participants to road-test ideas and share opinions in confidence, while fostering an inclusive work culture. Learning and development practices that stem from participation in these communities contribute to the general skills development of government workers.

Building capacity in stakeholders

The Consultation Institute (TCI) is a member-based not-for-profit organisation for individuals, public and private sector operators engaged in public or stakeholder consultation. It supports programmes of change and upskilling employees to tackle difficult scenarios. TCI offers online, public and in-house training courses to build knowledge and skills among members and clients. Membership of TCI allows for exchanges with the rest of the institute’s member base to enhance capabilities in public engagement and skill building, share best practices and acquire recognition for training undertaken.

Source: Cabinet Office (2014[42]), Community development framework, www.gov.uk/guidance/community-development-framework; The Consultation Institute (2019[43]), The Consultation Institute, www.consultationinstitute.org/.

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.3. Relevant Polish example: Stakeholder engagement at the national level

Sector skills council for the finance sector

The sector skills council for the finance sector was initiated through a partnership between the Warsaw Banking Institute, the Polish Bank Association and the Polish Chamber of Insurance. In total, 35 entities are represented in the council, including commercial and co-operative banks, industry organisations, higher education institutions, and training companies. A representative of the Ministry of Finance participates as an observer.

The council is very active (and one of the most advanced among all Polish skills councils) in the implementation of the Sectoral Qualifications Framework and its inclusion in the Integrated Qualifications System, which will ensure that Polish sectoral qualifications are linked with the European market. It also took an active part in the process of developing the sectoral human capital survey report, which contains an analysis and forecast of the development trends and needs of the financial sector, and a set of strategic recommendations.

Source: PARP (2018[44]), Evaluation of Sectoral Skills Councils, https://poir.parp.gov.pl/storage/publications/pdf/2018_POWER_ocena_sektorowych_rad.pdf; Fundacja Warszawski Instytut Bankowości (2018[45]), Sectoral Council for Competencies in the Financial Sector, http://rada.wib.org.pl/.

Recommendations for strengthening other mechanisms for co-ordination at the national level

  • Raise the profile of “skills” and Poland’s Integrated Skills Strategy (ZSU) in the centre of government: Poland should consider establishing a skills council or commission in the Prime Minister’s Chancellery to improve inter-ministerial co-ordination and elevate Poland’s skills agenda. The body could potentially have a role in overseeing implementation of the ZSU.

  • Assess and build the capacity of ministries and stakeholders to co-ordinate and engage effectively on skills policies: Survey ministries and key stakeholder organisations (e.g. employer associations, trade unions) about the extent of their current co-ordination and engagement activities, the strengths and weaknesses of existing co-ordination and engagement mechanisms, and their capacity (people, skills and funding) to effectively co-ordinate and engage with others on skills policies. The government should consider allocating responsibility to teams within each ministry for participating in inter-ministerial processes for skills-related policies. It could also offer support to small business associations and civil society associations to effectively engage them in the skills policy process. Support could be in the form of training, peer learning, funding or other tools (see also recommendation in Opportunity 2).

Opportunity 2: Strengthening vertical and subnational co-operation on skills policy

Effective vertical and subnational co-operation on skills policy is essential for well-designed and well-implemented skills policies. Co-ordination between central and subnational governments can ensure that national priorities are informed by local intelligence and are pursued locally. Co-operation between subnational actors themselves can reduce duplication and gaps in service provision, reduce costs by achieving economies of scale, and raise quality by harnessing dispersed expertise.

Subnational governments have their own strategies covering different elements of skills development and use (Table 5.6). The system of nested strategies at national, regional and local levels can inform one another and provide a complementary set of objectives across levels of government (OECD, 2018[3]). They can also support regional co-operation by setting a vision to guide activities within regions.

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.6. Poland’s subnational strategies of relevance to skills development and use

Strategy

Responsible body

Purpose

Skills content

Regional development strategies (RDS) (Strategie rozwoju województw)

Appointed by voivodeship sejmiks (regional parliaments). Voivodship marshal’s offices are responsible for implementation.

Sets priorities for the regional development of a voivodeship. They include a diagnosis of key issues and an assessment of the best way to channel resources to meet these issues.

Regional operational programmes in voivodeships are usually strictly based on a strategy.

Dependent on voivodship priorities. For example, in Świętokrzyskie “Building human capital and a basis for innovative economy” is one of six key priorities; in Łódzkie “Advanced knowledge based economy” is one of nine operational goals.

Municipal strategies of community and economic development (strategie rozwoju gmin lub miast)

Appointed by local governments (municipality or city boards) and implemented by starosta offices or city offices.

Set goals for the development of counties (powiaty).

Highly dependent on county (powiat) structure and priorities. For example, in Jastrzębie-Zdrój skills content is hidden in a strategic goal of increasing and diversifying the local economy (specific goals related to knowledge economy), whereas Lidzbark Warmiński defines one of its operational goals as increasing access to and quality of education.

Source: OECD (2018[3]), OECD Rural Policy Reviews: Poland 2018, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264289925-en.

Subnational actors also have their own oversight bodies covering different elements of skills (Table 5.7). They help subnational actors co-ordinate their input to central government and can facilitate co-operation between subnational actors.

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.7. Poland’s subnational bodies with a role in skills development and use

Body

Purpose

Level of decision-making authority

Members

Regional labour market councils (Wojewódzkie Rady Rynku Pracy)

Advisory body in area of labour market policies at a voivodship level. Give opinions on new vocational programmes (professions) to be taught in VET schools.

Advisory

Representatives of employer organisations and trade unions, farmers associations, NGOs.

Local labour market councils (Powiatowe Rady Rynku Pracy)

Advisory body in area of labour market policies at a powiat level. Give opinions on the fields of VET taught in public schools.

Advisory

Appointed by a starosta, from candidates proposed by representative employer organisations, trade unions, farmers associations and NGOs in the county (powiat).

Regional agencies for development (Wojewódzkie Agencje Rozwoju Regionalnego)

Publicly funded and owned enterprises that seek to support regional enterprises. Regarding skills they run projects such as developing managerial skills or supporting labour market activity.

Policy

NA

Source: OECD (2016[15]), Employment and Skills Strategies in Poland, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264256521-en.

It is essential that subnational actors have the capacity to contribute to co-ordinated and effective skills policy. In order to effectively fulfil their responsibilities, engage with the central government and co-operate with each other, civil servants and stakeholder organisations at the subnational level (e.g. employer associations, trade unions) need appropriate human resources – people, skills and time. However, they also need sufficient financial resources, commensurate to their responsibilities and local needs, for delivering education, employment and related services.

Strengthening mechanisms for vertical co-ordination

There is significant variation in the degree to which regions, counties and municipalities adopt national skills objectives. Some regions, such as Pomorskie, have implemented the European Commission’s Human Capital Programme regionally, and have already adopted elements of Poland’s ZSU into their regional development strategy. However, according to subnational representatives in this project, many other regions are far less proactive.

Many subnational governments in Poland still lack awareness of the importance of human capital, and remain focused on physical capital. Subnational representatives in this project noted that the bulk of responsibilities delegated to subnational governments relate to providing and/or maintaining physical infrastructure, such as transport, public spaces and buildings. EU regional funds also place a high priority on developing physical infrastructure in the regions, with ESF-funded projects accounting for, on average, one-quarter of regional operational programmes. For this reason, a concerted awareness raising effort is needed to ensure that subnational governments understand the importance of skills for Poland’s future, as well as the role of the ZSU, in order that they consistently adopt Poland’s skills agenda. This should complement a national awareness raising campaign for adult learning (see Chapter 3).

The responsibilities of centrally appointed regional authorities vis-à-vis locally elected officials have been a point of contention in Poland. The Polish ministries involved in this project indicated that economic and political differences often inhibit effective vertical co-ordination on education policy. For example, local governments are responsible for administering schools, whereas issues related to the content of education are supervised by regional education authorities (REA). As a consequence it is unclear who is responsible for the quality of teaching, with some local governments relying on REAs, and others taking their own steps to ensure quality (Trutkowski, 2015[46]).

The performance of territorial contracts as a vertical co-ordination mechanism in Poland has not been evaluated systematically. Some regional policy evaluations suggest that subnational actors generally see the contracts as effective, but that their scope is sometimes too narrow or limited due to contract conditions (Dębczyński et al., 2018[28]). Existing contracts are very similar in scope and structure across regions, suggesting that their potential for being tailored to regional challenges has not been fully utilised. Furthermore, contracts only exist at the regional level, whereas such mechanisms could have benefits at the county and municipal levels (Obrębalski, 2015[47]). Extending the scope of contracts to concrete policies that support skills development and use in regions could have several benefits, including ensuring that the financing of skills initiatives is sufficient.

There have been no evaluations of the effectiveness of the Joint Central Government and Local Government Committee or the national and regional social dialogue councils in facilitating vertical co-ordination for skills policy. However, earlier publications on the Tripartite Commission and regional commissions for social dialogue (predecessors of social dialogue councils) show that such co-operation was very much limited. The reorganisation of the institutions for social dialogue was done in part to improve their funding and performance (Czarzasty, 2016[48]).

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.4. Relevant international example: Vertical co-ordination mechanisms

Finland’s PARAS multi-level governance reform

Finland’s multi-level governance reforms, underpinned by targeted supports from sectoral ministries, have driven collaboration between local areas and regions on education and training services.

The PARAS reform in Finland was a multi-dimensional reform that included municipal mergers, inter-municipal co-operation for service provision (in particular in the areas of healthcare and education), and better governance in urban regions. In merging or co-operating municipalities, the reform also had an impact on managerial practices (organisational restructuring, introduction of new practices, etc.). Decisions to merge or co-operate were taken on a voluntary basis.

Legislation to support the reform was enacted in 2005 and 2007, and the implementation of the first phase of the reform was planned over 2007-08. Legislation introduced quantitative thresholds to be reached for healthcare and education provision. Municipalities or inter-municipalities authorised to provide basic education services had to have at least 50 000 inhabitants. The local authorities involved could agree that the functions of co-management areas would be conducted jointly or by one local authority on behalf of one or more other local governments.

Municipalities and urban regions had to submit their reports and implementation plans to the central government by the end of August 2007. In 2008, central government evaluated the reform progress, based on supplementary information submitted by municipalities. The reform was implemented between 2009 and 2012. As decisions were voluntary, each municipality/urban region implemented (or not) its plans at its own pace. In 2009, the central government submitted a report to the parliament on the reform to restructure municipalities and services. At the end of the reform period, a questionnaire was sent by central government to municipalities to find out what decisions they had taken within the framework of the reform.

The establishment of quantitative thresholds for education services drove collaboration and was supported by a joint project by the Ministry of Education and Culture and education providers to ensure structural and economic support for education and training across regions. However, one criticism of the threshold was that in urban regions it risked encouraging wealthy “inner-ring” municipalities to co-operate with central municipalities while maintaining their own services.

Source: OECD (2017[49]), Multi-level Governance Reforms: Overview of OECD Country Experiences, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264272866-en.

Recommendations for strengthening mechanisms for vertical co-ordination

  • Monitor the coherence of subnational policies with the Integrated Skills Strategy (ZSU) to inform the government’s co-ordination and outreach efforts. The government should monitor whether regional, county and municipal development and sectoral strategies and policies prioritise skills development and use in a way that complements the ZSU. It should use the results of this monitoring to target communication and co-ordination efforts with the subnational level, as well as for potential capacity building efforts.

  • Raise awareness of skills, the Integrated Skills Strategy and the Integrated Qualification System (ZSK) at the subnational level. The government should support subnational authorities to incorporate key elements of the ZSU into their own development plans. They could do this by raising awareness of its key content and publicising examples of regions (e.g. Pomorskie) adopting major elements of the ZSU. The government should seek to reach out to regional development agencies, national and subnational associations of employers, employees (trade unions), education and training providers, and others with the main messages of the strategy and to raise awareness of the Integrated Qualification System. This could be done by marshals (as the government’s representative in the regions), through the Joint Central Government and Local Government Committee, and/or via regional ZSK co-ordinators. There could be regional information sessions and a dedicated website for the ZSU. This should complement a national awareness raising campaign for adult learning (see Chapter 3).

  • Trial territorial contracts to improve vertical co-ordination and coherence between national and subnational skills policies. Ministries should identify opportunities to utilise territorial contracts for skills policy, drawing on existing examples such as the Kujawsko-Pomorskie territorial contract 2014-2023. The contracts should set shared priorities, co-ordination methods and funding mechanisms for skills. They could involve performance-based budgeting, whereby subnational authorities are partly remunerated for achieving agreed outcomes.

Strengthening mechanisms for subnational co-operation

Although several mechanisms are in place to support subnational co-operation, their use and effectiveness differ considerably across regions and counties. Existing co-ordination mechanisms tend to focus on regional policies overall, of which skills policies are just one part.

Regional councils for social dialogue were introduced in 2015 to replace regional committees for social dialogue, at the same time as the national level Tri-partite Commission became the National Council for Social Dialogue. These changes took place due to a perceived ineffectiveness of the former institutions. The limited role of social partners, in particular labour unions, was perceived as a major weakness of the old institutions. The transformation of committees into councils sought to increase their role through more stable organisational arrangements and some additional funding. Some experts raised concerns that these changes were not enough, and that placing councils in the voivodeship marshal’s office does not foster the equal role of all participants. There have been no evaluations of regional councils so far, and their impact needs to be monitored (Czarzasty, 2016[48]).

The role and success of regional agencies in co-ordinating stakeholders has been mixed, with several promising examples but a lack of systematic co-ordination. The labour office of the Małopolska region has facilitated a major and ongoing partnership for lifelong learning involving 55 institutions (Box 5.5). However, these good practices are not systemic across Poland, and awareness of them seems to be limited outside of the region. Some regional arms of national ministries may lack the authority to work with their counterparts without explicit approval on a case-by-case basis from head offices in Warsaw (OECD, 2018[3]). Regional territorial observatories could support the efforts of regions to identify opportunities and encourage inter-municipal partnerships, especially in rural areas (OECD, 2018[3]).

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.5. Relevant Polish example: Effective co-operation between subnational actors

Poland - Pomorskie

Konwent starostów is a convention (forum) of 16 starosta (county chairman), each of whom represents their county. Each starosta is elected by the board of the county and is responsible for county management.

The convention takes positions on issues facing the locality and presents them to the management board of the Association of Polish Counties (Związku Powiatów Polskich, ZPP) if it wishes to intervene in matters concerning ZPP statutory objectives. Although limited to an advisory role, the convention reinforces the idea of self-government by empowering subnational actors and building social trust at a local level. It also represents the multilateral, regional development strategy that integrates common interests of the region. The convention co-operates as needed with government, such as the marshal’s office, the labour office of its respective province, and municipal offices.

In the province of Pomorskie, the convention has presented its position on diverse issues such as the care in nursing homes, the increase of teachers’ salaries, the regional action plan for employment and the creation of the Central-Pomeranian voivodeship.

Poland - Małopolska

In pursuit of achieving the goals outlined in the Declaration of the Province of Malopolska on the Development of Continuing Education, the Malopolska Partnership for Lifelong Learning (Małopolskie Partnerstwo na rzecz Kształcenia Ustawicznego, MPKU) was implemented in 2008, involving 55 institutions representing labour, education and training institutions in Kraków. The partnership has since grown to include 131 subnational members, including training and continuing education centres, training providers, employer associations, counselling centres, district labour offices, and the voivodeship labour office in Kraków.

Various stakeholders are involved in the partnership to improve the quality of lifelong guidance and monitoring, which are crucial components in skills development. These stakeholders include the provincial employment office (WUP) in Kraków; the Department of Education and Continuing Education of the Province Marshal Office in Kraków; and subregional partnerships consisting of schools, voluntary labour corps, and branches of the subregional information and career planning centre (Centrum Informacji i Planowania Kariery Zawodowej, CliPKZ). This co-operation between subnational actors extends into collaboration with national actors such as the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy.

In Poland, where there is a weak culture of co-operation, the partnership represents a unique model that involves subnational actors and fosters collaboration that expands beyond the advisory role. It highlights good practice of joint decision making, from setting a comprehensive long-term agenda that is supported by the annual action plan, to engaging the right stakeholders from the beginning of the policy cycle, to establishing the monitoring mechanism of programmes.

Source: UMWP (2019[50]) Portal Urzędu Marszałkowskiego Województwa Pomorskiego, https://pomorskie.eu/zadania-samorzadu; Kaczmarek (2016[51]), Administrative division of Poland – 25 years of experience during systemic transformation, http://journals.openedition.org/echogeo/14514; ZPP (2019[52]), Association of Polish Counties, www.zpp.pl/konwenty-powiatow; Wojewódzki Urząd Pracy w Krakowie (2014[53]), Action Plan of the Malopolska Partnership for Continuing Education by the Year 2020, www.pociagdokariery.pl/upload/2019/MPKU%20-%20publikacje%20i%20dokumenty/plan_wykonawczy_MPKU.pdf.

Inter-municipal agreements, unions and associations in Poland are not focused on skills issues currently. Agreements and unions are increasingly popular in such areas as water and waste management or broadband and road infrastructure, but remain limited in education and other sectors (OECD, 2018[3]). In the course of this review, project participants did not offer evidence or examples of these mechanisms covering education and employment services. Inter-municipal associations do not prioritise skills issues presently. However, one promising practice is the Association of Polish Cities, which runs the Commission for Education and has a dedicated website (www.miasta.pl/edukacja/) to share good practices between local governments. The slow uptake of such mechanisms may be in part due to a lack of adequate knowledge about how they work and the risks involved. National and regional governments should actively promote and support inter-municipal co-ordination and demonstrate its benefits (OECD, 2018[3]).

Counties could play a greater role in subnational co-ordination on skills policies. City counties, which combine the authority of a municipality and county, are a recognised contact point and could help foster co-operation among municipalities. Conventions of county leaders “Konwent starostów” have been successful in some regions to improve subregional co-ordination (Box 5.5), and could be expanded.

Local councils and groups could play a more effective oversight role at the local level. In many cases, local labour market councils lack the capacity, strategic leadership and/or statutory authority to effectively bring together and guide participating sectors. Local stakeholders lack real influence on education and employment services in the councils. As county offices lead local labour market councils, the role of employers, unions and other members is often limited to an advisory capacity (OECD, 2016[15]). Local action groups (Lokalne grupy działania, LAGs) have faced barriers to becoming effective local co-operation fora due to their dependence on external funding (especially from the EU) and local authorities, and the lack of a clear strategy (jumping between different projects from different policy fields) (Kołomycew, 2018[54]).

European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) and state funds could include stronger requirements and incentives for subnational co-operation. ESIF regional funds are perhaps the best example of using funding as a tool for subnational co-operation. Development policy in Poland is co-ordinated through national and regional operational programmes led by the Ministry of Investment and Economic Development, but also involving municipalities, the private sector and academia (OECD, 2018[3]). In the Pomorskie region, for example, various sectors had to co-operate to access funding from the Human Capital Operational Programme. The Wielkopolskie voivodship made funds available to support village renewal conditional on local actors first elaborating a local development strategy, thereby building local capacity for co-operation (OECD, 2018[3]).

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.6. Relevant international example: Strengthening mechanisms for subnational co-operation

Quebec’s 2014 National Rural Pact

Quebec has implemented three rounds of a rural development plan called the National Rural Pact (Politique nationale de la ruralité, PNR), which aims to build entrepreneurial and socio-economic capacity in rural communities, and revitalise areas affected by demographic and economic changes. During the plan’s 2007 to 2014 round, rural laboratories were supported, including the Association le P’tit Bonheur de Saint-Camille, whose model for rural development was focused on community learning and innovation, with an emphasis on training current and future workers.

The third and the latest generation of PNR commits to invest CAD 470 million (Canadian dollars) over a period of ten years from 2014 to 2024, and to expand more evidence-based policies through the results from previous rounds. At the heart of the current plan is a new strategy called “Pacts Plus” that will add substantial financial resources, up to CAD 750 000 each year, in a cross-sectoral approach to enhance flexibility in developments affecting rural and urban areas. The current PNR also aims to promote more robust citizen participation and a fair approach to sustainable territorial governance.

The pact represents a devolution of decision making and financing power to local authorities, Residents and elected representatives in local committees decide on projects to be undertaken within their communities. This arrangement not only clearly delineates each actor’s responsibility and accountability, but also symbolises capacity building and bottom-up strategies that empower local actors.

Evaluations of the PNR suggest that while it is championed as a partnership between provincial and local governments and their networks, it has understated the importance of the private sector and public-private partnerships to local development. The combination of subnational budget constraints and the sheer number of projects under the PNR has also caused challenges for consistently rigorous programme evaluation.

Sources: El-Batal and Joyal (2015[55]), La Politique nationale de la ruralité québécoise relève-t-elle d’une gouvernance synergique territoriale ?, http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1036354ar; Parti Québécois (2014[56]), Politique nationale de la ruralité 2014-2024 https://pq.org/nouvelles/dinformation-politique-nationale-de-la-ruralite-20/; Dufresne (2012[57]), Une communauté apprenante, innovante et solidaire : un modèle porteur de développement rural, http://recitsrecettes.org/sites/default/files/un_modele_porteur_de_developpement_rural.pdf.

Recommendations for strengthening mechanisms for subnational co-operation

  • Identify and raise awareness of successful examples of subnational co-operation on skills policy. The central government and regional authorities should identify successful examples of inter-county, inter-municipal and public-private partnerships to develop and deliver skills policies. The authorities should publish guidelines and set up a webpage with information on the benefits, available mechanisms and successful examples of subnational co-operation from across Poland. Authorities could consider publicly recognising successful examples of subnational co-operation via a national award scheme (e.g. see Chapter 3).

  • Support increased use of territorial contracts, inter-municipal unions and agreements, and shared service centres for skills policies. The central government should provide support to subnational authorities and stakeholders to use territorial contracts, inter-municipal unions and agreements, and shared service centres for skills policies. This support should focus initially on less-developed regions, and could include publicly funded advisory services and grants to reduce the costs to subnational actors of setting up such mechanisms.

  • Strengthen the role of subnational authorities and bodies in co-ordinating skills policy. Subnational authorities should review and monitor the effectiveness of regional councils for social dialogue, regional and local labour market councils, county conventions, and local action groups at co-ordinating skills policies specifically. In light of this information, subnational authorities should either improve the effectiveness of these bodies or create a new body focused specifically on skills development and use. Regional and county authorities should more proactively foster and seek partnerships on skills policies. For example, city counties, as a local contact point, should play a greater role in fostering co-operation between municipalities.

  • Add requirements and incentives for subnational co-operation to central budget funding and European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) allocated to skills policy. Central and regional governments should consistently make state and ESIF funding for skills policy (partly) conditional on inter-municipal and/or public-private partnerships, thereby creating financial incentives and investing in local capacity for co-operation.

Ensuring subnational actors have the capacity for co-ordinated and effective skills policy

It is essential that subnational actors have the capacity for co-ordinated and effective skills policy. In order to effectively fulfil their responsibilities, engage with the central government and co-operate with each other, civil servants and stakeholder organisations at the subnational level (e.g. employer associations, trade unions) need appropriate human resources – people, skills and time. They also need sufficient financial resources, commensurate to their responsibilities and local needs, for delivering education, employment and related services. A lack of fiscal capacity at the subnational level reduces the ability of governments to deliver infrastructure and services and to pursue interventions based on their own priorities. It can leave them beholden to the funding structures imposed by other levels of governments (OECD, 2018[3]).

Participants in this project stated that subnational authorities and stakeholders often lack the capacity to ensure co-ordinated and effective subnational skills policies. Subnational actors are often inhibited by a lack of human resources (personnel, skills and experience) and financial resources (budget). The extent of these capacity constraints differs markedly across regions, and is most pronounced in rural localities.

The human resources of subnational authorities to co-ordinate and engage on skills policy is highly variable across regions. Some municipalities embrace a participatory approach to policy development to create their community and economic development strategies; however, the capacity of different municipalities for this approach can vary significantly (OECD, 2018[3]). Research by the IBE into career counselling in regions found that the skills and responsibilities of municipal staff in the same policy area differed significantly across municipalities (Kamieniecka and Maliszewzka, 2018[58]). The capacity of municipalities is not monitored on an ongoing basis.

As noted in the OECD Rural Policy Review of Poland (2018[3]), a debate continues in the country about whether fiscal decentralisation has adequately kept pace with the devolution of responsibilities to subnational governments. Regional and county governments in particular rely heavily on national transfers and have limited own-source revenue-raising abilities. Municipalities are more able to raise revenue, but successive OECD reviews have identified concerns that fiscal decentralisation to the municipal level is not commensurate with the growing responsibilities of municipalities (OECD, 2008[59]; 2013[11]; 2018[3]). Subnational governments in Poland regard the implementation of some central government policies as shifting unfunded/underfunded mandates to them (Matthes and Markowski, 2018[8]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.8. Subnational government finances in Poland and EU countries, 2015, 2016

Poland

EU average

Subnational government expenditure

USD per capita (PPP)

3 487

6 133

as a % of GDP

12.9

15.5

as a % of public expenditure

31.3

33.4

% spent on education

28.2

19.6

% spent on social protection

12.5

22.2

Subnational government revenue

USD per capita (PPP)

3 555

6 160

as a % of GDP

13.1

15.6

as a % of public revenue

34.0

34.8

% from taxes

32.7

41.1

% from grants and subsidies

57.6

44.1

Note: PPP (Purchasing Power Parity); GDP (Gross Domestic Product).

Source: OECD (2018[60]), Subnational Governments in OECD Countries: Key Data 2018 Edition (brochure), www.oecd.org/regional/regional-policy/Subnational-governments-in-OECD-Countries-Key-Data-2018.pdf.

Despite their responsibilities, local government expenditure and revenue are relatively low in Poland. Expenditure is relatively concentrated in education (Table 5.8), with the largest portion allocated to teachers’ salaries. Furthermore, since 2014 central transfers to subnational government have increased, but at a slower rate than subnational expenditures. This has contributed to a growing gap between subnational revenues and expenditure related to education (Association of Polish Cities, 2018[61]).

Regions and counties, and by extension municipalities, are highly reliant on and exposed to changes in EU funds. In order to fulfil their responsibilities for skills policy, subnational governments are under increasing pressure to find new streams of revenue from central transfers, or raise revenue themselves.

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.7. Relevant international example: Building subnational capacity for skills policy

Germany – “Lernen vor Ort” (Learning on the Local Level)

This federal programme ran from September 2009 to August 2014. It brought together 46 educational foundations to help communes manage their education programmes and build networks for knowledge transfers across regions.

The programme supported local governments in building capacity for education monitoring and management, as well as creating sustainable networks between local administrations and civil society actors. The programme provided a total of EUR 100 million to support local districts and municipalities in setting up network structures and developing capacities. Districts and municipalities had to compete for funding and their participation was entirely voluntary.

Following the end of the programme, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research established eight regional transfer agencies across the country as part of the transfer initiative local education management (Transferinitiative Kommunales Bildungsmanagement). These transfer agencies provide advice to local authorities, support their education management and spread best practices. They help local authorities analyse their current situation, facilitate local dialogue between different actors and stakeholders, offer advice about relevant tools and instruments, and offer capacity building and professional development.

Source: Santiago et al. (2017[62]), OECD Reviews of School Resources: Chile 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264285637-en; Busemeyer and Vossiek (2015[63]), Reforming Education Governance Through Local capacity-building, http://doi.org/10.1787/5js6bhl2mxjg-en.

Recommendations for ensuring that subnational actors have the capacity to contribute to co-ordinated and effective skills policy

  • Assess and monitor the capacity of subnational authorities and stakeholders for co-ordinated and effective skills policy. Building on similar research by the Education Research Institute, the central government, in collaboration with subnational authorities and co-ordination bodies, should survey regional, county and municipal authorities, as well as key subnational stakeholder groups, to understand whether they have sufficient human and financial resources to fulfil their responsibilities and effectively co-ordinate with others on skills policies.

  • Build the capacity of staff within subnational authorities and stakeholder groups for co-ordinated and effective skills policy. Based on data about the relative capacity and needs of different subnational actors, central and regional governments should target support to municipal and county authorities, as well as subnational stakeholder groups. Support could be in the form of public funding for targeted training, inter-municipal or inter-sectoral assignments (exchanges), mentoring, coaching, networking, and peer learning.

  • Ensure municipal (gmina), county (powiat) and regional (voivodeship or województwo) governments have sufficient financial resources for co-ordinated and effective skills policy. Central and regional governments should help ensure that counties and municipalities have sufficient financial resources to fulfil their responsibilities for skills policies by helping to reduce costs to counties and municipalities. Central and regional governments can do this by promoting and financially supporting shared service delivery and other partnerships (see the section on Strengthening mechanisms for subnational co-operation). Furthermore, the evaluation of skills programmes should be more systematic and used to allocate funding away from low-performing and towards high-performing programmes (see Opportunity 3: Integrating and using skills information effectively).

Opportunity 3: Integrating and using skills information effectively

Ministries, subnational authorities and social partners are needed to generate, and can also benefit from, high-quality, integrated information on skills and learning. This information can help diverse actors in the skills system form a shared understanding of the challenges and opportunities related to skills, which can underpin effective co-ordination and partnerships. Comprehensive, reliable and accessible information is particularly important for:

  • Learning participation, expenditure and outcomes: this information helps policy makers identify challenges and opportunities in the system, and target programmes and funding where the expected impacts will be highest.

  • Available learning opportunities, services and government support: this information can make accessing training easier and more attractive for students, adults and enterprises.

  • Skills, knowledge and abilities needed in the labour market now and in the future: this information supports the learning and career decisions of students and adults, the advice of career guides and counsellors, the supply decisions of education and training providers, and the investments of governments.

The effective use of this information is not automatic; it must be accessible and tailored to the needs of different user groups – policy makers, students, adults, enterprises, career guides, and education and training providers. Some actors may face barriers to using the information effectively, for example because of capacity or procedural constraints to evaluation and evidence-based policy in the civil service. Actors may require support and incentives to use such information effectively in decision making (OECD, 2019[2]).

Poland has several data systems and surveys in place to understand education and training patterns (Table 5.9).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.9. Lifelong learning participation databases and surveys in Poland

Database/system

Responsible

authority

Coverage: Formal education (ISCED 1-8)

Coverage: Adult education and training (formal and non-formal)

Databases

System of Education Information (System Informacji Oświatowej)

Ministry of National Education

Administrative database for the education system with detailed data on participation, students and schools (ISCED 1-4)

Yes (provides data on formal education in schools for adults).

POL-on system (Zintegrowany System Informacji o Szkolnictwie Wyższym i Nauce, POL-on)

Ministry of Science and Higher Education

A database of HEIs, with information on students, fields of study, academic staff, etc. (ISCED 5-8)

N/A

Surveys

Human Capital Survey (Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego, BKL)

PARP in partnership with Jagiellonian University

Yes

Representative survey including adult skills and learning, with national and regional data in the first cycle (2010-2014) and national data in the second cycle (2017-2023).

Conditions for educational decisions (Uwarunkowania decyzji edukacyjnych, UDE)

Educational Research Institute

Longitudinal survey of Polish households held in 2010-2015

Data on lifelong learning participation (formal, non-formal, informal) and on factors influencing decisions in this area.

Labour force survey (LFS) (Badanie Aktywności Ekonomicznej Ludności)

Statistics Poland

Yes

Yes.

Adult Education Survey (AES) (Kształcenie dorosłych)

Statistics Poland

Yes

Yes.

Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS) (Charakterystyka ustawicznego szkolenia zawodowego w przedsiębiorstwach)

Statistics Poland

No

Yes.

Survey of Adult Skills (OECD PIAAC)

Educational Research Institute

No

Yes.

Poland also has several websites that provide information on education and training opportunities (Table 5.10).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.10. Online portals with information on learning opportunities in Poland

Platform name

Responsible

organisation

Levels and forms of education covered (ISCED, adult learning)

Providers listed (number)

Programmes listed (number)

Integrated Register of Qualifications https://rejestr.kwalifikacje.gov.pl/

Educational Research Institute

All formal full qualifications (ISCED 1-8) and non-formal qualifications included in the Integrated Qualifications System.

1 781

9 692 (including 9 022 higher education, 2 postgraduate, 600 initial VET, 25 “regulated”, 25 market qualifications and 18 crafts)

Studia http://studia.gov.pl/

Ministry of Science and Higher Education

Formal higher education, ISCED 5-8.

385

5 399

Database of Development Services

https://uslugirozwojowe.parp.gov.pl/

PARP

Adult learning in non-formal forms, higher education postgraduate programmes.

4 591

33 800

PARP Academy http://www.parp.gov.pl/component/site/site/kursy-online

PARP

Free adult learning in non-formal forms, mainly e-learning.

1

16

Finally, Poland has several approaches and systems for assessing and anticipating skills needs in the economy (Table 5.11).

copy the linklink copied!
Table 5.11. Skills assessment and anticipation related exercises in Poland

Name/activity

Responsible

organisation

Coverage (occupations, sector, region)

Timeframe

Methodology

Tool for analysing demand for employees in professions taught in sectoral vocational education

Ministry of National Education and the Educational Research Institute.

Occupations from the list of formal VET (ISCED 3 and 4 levels).

National and voivodeship levels.

Current, short- and medium-term skills needs (over the next 5 years).

Annual exercise.

Forecast-based projections and quantitative models (national), focus groups/round tables, Delphi style methods, scenario development.

Human Capital Survey (Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego, BKL)

PARP in partnership with Jagiellonian University.

National level of the supply of and demand for skills.

Performed annually in 2010-2014, three bi-annual editions since 2017.

From 2017 a representative survey of 3 500 employers, 4 000 adults and 1 000 representatives of training institutions.

Sectoral Human Capital Survey (Branżowy Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego, BBKL)

PARP with Jagiellonian University, sector skills councils.

Performed in all sectors with sectoral skills councils.

Planned two editions for every sector between 2017 and 2023.

Survey of 1 400 employers and 800 employees of the given sector.

Barometer of Professions (Barometr Zawodów)

Initiative of the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy. Co-ordinated nationally by the Voivodeship Labour Office of Małopolskie. and regionally by voivodeship labour offices.

Information on regional/local labour market needs at both voivodeship and county (powiat) levels.

Short-term forecast (a year ahead) performed annually since 2016, in Małopolskie since 2011.

Qualitative research, expert panels.

Monitoring of shortage and surplus professions

(Monitoring Zawodów Deficytowych i Nadwyżkowych, MZDIN)

Voivodeship labour offices.

Demand for occupations at the voivodeship level.

Annually.

Analysis of secondary sources and job offers.

Source: Government of the Republic of Poland (2018[64]), Rządowy projekt ustawy o zmianie ustawy – Prawo oświatowe i ustawy o systemie oświaty oraz innych ustaw, http://legislacja.rcl.gov.pl/projekt/12313102/katalog/12518244#12518244; Cedefop (2017[65]), Skills anticipation in Poland, https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/analytical_highlights/skills-anticipation-poland.

Improving and integrating skills information

Participants in the OECD skills strategy project in Poland stated that existing information collections have gaps and are not well integrated.

Poland lacks comprehensive administrative data on adult education and training participation and participants. It has a detailed human capital survey that covers adult learning; however, the survey has not run every year and there have been changes to its design over time. Poland lacks administrative data on adult participation in non-formal education and training, including market-based qualifications. The MEN’s System of Education Information only collects data on adult participation in formal education and training.

The government does not have comprehensive financial data on how ministries, subnational governments, employers and individuals spend on skills development, especially adult learning. Various information is collected in different places and it is difficult to provide general analyses. As in other OECD countries, there is a major gap in access to data on private spending. International surveys such as the Adult Education Survey (AES) and the Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS) are conducted irregularly and include limited details. The OECD has encouraged the transparency of human capital investments in firms and the inclusion of training investments in company accounting procedures (OECD, 2005[35]).

Some policy makers and researchers in Poland question the accuracy of international adult learning survey data, which undermines use of the data in policy making. As detailed in Chapter 3, questionnaire design may partly explain Poland’s low rates of participation in adult learning in international surveys. According to preliminary research by Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński) (PARP, 2019[66]), the adult learning participation rate derived from Poland’s own Human Capital Survey increased significantly after researchers altered the design of the questionnaire. In the European Labour Force Survey, breaks in data have led to large step increases in estimated adult learning participation rates for France and Portugal (Eurostat, 2019[67]).

Information on available learning opportunities is relatively comprehensive for formal education, but partial for non-formal education and training. The Database of Development Services (Baza Uslug Rozwojowych) is a nationwide platform providing common access to information on education and training providers, along with their offer. The database contains information about entities providing educational, training and counselling services financed through both ESF and private funds. In the absence of a suitable education and training offer, the database also offers the possibility to order "tailor-made" services. However, it has been difficult to convince some education and training providers to register with the portal, and the vast majority of non-formal programmes are not registered (PARP, 2017[68]). Furthermore, this database does not include information on the labour market outcomes of graduates from specific programmes or providers.

Information on current and anticipated skills needs is relatively detailed in certain regions, but less so in others and at the national level. A growing number of skills anticipation exercises take place in Poland. At the end of 2016, more comprehensive solutions were put in place that provided methodologies to be implemented at the regional or local level. However, this still does not amount to an integrated system that is embedded in national legislation, co-ordinated at the national level, and carried out consistently and regularly (Cedefop, 2017[65]). There is a lack of a uniform methodology for carrying out skills assessment exercises, and the quality of exercises can differ across regions. The Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy is developing a tool for skills anticipation to 2050 in the project "Forecasting system of the Polish labour market", available by the end of 2020. However, it is not clear whether this will lead to an integrated, national skills assessment and anticipation (SAA) system. Participants of this project raised concerns about duplication between SAA exercises lowering their effectiveness.

Co-ordination of Poland’s skills and learning information is weak, particularly at the national level. In the case of skills assessment, a range of stakeholders are involved, such as employer organisations, education and VET institutions, and the public employment service (PES). Co-ordination of these actors is relatively good in some regions and sectors through voivodeship labour offices, labour market councils and sectoral skills councils. However, co-ordination is lacking at the national level, and could be more consistent across regions. Discussions of results from SAA exercises, and the development of the corresponding policy response, take place only within the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy (OECD, 2016[39]). Ministries and agencies such as the Central Statistical Office of Poland (Główny Urząd Statystyczny, GUS) often work independently (Cedefop, 2017[65]). The quality of co-ordination within regions is variable and appears to depend on the efforts of individual voivodeship labour offices.

Formal responsibilities for generating skills and learning information are unclear at the national level. For example, there is no legislation in place to specifically regulate SAA exercises. The PES is legally responsible for diagnosing demand for skills and qualifications in regional and local labour markets, while regional governments are required to monitor deficit and surplus occupations. While the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy is the most active national authority in skills assessment, it is not formally responsible for developing a national SAA system (Cedefop, 2017[65]).

Some of Poland’s skills and learning information systems are dependent on and exposed to changes in ESF funding. The majority of skills and learning databases (Table 5.9), portals (Table 5.10) and skills needs exercises (Table 5.11) in Poland have benefited from EU funding, and the evaluation of learning programmes and forecasting of skill needs in particular have been highly reliant on EU funding. This high reliance on European funding risks the sustainability of these initiatives should funding be discontinued. The sustainability of the forecasting tool, Prognozowanie Zatrudnienia, and the forecasts beyond 2022 remain uncertain (Cedefop, 2017[65]).

The Ministry of Digital Affairs is developing the "Integrated Analytical Platform" which, while not specific to skills and learning information, should help to centralise and co-ordinate data collected by public agencies (Box 5.8).

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.8. Relevant Polish examples: Improving and integrating skills information

Integrated Analytical Platform

The Integrated Analytical Platform (ZPA) will be the central system for analysing data collected and created by the public administration, as well as data available from other sources. The need to create such a system results from the fragmentation of current reporting and analytical solutions used by various state institutions, which has made it impossible to analyse data at the supra-ministerial level and make decisions of a scope wider than one institution.

The Ministry of Digital Affairs will spearhead the project, with additional support from the Ministry of Health; the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education; the University of Warsaw; and the Main Business School in Warsaw. Created within the framework of the Efficient State 2020 Strategy, the project is funded by the Operational Program Digital Poland from the EU and supplemented by the state budget.

The platform will offer centralised IT solutions to provide advanced analysis based on high-quality data. It will pay close attention to constructing an advanced security mechanism that will safeguard confidentiality and privacy of information. The implementation will lead to a better, more streamlined decision-making process and management of institutions.

SL2014 centralised database of ESF beneficiaries

SL2014 is the main application of the central teleinformation system that supports the implementation of all operational programmes under the European funds for 2014-2020. It contains information on all project participants who have received support under the ESF. For example, the system collects information on the status of the labour market and the type of support received.

Beyond acting as the payment processor for the beneficiaries, the system follows operational programmes from beginning to end. SL2014 starts with the signing of the contract of projects, provides access to information on ongoing projects, and certifies expenditure submitted by the beneficiaries to ensure that the co-financing mechanism is following national and EU law.

Polish institutions, such as the Joint Secretariats in the Centre of European Projects, the Office of the Voivode Controller and the Centre of European Projects, have signed competence agreements. These institutions are to designate an institution substantive administrator (ISA) to streamline implementation of SL2014.

Source: MC (2018[69]), Integrated Analytical Platform, www.gov.pl/web/cyfryzacja/zintegrowana-platforma-analityczna; MIiR (2016[70]), Central ICT System, www.funduszeeuropejskie.gov.pl/strony/o-funduszach/centralny-system-teleinformatyczny/; Department for Co-ordination of Implementation of EU Fund et al. (2018[71]), SL2014 Institution Employee Manual, https://southbaltic.eu/documents/10195/288463/2018-12-13+SL2014+Institution+Employee+Manual_v4.pdf/b44ceaba-7659-484e-8513-578df863547b.

Recommendations for improving and integrating skills information

  • Improve data on adult learning by expanding administrative collections, improving questionnaire design and linking datasets. The government should require that all providers of adult education and training who receive public funding and/or deliver market qualifications submit activity data to government. In light of the results of Human Capital Survey (BKL) research, the government should improve the design of adult learning questionnaires to improve data reliability. The government should collate data on spending on adult education and training by ministries, subnational authorities, firms and households. The Ministry of Digital Affairs, in collaboration with other ministries and subnational authorities, should ensure that the Integrated Analytical Platform collates all available skills and learning data to underpin evidence-based skills policy making.

  • Develop a national skills assessment and anticipation (SAA) system that integrates and improves upon existing SAA exercises: Poland’s ministries involved in skills policy should develop an integrated, national SAA system in collaboration with other ministries, subnational authorities and social partners. This system should be designed based on the needs of key user groups. It should integrate successful existing SAA exercises, and augment them as needed, to ensure a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as sufficient regional and occupation breakdown.

  • Improve the co-ordination and integration of information by appointing a national cross-sectoral committee to oversee skills and learning information: The government should appoint a national cross-sectoral and whole-of-government body, such as the Labour Market Council, to co-ordinate the improvement, collection, integration and dissemination of skills and learning information. A new or existing subnational body, such as labour market councils, could co-ordinate skills and learning information at the regional level, and sectoral skills councils at the sectoral level, reporting to the national oversight body.

Disseminating and using skills information effectively

Participants in this project stated that Poland’s greatest informational challenges for skills policy relate to disseminating information in a user-friendly way, and using the information effectively in evidence-based policy making.

The public agencies involved in collecting skills and learning information release much of this information online, but it is not highly tailored to users’ needs. Anonymised micro-data from the BKL are publicly available so that others are able to undertake secondary data analysis, and the Jagellonian University and PARP publicly release their research of BKL data as reports. However, several participants in this project stated that this information is not sufficiently user-friendly for subnational agencies or stakeholders such as potential learners and training providers. The websites of portals such as the Prognozowanie Zatrudnienia and Monitoring zawodów have made some progress, but could be improved further.

Portals on available learning opportunities could be more user-friendly in order to have more impact on learning and career decisions. An evaluation of the Database of Development Services found that the website was hard to use, especially for older adults, that many education and training providers weren’t convinced of the benefits of registering, and that government did not effectively monitor the website’s use and effectiveness. Awareness among employers of the Integrated Qualifications System (ZSK) for formal and recognised qualifications is still low, in part because too little accessible information and support to utilise and benefit from the ZSK is available. A previous OECD study found that it is difficult for potential learners to make a comprehensive assessment of learning opportunities due to a lack of current and widely available information on training courses and VET education for adults at the regional and subregional levels (OECD, 2016[15]).

A major challenge for the dissemination of skills information in Poland has been implementing an integrated system of lifelong guidance. As noted in Chapters 2 and 3, career services are fragmented, underdeveloped and underutilised. On 1st September 2018, a new regulation related to Polish schools entered into force, stipulating that vocational guidance and counselling should be carried out in a systematic way in all types of school, with the exception of art schools (Cedefop, 2019[72]). Vocational guidance should be integrated into career counselling and guidance in higher education, and made available for adults, to ensure lifelong access to these services and consistent service quality and advice at all levels. Scotland has taken innovative approach to integrating career guidance across the life course (Box 5.9). The extent to which skills needs data are used by career guidance counsellors or guides is unclear (Cedefop, 2017[65]). As Poland’s career guidance and counselling workforce develops, it will be essential that staff have access to and consistently use high-quality information on skills needs and learning opportunities.

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.9. Relevant international example: Integrated career guidance

Scotland – Career information, advice and guidance

The Scottish Government funds a national public body, Skills Development Scotland (SDS), to deliver work-based learning, engage employers in learning, and deliver independent and impartial career information, advice and guidance (CIAG). The end goal is to help Scotland’s people create and implement their own personal plans in an increasingly complex and fluid world of work.

The all-age CIAG service is delivered in schools, via a network of local high street centres, and in local partnership and outreach premises. The skills planning model used by SDS allows career practitioners to be equipped with the most recent available labour market intelligence that is provided in an easily accessible format. They also have up-to-date information on the full range of routes and pathways that can be taken into those careers, including options for work-based learning.

Scotland recognises that “career guidance is a distinct, defined and specialist profession which demands a unique set of core skills” and expects all career guidance practitioners to be professionally qualified” and fulfil a minimum of 21 CPD hours annually.

Source: Musset and Kurekova (2018[73]), Working it out: Career Guidance and Employer Engagement, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/51c9d18d-en.

Poland has high potential for evidence-based skills policy making. The Human Capital Survey (BKL) gives in-depth annual data on the skills and skills needs of individuals and employers. A range of universities and non-government and government institutes are active in undertaking research and analysis on skills policies. Unlike many OECD countries, Poland has conducted its own follow-up survey to the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). It is also increasingly monitoring the labour market outcomes of graduates from formal education.

There are several examples of skills and learning information being utilised in evidence-based policy making. Results from the BKL have been integrated into programming documents, such as the Operational Programme Knowledge, Education, Development (2014-2020), which pointed to the BKL study as a basis for tailoring future training supply to meet labour market demand. Changes to the core curriculum for VET were informed by a study undertaken by the National Centre for Supporting Vocational and Continuing Education (Krajowy Ośrodek Wspierania Edukacii Zawodowej i Ustawicznej, KOWEZiU) (Cedefop, 2017[65]). A decision to shift public support from fields of study to transversal skills (Kierunki zamawiane) in degree programmes was the result of a detailed evaluation study. Some regional territorial observatories collect and analyse data to evaluate and monitor the impact of policies with a territorial impact (OECD, 2018[3]).

However, the use of skills and learning information for evidence-based policy making is not systematic at the national or subnational levels. According to the SGI 2018, Poland is ranked 39th out of 41 OECD and European Union countries on evidence-based instruments (Matthes and Markowski, 2018[8]). This primarily reflects relatively low performance in the extent and quality of Poland’s regulatory impact assessment (RIA) processes. Some participants in this project cited the low quantity and quality of RIAs for skills policy in Poland. Intelligence from skills anticipation activities feeds into strategic policy making only on an ad hoc basis (Cedefop, 2017[65]).

The outcomes achieved by adult learning providers and programmes are not measured in Poland. Although measuring graduate outcomes is becoming systematised in vocational and tertiary education, measuring the employment outcomes of adult learners is not. Data on the qualifications acquired by adults are also not systematically collected, except for some data collected by the Central Examination Board. County labour offices gather only partial data on how the KFS is spent on specific skills and target groups.

County labour offices regularly monitor the effectiveness of active labour market policy measures, and some regularly publish the results. However, the effectiveness of their support is measured only three months after the end of participation in the services, which is not sufficient for a reliable assessment of the effectiveness of labour market programmes. Local institutions very rarely conduct a professional and rigorous evaluation of their activities. In the course of the OECD’s 2016 report, “Employment and Skills Strategies in Poland”, only one example of an evaluation conducted by the county labour office in Radom was identified (which was not publicly available) (OECD, 2016[74]) (Box 5.10). Poland is creating a system for monitoring the effectiveness of labour market institutions (over a period longer than 12 months). It will also include tools for assessing the quality of public employment services, for example, the level of customer satisfaction.

Evaluation is relatively more developed for ESF-funded projects, with participants in this project highlighting the “two worlds” of evaluation for ESF vs. state-funded projects. Evaluation generally relates to active labour market policy measures (e.g. activities addressed to the elderly or youth), education, social integration, and economic development. The number of evaluations has rapidly increased during recent years, mostly because they are required and European funds are available to finance them. However, the knowledge and use of these evaluations at the local level seems to be rather limited, mostly due to the limited involvement of local partners in the evaluation process.

The OECD’s 2016 report, “Employment and Skills Strategies in Poland”, recommended increasing the availability and use of data at the subnational level and building a stronger evaluation culture (OECD, 2016[15]). The capacity of the civil service, especially at the subnational level, is a critical challenge for high-quality evaluation and evidence-based policy (see Opportunity 2: Strengthening vertical and subnational co-operation on skills policy). Strengthening capacity and the methodologies used by public agencies, using longer-term outcomes to measure the success of programmes, and better leveraging other administrative data (e.g. from social insurance institutions) can contribute to improving how evidence is used. Ireland and Slovenia have similarly taken steps to improve evaluation of skills development programmes (Box 5.11).

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.10. Relevant Polish example: Evidence for skills policy making

Radom labour office

While many county labour offices face challenges in conducting professional monitoring and evaluation, the county labour office in Radom presents a positive example of evaluation. In a county with one of the highest unemployment rates, the county labour office is particularly concerned with the number of jobs offered to its residents. To bolster the local economy, the office provides potential investors with extensive information on local human capital, educational institutions, the labour market situation and wages.

The regional employment office in Radom provides career planning support, particularly VET offers at the local level for youth. It has an integrated management system of education, which works in alliance with the VET schools by providing information on the description of occupations and qualifications, the number of available placements, and the number of applications submitted.

With this established system, the Radom labour office was able to evaluate, for example, the sustainability of new enterprises. The research showed that the sustainability of new enterprises after four years was very high, at 85%.

Source: OECD (2016[74]), OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation: Employment and Skills Strategies in Poland, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264256521-en.

copy the linklink copied!
Box 5.11. Relevant international examples: Evidence for skills policy making

Ireland – Skillnet

Skillnet is a publicly funded agency dedicated to increasing company participation in enterprise training by operating enterprise-led learning networks in different economic sectors and regions. Skillnet programmes are subject to an annual evaluation conducted by an independent agency. The evaluation assesses the alignment of activities and outcomes of Skillnet programmes, following the requirements of the National Training Fund, to ensure the best use of public funds. The evaluation process requires extensive primary research involving direct consultations and surveys, and is complemented with detailed data from internal and external sources, such as the Central Statistics Office. It takes place at programme, training activity and network level to examine inputs, activities, outcomes and impacts of all Skillnet components.

Some highlights of the 2016 evaluation of Skillnet were that member companies and adult learners reported high levels of satisfaction in the relevance and quality of training, as well as in personal learning and development. For example, 99% of companies surveyed would recommend becoming part of a Skillnet network to other companies.

Slovenia – Evaluation of active labour market policy

Slovenia’s public employment service (Zavod Republike Slovenije za zaposlovanje, ZRSZ) has a clear and detailed legislative basis for monitoring and evaluating outcomes in accordance with active labour market policy guidelines (Smernice aktivne politike zaposlovanja, ALMP) and labour market regulation (Zakon o urejanju trga dela).

ZRSZ maintains a detailed register of participants in the APZ.net database, including personal data of participants, the type, duration and providers of services, and financial resources spent. APZ.net is connected with other national databases to enable the monitoring of employment outcomes. The ZRSZ conducts surveys on how participants assess the skills they acquired in the programme, and details these results in its annual reports.

The effectiveness of education and training is assessed by various external evaluations and academic studies that use methods such as surveys, interviews, propensity score matching, cost-effectiveness estimates and parametric estimation. The outcomes from the studies include the probability of post-programme employment, the programme’s impact on the quality of post-programme jobs, cumulative employment and earnings, and the cost-effectiveness of the programmes.

Source: Adapted from OECD (2018[34]), Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance for Slovenia: Improving the Governance of Adult Learning, https://doi.org/10.1787/23078731.

Recommendations for disseminating and using skills information effectively

  • Assess, monitor and tailor skills information to the needs of key user groups. The government should assess the needs, familiarity and satisfaction of users regarding dissemination channels for skills and learning information. This assessment should particularly cover existing online portals, such as the Database of Development Services (Baza Uslug Rozwojowych). User needs and satisfaction should be monitored on an ongoing basis. Use information from the assessment to expand user-friendly and interactive online portals to release skills and learning information.

  • Implement a system of lifelong guidance in Poland to ensure that students and adults have access to high-quality career and learning advice: The government should further strengthen career guidance in Poland by integrating services at all levels. In practical terms, this could involve common professional and quality standards, information systems (e.g. on learning opportunities and skills needs) to underpin advice, and levels of service availability (per capita).

  • Develop a common, robust framework for evaluating the outcomes of skills programmes. Government and experts should collaborate to develop this framework, which should specify the most appropriate approaches for evaluating outcomes of different levels and types of education and training, as well as employment and career guidance services. It should be informed by and disseminate current good practice, such as graduate outcomes monitoring, and evaluations of ESF programmes, regional labour market observatories, and others.

  • Provide training and guidance to civil servants on policy evaluation to strengthen evidence-based skills policy making. See Opportunities 1 and 2 in this chapter.

copy the linklink copied!Overview of recommendations

copy the linklink copied!

Opportunity 1: Strengthening co-operation on skills policy at the national level

Strengthening skills strategies and oversight of the skills system

  • Clearly define targets, responsibilities, resources and accountability for implementing the Integrated Skills Strategy (ZSU).

  • Make a whole-of-government and cross-sectoral body responsible for overseeing implementation of the Integrated Skills Strategy.

  • Review and monitor the effectiveness of existing oversight bodies for skills policy, and improve them over time.

Strengthening other mechanisms for co-ordination at the national level

  • Raise the profile of “skills” and Poland’s Integrated Skills Strategy in the centre of government.

  • Assess and build the capacity of ministries and stakeholders to co-ordinate and engage effectively on skills policies.

Opportunity 2: Strengthening vertical and subnational co-operation on skills policy

Strengthening mechanisms for vertical co-ordination

  • Monitor the coherence of subnational policies with the Integrated Skills Strategy to inform the government’s co-ordination and outreach efforts.

  • Raise awareness of skills, the Integrated Skills Strategy and the Integrated Qualification System (ZSK) at the subnational level.

  • Trial territorial contracts to improve vertical co-ordination and coherence between national and subnational skills policies.

Strengthening mechanisms for subnational co-operation

  • Identify and raise awareness of successful examples of subnational co-operation on skills policy.

  • Support increased use of territorial contracts, inter-municipal unions and agreements and shared service centres for skills policies.

  • Strengthen the role of subnational authorities and bodies in co-ordinating skills policy.

  • Add requirements and incentives for subnational co-operation to the central budget funding and European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) allocated to skills policy.

Ensuring subnational actors have the capacity for co-ordinated and effective skills policy

  • Assess and monitor the capacity of subnational authorities and stakeholders for co-ordinated and effective skills policy

  • Build the capacity of staff within subnational authorities and stakeholder groups for co-ordinated and effective skills policy.

  • Ensure municipal (gmina), county (powiat) and regional (voivodeship or województwo) governments have sufficient financial resources for co-ordinated and effective skills policy.

Opportunity 3: Integrating and using skills information effectively

Improving and integrating skills information

  • Improve data on adult learning by expanding administrative collections, improving questionnaire design and linking datasets.

  • Develop a national skills assessment and anticipation (SAA) system that integrates and improves upon existing SAA exercises.

  • Improve the co-ordination and integration of information by appointing a national cross-sectoral committee to oversee skills and learning information.

Disseminating and using skills information effectively

  • Assess, monitor and tailor skills information to the needs of key user groups.

  • Implement a system of lifelong guidance in Poland to ensure that students and adults have access to high-quality career and learning advice.

  • Develop a common, robust framework for evaluating the outcomes of skills programmes.

  • Provide training and guidance to civil servants on policy evaluation to strengthen evidence-based skills policy making.

References

[61] Association of Polish Cities (2018), Raport o finansowaniu oświaty w Polsce w latach 2004 - 2018 [Report on financing education in Poland in the years 2004 - 2018, https://www.zpp.pl/storage/files/2019-04//99a4cb04e19124b289648681472c71393021.pdf (accessed on 18 October 2019).

[26] Bertelsmann Stiftung (2019), Sustainable Governance Indicators, http://www.sgi-network.org/2018 (accessed on 17 September 2019).

[25] Bertelsmann Stiftung (2018), Sustainable Governance Indicators 2018: Poland - Executive Capacity, https://www.sgi-network.org/2018/Poland (accessed on 25 May 2019).

[9] Breznitz, D. and D. Ornston (2017), “EU Financing and Innovation in Poland”, EBRD Working Paper No. 198, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3119663.

[1] Busemeyer, M. et al. (2018), “Investing in education in Europe: Evidence from a new survey of public opinion”, Journal of European Social Policy, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0958928717700562.

[63] Busemeyer, M. and J. Vossiek (2015), “Reforming Education Governance Through Local Capacity-building: A Case Study of the “Learning Locally” Programme in Germany”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 113, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5js6bhl2mxjg-en.

[42] Cabinet Office (2014), Community development framework, https://www.gov.uk/guidance/community-development-framework (accessed on 19 September 2019).

[72] Cedefop (2019), Poland: new regulation on vocational guidance, Publications Office of the European Union, http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news-and-press/news/poland-new-regulation-vocational-guidance (accessed on 1 March 2019).

[65] Cedefop (2017), Skills anticipation in Poland, Publications Office of the European Union, https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/analytical_highlights/skills-anticipation-poland.

[21] CKE (2019), Centralna Komisja Egzaminacyjna [Central Examination Commission], https://www.cke.gov.pl/ (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[41] Council of Ministers (2013), Efficient State Strategy 2020.

[48] Czarzasty, J. (2016), Polska w dialogu [Poland in Dialogue], http://www.cpsdialog.gov.pl (accessed on 18 July 2019).

[28] Dębczyński, J. et al. (2018), Ewaluacja realizacji strategii ponadregionalnych [Evaluation of the implementation of supra-regional strategies], http://www.respublic.pl (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[71] Department for Coordination of Implementation of EU Fund et al. (2018), SL2014 Institution Employee Manual, https://southbaltic.eu/documents/10195/288463/2018-12-13+SL2014+Institution+Employee+Manual_v4.pdf/b44ceaba-7659-484e-8513-578df863547b (accessed on 18 July 2019).

[57] Dufresne, C. (2012), Une communauté apprenante, innovante et solidaire: Un modèle porteur de développement rural [A community of learning, innovation and solidarity: A model for rural development], Laboratoire Rural de Saint-Camille, Saint-Camille, http://recitsrecettes.org/sites/default/files/un_modele_porteur_de_developpement_rural.pdf.

[19] ELA (2019), Jak absolwenci spędzają swój czas? [How do graduates spend their time?], https://ela.nauka.gov.pl/pl/infographics (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[55] El-Batal, K. and A. Joyal (2015), “La Politique nationale de la ruralité québécoise relève-t-elle d’une gouvernance synergique territoriale ?”, Cahiers de géographie du Québec, Vol. 59/167, p. 189, http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/1036354ar.

[5] Europa (2018), Institutions and bodies | European Union, https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/institutions-bodies_en (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[29] European Commission (2014), Public Opinion, 2013, https://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Archive/index (accessed on 19 July 2019).

[67] Eurostat (2019), Adult participation in learning by sex, Eurostat, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/sdg_04_60 (accessed on 18 September 2019).

[6] Eurydice (2019), Poland Overview, Publications Office of the European Union, https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/poland_en (accessed on 17 September 2019).

[45] Fundacja Warszawski Instytut Bankowości (2018), Sektorowa Rada ds. Kompetencji [Sectoral Competence Council], http://rada.wib.org.pl/.

[38] Government of Norway (2017), Norwegian Strategy for Skills Policy 2017 - 2021, https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/3c84148f2f394539a3eefdfa27f7524d/strategi-kompetanse-eng.pdf.

[64] Government of the Republic of Poland (2018), Rządowy projekt ustawy o zmianie ustawy - Prawo oświatowe i ustawy o systemie oświaty oraz innych ustaw [Government bill amending the act - Educational law and act on the education system and other acts], http://www.sejm.gov.pl/sejm8.nsf/agent.xsp?symbol=RPL&Id=RM-10-140-18 (accessed on 18 September 2019).

[27] Instytut Badań nad Gospodarką Rynkową; Taylor Economics (2017), Ocena realizacji Strategii Rozwoju Województwa Pomorskiego 2020 ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem roli Regionalnego Programu Operacyjnego Województwa Pomorskiego na lata 2014-2020 w osiąganiu jej celów rozwojowych Raport końcowy [Evaluation of the implementation of the Voivodship Development Strategy Pomeranian 2020 with particular emphasis on the role Regional Operational Program of the Voivodship Pomeranian for the years 2014-2020 in achieving its goals], http://www.rpo.pomorskie.eu/documents/10184/98501/Ocena%20realizacji%20Strategii%20Rozwoju%20Wojew%C3%B3dztwa%20Pomorskiego%202020%20ze%20szczeg%C3%B3lnym%20uwzgl%C4%99dnieniem%20roli%20Regionalnego%20Programu%20Operacyjnego%20Wojew%C3%B3dztwa%20Pomorskie.

[51] Kaczmarek, T. (2016), “Administrative division of Poland - 25 years of experience during the systemic transformation”, EchoGéo, Vol. 35, http://dx.doi.org/10.4000/echogeo.14514.

[58] Kamieniecka, M. and A. Maliszewzka (2018), Ocena potencjału wykorzystania zintegrowanego system kwalifikacji przez doradców zawodowych – wyniki badania jakościowego [Assessment of the potential of using the integrated qualifications system by vocational counselors], http://kwalifikacje.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/publikacje/PDF/Ocena-potencjalu-wykorzystania-ZSK-przez-doradcow-zawodowych_2019.pdf.

[54] Kołomycew, A. (2018), “Partnerstwa jako instrument partycypacji publicznej? Przykład lokalnych grup działania [Partnerships as an instrument of public participation? Example of local action groups]”, UR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 3/8, pp. 78 - 105, http://dx.doi.org/10.15584/johass.2018.3.5.

[12] Marshal’s Office of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (2014), Territorial Contract, https://kujawsko-pomorskie.pl/kontrakt-terytorialny (accessed on 11 July 2019).

[8] Matthes, C. and R. Markowski (2018), Poland Report Sustainable Governance Indicators 2018, https://www.sgi-network.org/docs/2018/country/SGI2018_Poland.pdf (accessed on 9 July 2019).

[69] MC (2018), Zintegrowana Platforma Analityczna [Integrated Analytical Platform], https://www.gov.pl/web/cyfryzacja/zintegrowana-platforma-analityczna (accessed on 18 July 2019).

[17] MEN (2019), Centrum Informatyczne Edukacji [Education Information Center], https://cie.men.gov.pl/ (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[24] MEN (2019), Zintegrowany Rejestr Kwalifikacji [Integrated Qualification Register], https://rejestr.kwalifikacje.gov.pl/ (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[36] MIiR (2017), Strategia na rzecz Odpowiedzialnego Rozwoju [Strategy for Responsible Development], https://rio.jrc.ec.europa.eu/en/library/strategy-responsible-development.

[70] MIiR (2016), Centralny System Teleinformatyczny [Central ICT System], https://www.funduszeeuropejskie.gov.pl/strony/o-funduszach/centralny-system-teleinformatyczny/ (accessed on 18 July 2019).

[18] MNiSW (2019), Zintegrowany System Informacji o Nauce i Skzolnictwie Wyźszym [Integrated System of Information on Science and Higher Education], https://polon.nauka.gov.pl/en/index.html (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[73] Musset, P. and L. Kurekova (2018), “Working it out: Career Guidance and Employer Engagement”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 175, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/51c9d18d-en.

[47] Obrębalski, M. (2015), Kontrakt Terytorialny Jako Instrument Wsparcia Rozwoju Regionalnego [Territorial Contract as an Instrument of Supporting of Regional Development], http://dx.doi.org/10.15611/pn.2015.393.14.

[37] OECD (2019), Getting Skills Right: Future-Ready Adult Learning Systems, Getting Skills Right, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264311756-en.

[2] OECD (2019), OECD Skills Strategy 2019: Skills to Shape a Better Future, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264313835-en.

[3] OECD (2018), OECD Rural Policy Reviews: Poland 2018, OECD Rural Policy Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264289925-en.

[34] OECD (2018), Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance for Slovenia: Improving the Governance of Adult Learning, OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264308459-en.

[60] OECD (2018), Subnational Governments in OECD Countries: Key Data 2018 Edition (brochure), OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/region-data-en.

[40] OECD (2017), “Collective bargaining in a changing world of work”, in OECD Employment Outlook 2017, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/empl_outlook-2017-8-en.

[49] OECD (2017), Multi-level Governance Reforms: Overview of OECD Country Experiences, OECD Multi-level Governance Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264272866-en.

[15] OECD (2016), Employment and Skills Strategies in Poland, OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264256521-en.

[39] OECD (2016), Getting Skills Right: Assessing and Anticipating Changing Skill Needs, Getting Skills Right, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264252073-en.

[74] OECD (2016), OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation: Employment and Skills Strategies in Poland, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264256521-en (accessed on 9 July 2019).

[11] OECD (2013), Poland: Implementing Strategic-State Capability, OECD Public Governance Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264201811-en.

[59] OECD (2008), OECD Territorial Reviews: Poland 2008, OECD Territorial Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264049529-en.

[35] OECD (2005), Promoting Adult Learning, Education and Training Policy, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264010932-en.

[75] OECD/ELS (2018), “Policy questionnaire: Readiness of Adult Learning Systems to Address Changing Skills Needs”, (internal document).

[22] PARP (2019), Baza usług rozwojowych [The Database of Development Services], https://serwis-uslugirozwojowe.parp.gov.pl/ (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[66] PARP (2019), BILANS KAPITAŁU LUDZKIEGO [Balance of Human Capital], https://www.parp.gov.pl/component/site/site/sektorowe-rady-ds-kompetencji#bkl (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[44] PARP (2018), Ocena funkcjonowania, Sektorowych Rad ds. Kompetencji [Evaluation of Sectoral Skills Councils], https://poir.parp.gov.pl/storage/publications/pdf/2018_POWER_ocena_sektorowych_rad.pdf.

[68] PARP (2017), Ewaluacja „Wpływ Bazy Usług Rozwojowych na jakość i dostępność usług rozwojowych świadczonych na rzecz przedsiębiorców i pracowników z uwzględnieniem oddziaływania Podmiotowego Systemu Finansowania” [Evaluation Impact of the Development Services Database], https://www.ewaluacja.gov.pl/media/54022/RK_BUR_PARP.pdf.

[56] Parti Québécois (2014), Politique nationale de la ruralité 2014-2024 - La solidarité : une richesse pour le Québec - Le gouvernement agit pour assurer le développement des communautés rurales de la Chaudière-Appalaches [National Rural Policy 2014-2024], https://pq.org/nouvelles/dinformation-politique-nationale-de-la-ruralite-20/ (accessed on 18 July 2019).

[7] PKA (2019), Polska Komisja Akredytacyjna [Polish Accreditation Commission], https://www.pka.edu.pl/ (accessed on 11 October 2019).

[14] Pomorski Urząd Wojewódzki (2019), Strategia Rozwoju Województwa Pomorskiego 2030 [Development Strategy of the Pomeranian Voivodeship 2030], http://www.gdansk.uw.gov.pl/3584-strategia-rozwoju-wojewodztwa-pomorskiego-2030%20https://dziennikbaltycki.pl/strategia-rozwoju-pomorza-2030-samorzad-wojewodztwa-zaprasza-do-wspoltworzenia-strategii-dla-wojewodztwa-pomorskiego-zdjecia/ar/c1-14294357%20htt (accessed on 19 September 2019).

[16] POWP (2019), Poznański Ośrodek Wspierania Przedsiębiorczości [Poznań Centre for Entrepreneurship Support], http://www.powp.poznan.pl/kat/id/161 (accessed on 11 October 2019).

[23] Provincial Labor Office in Krakow (2019), Małopolskie Obserwatorium Rynku Pracy i Edukacji [Małopolska Observatory of the Labor Market and Education], http://wupkrakow.praca.gov.pl/-/848672-malopolskie-obserwatorium-rynku-pracy-i-edukacji (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[62] Santiago, P. et al. (2017), OECD Reviews of School Resources: Chile 2017, OECD Reviews of School Resources, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264285637-en.

[32] Sejm (2018), Voting No. 30 at the 71st sitting of the Sejm, https://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm8.nsf/agent.xsp?symbol=glosowania&nrkadencji=8&nrposiedzenia=71&nrglosowania=30 (accessed on 9 July 2019).

[31] Sejm (2015), Vote No. 43 at the sixth session of the Sejm, https://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm8.nsf/agent.xsp?symbol=glosowania&nrkadencji=8&nrposiedzenia=6&nrglosowania=43 (accessed on 9 July 2019).

[13] Sejmik Województwa Pomorskiego (2012), Strategia Rozwoju Województwa Pomorskiego 2020 [Development Strategy of the Pomeranian Voivodeship 2020], https://frdl.org.pl/pliki/frdl/document/publikacjeFRDL/CezaryTrutkowski_jubileusz.pdf.

[20] Studia (2019), Lepsze studia [Better studies], http://studia.gov.pl/ (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[43] The Consultation Institute (2019), The Consultation Institute, https://www.consultationinstitute.org/ (accessed on 23 September 2019).

[4] The Economist Intelligence Unit (2019), Poland. Political structure, http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=1507485734&Country=Poland&topic=Summary&subtopic=Political+structure (accessed on 16 July 2019).

[46] Trutkowski, C. (2015), Kształtowanie polityki oświatowej samorządów lokalnych [Shaping the educational policy of local governments], https://kwrist.mac.gov.pl/download/60/11105/ (accessed on 18 July 2019).

[50] Urząd Marszałkowski Województwa Pomorskiego (2019), Portal Urzędu Marszałkowskiego Województwa Pomorskiego [Portal of the Marshal’s Office of the Pomeranian Voivodeship, https://pomorskie.eu/zadania-samorzadu (accessed on 17 September 2019).

[10] Wielądek, R. (2016), Enhancing the Innovative Capacity of the Polish Economy, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, http://dx.doi.org/10.2765/9928.

[53] Wojewódzki Urząd Pracy w Krakowie (2014), Plan działań Małopolskiego Partnerstwa na rzecz Kształcenia Ustawicznego z perspektywą do 2020 roku [Action Plan of the Malopolska Partnership for Continuing Education by the Year 2020], https://www.pociagdokariery.pl/upload/2019/MPKU%20-%20publikacje%20i%20dokumenty/plan_wykonawczy_MPKU.pdf (accessed on 5 September 2019).

[33] World Economic Forum (2018), The Global Competitiveness Report 2018: Latvia, http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2018/country-economy-profiles/#economy=POL (accessed on 8 June 2019).

[30] World Values Survey (2014), WVS Database Wave 6 (2010-2014), http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV6.jsp (accessed on 19 July 2019).

[52] Związku Powiatów Polskich (2019), Związku Powiatów Polskich [Association of Polish Counties], https://www.zpp.pl/konwenty-powiatow (accessed on 17 September 2019).

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

https://doi.org/10.1787/b377fbcc-en

© OECD 2019

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions.