Annex E. Results of the policy benchmarking exercise

Rewards and incentives

SDG Accelerators Awards1 (Global Compact Network Canada, with the support of the Government of Canada). This award celebrates Canadian businesses and non-business sectors for their efforts towards SDG implementation. It provides businesses with opportunities to display their strategies or mechanisms that promote the SDGs, be recognised as leaders in this regard, and use this recognition to enhance their reputation and build trust with key stakeholders. There is no prize money. Global Compact Network Canada also offers various SDG programmes such as training courses, workshops, webinars and interactive sessions. It provides a community of practice for businesses to discuss and explore ways in which companies can advance the SDGs, business opportunities and, tools and information to demystify the SDGs and aid in implementation.

Innovation Superclusters Initiative.2 Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) developed the “superclusters” initiative in 2018. The government department focuses on five superclusters in technology areas of Canadian competitive advantage: Digital Technology, Protein Industries Canada (PIC), Next Generation Manufacturing Canada (NGen), Scale AI, and Ocean. The aim of the programme is to create a world-leading innovation economy, and is supported by CAD 950 million in public funding over five years, matched dollar for dollar by private investment. The initiative fosters large-scale collaboration among industry leaders, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), post-secondary institutions, researchers, academics and not-for-profit organisations as well as accelerators and incubators, and contributes to multiple SDGs (including 2, 8, 9 and 14). Canada's Superclusters are also helping to build a skilled and diverse workforce by:

  • Creating opportunities for women, racialised Canadians, Indigenous communities and other under-represented groups. For example, Oceans supercluster has created dedicated opportunities for Indigenous peoples, providing meaningful work experience and exposure to more blue economy career options.3

  • Committing to gender parity for all Supercluster Boards.4

Clean technologies and environmentally sustainable practices are also part of the Superclusters objectives:

  • Oceans supercluster includes a marine renewable energy component.5

  • NGen (one of the superclusters) includes the development of environmentally sustainable management practices.6

  • Digital supercluster is developing a technology to help every part of Canada, and the world, harnessing data to protect supplies of freshwater and dependent ecosystems, fostering sustainable development and monitoring the impacts of climate change.7

  • PIC (one of the superclusters) is working on the development of safe, nutritious and sustainable food.

  • Scale AI supercluster works in the development of AI powered sustainable supply chains.8

Strategic Innovation Fund (SIF).9 SIF provides funding for high-risk, large-scale, transformative and collaborative projects to spur innovation in Canada. SIF has funded 76 projects to date. Through SIF’s new Net Zero Accelerator initiative, the programme will help drive decarbonisation projects with large emitters, scale up clean technology and accelerate Canada's industrial transformation across all sectors. SIF promotes the long-term competitiveness of Canadian industries through the advancement of Canada’s strategic technological advantage, clean growth and gender diversity and inclusion. SIF helps meet a number of SDGs:

  • SDG 5-Gender Equality. SIF requires companies receiving funds to develop and report on gender and diversity action plans. These plans include targets and objectives to promote gender equality in the workplace and enhance diversity among senior management and board members.

  • SDG 9-Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. SIF targets innovative, high-quality business investments in multiple sectors such as aerospace, telecommunication, automotive, and manufacturing. SIF also invests in emerging and dynamic sectors such as clean technology and batteries. SIF’s funding has advanced technological development and enhanced technological capabilities and efficiency of the industry sectors. SIF supports industrial research and development (R&D) and technology demonstration and fosters innovation.

  • SDG 13-Climate Action. SIF’s newly announced Net Zero Accelerator initiative will bolster Canada’s transition towards a low-carbon and green economy. A key objective of the initiative is to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the medium and long term, while helping high-emitting industries make large-scale decarbonisation investments and drive clean technologies innovations.

Government assistance

CSR toolkit.10 This toolkit provides reports and guidelines on why and how to integrate sustainability-oriented practices into business operations. It covers governance for sustainability, structured decision making, human resources for sustainability, purchasing for sustainability and marketing for sustainability.

SME Sustainability Roadmap.11 This is a tool to assist businesses in achieving their goals of sustainability.

Canadian Ombudsperson for Responsible Enterprise (CORE).12 CORE receives and reviews claims of alleged human rights abuses arising from the operations of Canadian firms abroad in the mining, oil and gas, and garment sectors. CORE promotes the implementation of the UN Guiding Principles and the OECD Guidelines and advises Canadian companies on their practices and policies with regard to responsible business conduct.

Rewards and incentives

Innovation subsidies. Canada provides various innovation subsidies13 related to health and medical research, alongside funding and advisory support for R&D, innovation and commercialisation projects. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research14 provides grants and awards to health research activities.

Mandatory compliance and government assistance

Health and Safety Programmes. Firms are required to draft occupational health and safety protocol under legislation in most Canadian provinces. The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety15 provides databases and courses/e-learning on their website16 to help firms fulfil this requirement.


Women Entrepreneurship Strategy (WES).17 The WES is a CAD 5 billion initiative that aims to increase women-owned businesses’ access to the financing, talent, networks and expertise they need to start up, scale up and access new markets. As part of the WES, the Women Entrepreneurship Fund18 has provided a total of CAD 30 million to more than 300 women-owned and led businesses, to help them grow and expand to new markets. In addition, the WES Ecosystem Fund19 has provided CAD 100 million to enhance entrepreneurial capacity within the Canadian entrepreneurship ecosystem for women entrepreneurs, including CAD 15 million in funding in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The government has also established the Women Entrepreneurship Knowledge Hub20 (WEKH) to support women in entrepreneurship. The Hub’s activities include collecting, analysing and disseminating information and/or advancing research on women’s entrepreneurship, supporting/sharing best practices and knowledge among women business support organisations and reporting on the progress of women entrepreneurs in Canada.

Rewards and incentives

Black Entrepreneurship Fund (BEF).21 The BEF is a partnership between the Government of Canada, Black-led business organisations, and financial institutions. With an investment of up to CAD 221 million over four years, it will help Black Canadian business owners and entrepreneurs grow their businesses and succeed now and into the future. The programme includes the National Ecosystem Fund, the Black Entrepreneurship Loan Fund and the Black Entrepreneurship Knowledge Hub.

Government assistance

Statistics Canada Centre for Gender, Diversity and Inclusion Statistics. Statistics Canada provides easy access information22 about education, families, health, immigration, labour and income from a gender, diversity and inclusion perspective.

Mandatory compliance

Canadian Human Rights Act 1977 and Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 1982. These laws protect the right to gender equality, in terms of access to jobs and pay. Maintaining a difference in wages between male and female employees performing work of equal value is regarded as a discriminatory practice.

Rewards and incentives

Green innovation funding.23 The government funds green innovation through several schemes. These include programmes aimed at phasing out fossil fuels, such as the Clean Growth Program24 (a CAD 155 million investment in clean technology R&D), the green infrastructure programme (investment for next-generation clean energy infrastructure) and the Energy Innovation Program (EIP)25 and other additional funding opportunities/ grants/incentives. Other funds are directed at the green transition, such as the Emissions Reduction Fund (support for the green transition of oil and gas firms by providing funds to invest in green solutions to reduce GHGs and protect jobs in the sector). Institutions such as Sustainable Development Technology Canada, the Business Development Bank of Canada and Export Development Canada finance the R&D, innovation and commercialisation of clean technologies.26 The Clean Growth Hub27 is a government-led one-stop resource centre to find funding opportunities for clean technology projects.

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan).28 This federal government department launched The Hydrogen Strategy29 in December 2020, after three years of consultation with stakeholders. The plan is part of Canada’s commitment to become net zero by 2050 and is designed to position Canada as a world-leading producer, user and exporter of hydrogen. The plan recommends several policies that impact firms and related to the SDGs, including providing funding programmes, R&D expenditures, and the creation of new codes and standards to help mitigate barriers to entry.

Government assistance

Greening your business. This web portal30 provides resources to help businesses improve environmentally, for example by increasing efficiency, reducing pollution and becoming more “green” overall.

Mandatory compliance

Pricing carbon pollution from industry.31 To tackle climate change, Canada implements a tax on fuel (fuel charge) as well as a price on carbon for industry emitters (output-based pricing system). The goal of these policies is to cut pollution, reduce GHG emissions, promote innovation and maintain competitiveness by providing firms with incentives to foster energy innovation.

National Pact for the Sustainable Development Goals.32 33 The Government signed the National Pact for the SDGs in 2016, together with heads of the three branches of the Republic: civil society, religious organisations, and businesses. The pact was signed to incentivise the participation of the private sector in the planning process for achieving the SDGs. The three most important entry points into the SDGs for Costa Rica are SDGs 1, 9, and 12.

Government assistance

Business Social Responsibility Policy.34 This policy aims to integrate socially responsible practices into corporate governance. The policy is implemented through the Code of Responsible Practices – which is a voluntary self-regulation initiative concerning value chains (suppliers, distributors and consumers) – and through the National Social Responsibility Plan for Businesses – which raises awareness among firms about their responsibilities, as well as the social and environmental impacts of their operations.

National Policy for Sustainable Production and Consumption 2018-30.35 This policy integrates sustainable production and consumption into the country's development agenda. It has a long-term vision that includes the participation of all the relevant stakeholders, in line with the Ten-Year Framework of Programs on Consumption and Sustainable Production (10YFP). It is expected to incorporate sustainability criteria in various sectors and in public purchases by the State. This would help boost the eco-competitiveness of the most important sectors of the national economy. With the implementation of the Policy, Costa Rica aims to promote, and disseminate information about, a sustainable lifestyle.

National Fund of Telecommunications (FONATEL).36 This initiative combines the following programmes:

  • Connected Communities. Building infrastructure (optic fibre networks, telephone towers, etc.).

  • Equipped Public Centres. Seeking to provide computers and tablets with broadband connection to schools and public colleges, Intelligent Community Centres (CECIs), public child care centres and health centres and clinics of the Costa Rican Social Security Fund.

  • Connected Public Spaces. Building a network of more than 2 175 kilometres of optic fibre nationwide.

  • Foundation for Sustainability and Equity (ALIARSE).37 Initiative promoted by public institutions and private companies aimed at contributing to sustainability, social justice and national development. Its objective is to promote public-private participation in the management of sustainable development through advocacy on public policies and the formation of capacities for the management of public-private partnerships for development and public-private partnerships.

Costa Rica National Family Farming Plan 2020-30. Family farming offers a unique opportunity to ensure food security, improve livelihoods, better manage natural resources, protect the environment and achieve sustainable development, especially in rural areas.

Government assistance

General Law N° 7771 on HIV/AIDS. Regulates the actions of the Costa Rican State in promoting and guaranteeing a comprehensive response to the HIV epidemic, in public and private spheres. Through this Law, the National Council for Comprehensive HIV Care (CONASIDA) was created, which is an advisory body attached to the Ministry of Health, in charge of supporting public policies and action programmes related to HIV at the national level.

National Plan for Food Security, Nutrition and the Eradication of Hunger, 2025.38 The general objective is to achieve significant improvements in the quality of life, aimed at the eradication of poverty, especially extreme poverty due to the impact it has on hunger. The programme aims at guaranteeing food security and nutrition, with a gender perspective and while respecting the diversity of eating habits.

Mandatory compliance

The General Regulation for Occupational Safety and Hygiene (Reglamento General de Seguridad e Higiene de Trabajo). This is a health and safety guideline and regulation for firms. It works alongside the Labour Code and specific regulations that address certain hazards or risks (e.g. pesticides, noise, radiation). It is issued and enforced by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security.

General Law on Tobacco Control and its harmful effects on health N°9028. Regulates the commercialisation of tobacco products (their content, the requirements for the regulation of emissions and contents, verification of compliance with international standards), advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products and their derivatives, their storage and distribution, sale and supply in certain places, as well as the creation of a specific tax for cigarettes and related products.

Health legislation for general access to medicines. These are regulations, norms and decrees that regulate access to medicines for human use, their health registration and importation, their commercialisation, whether imported or manufactured domestically, as well as their final disposal. They enable the control of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and the regulation of private pharmaceutical establishments.

Rewards and incentives

Seal of Gender Equality (Sello de Igualdad de Género).39 Firms can apply for the Seal of the National Institute of Women of Costa Rica (INAMU). This is a form of recognition of the company’s efforts to ensure gender equality, and is given to firms whose gender equality management system meets the relevant standard (INTE G38: 2015).

Recognition of best labour practices for gender equality (Reconocimiento a Buenas prácticas laborales para la Igualdad de Género).40 Recognition of good labour practices for gender equality is awarded by INAMU annually in order to celebrate firms that excel in this regard, and to motivate companies to implement measures that promote equal opportunities and close gender gaps. It promotes cultural changes within firms, develops management on gender equality and contributes to changing business ethics. Recognition categories are: 1) management of staff without gender discrimination; 2) comprehensive health approach (including mental and reproductive health, the fight against domestic violence and harassment); 3) practices that take into account caring for children and/or aging family members; 4) non-sexist language; and 5) changing practices in promotion of gender equality.

Government assistance

Information for women and companies.41 INAMU provides information for firms and women about labour rights and best practices for gender equality.

Axis 3. Action 3.13 Strengthening of women entrepreneurs with export potential and their businesses for their insertion in the international market, within the framework of Women Export (Eje 3. Acción 3.13 Fortalecimiento de las mujeres empresarias con potencial exportador y sus negocios para su inserción en el mercado internacional, en el marco de Women Export) (Action Plan 2019-22, PIEG). This initiative accompanies the international development of women-led firms, through a policy promoting inclusion, and the development of plans that promote the export or market diversification of companies led by women.

Public Policy Solidarity Social Economy 2021-25 (Política Pública Economía Social Solidaria 2021-25).42 It is organised around three main actions: 1) Improve the institutional support to the Social Economy; 2) Complete revision of the regulatory environment; and 3) Promote the diffusion of the Social Economy knowledge, in particular through education.

National Policy for equality between women and men in training, employment and the enjoyment of Science, Technology, Telecommunications and Innovation products 2018-27.43 Its objective is to achieve substantive equality between men and women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Support research efforts that allow establishing clear strategies for equality in school, family and work environments.

Mandatory compliance

Law for the Promotion of Social Equality for Women. According to article 14 of the law, women have the right to equal pay, both in the private and public sectors, for work of equal value under the same employer.

Gender equality policy for inclusive development in the Costa Rican agricultural, fishing and rural sector 2020-30 and Action Plan I. Its objective is to ensure adequate access for rural women to resources, comprehensive financial services, productive infrastructure, technology and innovation (which increase their possibilities for social mobility and business development to reduce gender gaps and inequalities in the sector). It also aims to promote institutional modernisation which guarantees the incorporation of the diversity of women’s needs in programmes, plans and productive projects that allow the transformation of primary production, the generation of value added and the insertion in value chains and markets locally, nationally and internationally.


National Decarbonisation Plan of Costa Rica 2018-50.44 Summarises the strategic actions that the Bicentennial Government has identified to implement the decarbonisation of the Costa Rican economy. Decarbonisation and resilience are recognised as the means to transform the current economic development model into one that is based on the bioeconomy, green growth, inclusion and enhancing the well-being of all citizens. This Plan proposes significant changes in: 1) its mobility offers and transport (public and private); 2) the management of their sources of energy; 3) sustainable constructions and in the country's industry; and 4) waste management. Guidelines to improve agricultural practices and land use, and avoid deforestation, are also part to the Plan. The Plan offers a road map to promote the modernisation of the Costa Rican economy, generate jobs and boost its growth based on a model that generates 3D (decarbonised, digitised and decentralised) services goods.

Rewards and incentives

National Energy Award (Premio Nacional de Energia).45 This is an annual award, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MINAE), which recognises the efficient use of energy, substitution for better sources of energy, the use of renewable sources of energy, and good management of energy demand. There is no prize money, but a ceremony chaired by the President of Costa Rica is organised to honour the winners.

Green Growth Platform.46 This programme promotes the transformation of production processes and improves the environmental sustainability of companies and their export profile. It supports the efforts of companies undertaking these initiatives. Through seed capital (non-reimbursable funds), micro, small- and medium-sized companies that work in agricultural, food, industry or services productive sectors (with the exception of tourism), and are interested in developing green productive transformation processes, will be able to invest in transformation-oriented technologies.

Government assistance

National Program for Carbon Neutrality (version 2.0) (Programa País Carbono Neutralidad (version 2.0)).47 This is a national programme for carbon neutrality, led by the Directorate of Climate Change in MINAE. It provides a mechanism to recognise the proper management of GHG emissions. It also provides educational centres, organises events, and produces guidelines. If an organisation completes an inventory report that meets the reporting requirements, they can obtain recognition from the government and get a certificate issued by MINAE. With the certificate, businesses can display the carbon inventory symbol (or carbon reduction plus symbol if the business goes beyond the established requirement) on their business documents and webpages. Costa Rica also has a Voluntary Domestic Costa Rican Carbon Market (MDVCCR).

National policy for adaptation to climate change 2018-30. Its objective is to increase the resilience of Costa Rica to the effects of climate change, through the application of adaptation actions, based on communities and ecosystems.

National Program for Sustainable Production and Consumption. Seeks to increase the adoption of sustainable production and consumption patterns in Costa Rican society to promote business competitiveness and more sustainable lifestyles. Some of the management instruments are: voluntary agreements for cleaner production (AVP+L), environmental labelling of products, certification of organic production, Sanitary Quality Seal Program, ISO 14001 Certification, Institutional Environmental Management Programs (PGAI, by its acronym in Spanish) and the Ecological Blue Flag Program.

National Biodiversity Strategy (ENB2) 2016-25.48 It contributes to the conservation, sustainable use and resilience of biodiversity. It has a platform that provides information on its indicators, objectives, managers and the progress of its goals.

National Strategy for the reduction of single-use plastics. Its objective is to guarantee sustainable management of the country's jurisdictional waters by reducing single-use plastics.

National programme to reduce GHG emissions. Its aim is to contribute to carbon neutrality through the efforts of the forestry sector and other key sectors such as public transport and agriculture. It also promotes the participation of local governments to mitigate climate change.

National electricity system meter programme. It increases the number of smart devices, in order to improve competitiveness of domestic firms.

National Action Plan for the Conservation and Management of Sharks in Costa Rica (PANT-CR).49 This plan was prepared under the recommendations established in the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (PAI-Sharks), in accordance with the Technical Guidelines for FAO Responsible Fisheries (FAO, 2000[1]). Between 2019 and 2020, the first plan was updated and the second National Action Plan 2020-25 for the Conservation and Management of Sharks in Costa Rica (PANT-CR 2020) was prepared. It is made up of four programmes: the Investigation and Monitoring Programme (itself composed of three subprogrammes: Biological-fishing Research Subprogramme, Onboard Observer’s Subprogramme, Catch and Effort Monitoring Subprogramme); the Traceability Programme; the Outreach, Education and Training Programme; and the Socioeconomic Studies Programme.

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) Coffee.50 Its objective is to reduce GHG emissions and improve efficiency in the use of resources at coffee plantations and mills.

NAMA Livestock.51 This programme is in charge of the National Livestock Program of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. This mechanism is the product of a public-private agreement for the transformation of the bovine livestock industry towards eco-competitiveness. It promotes the use of practices, technologies and measures aimed at the development of a climate-smart, profitable, productive and socially sustainable livestock industry.

Mandatory compliance

Fuel tax (Impuesto Único Sobre los Combustibles). Costa Rica has different taxes for each type of fuel.52 These are initially paid by the national petroleum company (RECOPE, by its acronym in Spanish), though they may be passed on to the final consumers.

Law to combat plastic pollution and protect the environment N° 9786. This law aims to prevent the improper management of waste – especially plastic – from impacting human health and ecosystems, polluting water, soil, air and contributing to climate change.

Forestry Law N° 7575. It establishes, as an essential and priority function of the State, to ensure the conservation, protection and administration of natural forests and the production, use, industrialisation and promotion of the country's forest resources.

Law for the Integral Management of Waste N°8839. This legislation regulates the integral management of waste and the efficient use of resources, through the planning and execution of regulatory, operational, financial, administrative, educational, environmental aned healthy monitoring and evaluation actions.


The European Commission’s Horizon Europe, the next research and innovation framework programme following Horizon 2020, will feature direct government support for firms. Launching in 2021, the five missions of the EUR 100 billion programme are: 1) adaptation to climate change including societal transformation; 2) cancer; 3) climate-neutral and smart cities; 4) healthy oceans, seas, coastal and inland waters; and 5) soil health and food.53

Several projects funded by the previous research and innovation framework (Horizon 2020) target specific SDGs. For example, the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)54 founded eight Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), each of which focus on a different societal challenge. Two of these are EIT Health, which targets SDG 3-Good Health and Well-Being and EIT Climate-KIC, which targets SDG 13 (Climate Action). EIT Health works with approximately 150 partner organisations to address urgent health challenges, providing resources for both established and young companies. Funding goes towards the development of innovative products and services, support for start-ups and entrepreneurs, and health and innovation education.55 EIT Climate-KIC works to accelerate the transition to a zero-carbon and climate-resilient society. By creating networks and providing funds to stimulate innovation, EIT Climate-KIC generates synergies to tackle climate change.56 Other examples of actions funded through Horizon 2020 include:

  • the IMI 2 Joint Undertaking, which targets SDG 3-Good Health and Well-Being through collaborating to advance the development of medicines (budget of EUR 5.3 billion)

  • the European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities (EIP-SCC) Marketplace, which targets SDG 11-Sustainable Cities and Communities through facilitating Smart City solutions

  • the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking, which targets SDG 13-Climate Action through developing innovative technologies to cut aircraft carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.57

The European Union’s main investment policy, the Cohesion Policy, invests in all regions and empowers local authorities to manage funds. Five main investment priorities are outlined in the New Cohesion Policy, which is launching in 2021. These priorities are: 1) a smarter Europe; 2) a greener, carbon free Europe; 3) a connected Europe; 4) a social Europe; and 5) a Europe closer to citizens.58

In addition, the European Commission, the European Parliament and EU leaders have agreed on a EUR 1.8 trillion Recovery Plan for Europe, which has not yet been formally adopted. This plan aims to repair the economic and social damage caused by the COVID-19 crisis, and relates to a number of SDGs through supporting and expanding existing programmes such as Horizon Europe or InvestEU, and by launching new initiatives such as the Recovery and Resilience Facility, and EU4Health (SDG 3-Good Health and Well-Being). Approximately one third of the plan’s funds are designated for the fight against climate change (SDG 13-Climate Action), with other priorities including gender equality (SDG 5-Gender Equality) and biodiversity protection (SDG 14-Life Below Water and SDG 15-Life on Land).

Rewards and incentives

Launched in 2021, the InvestEU Programme aims to boost investment, innovation and job creation through EUR 650 billion of additional public and private investment between 2021 and 2027. The fund will support four main policy areas: sustainable infrastructure; research, innovation and digitisation; small and medium businesses; and social investment and skills. Support for these will be provided through actions such as removing obstacles to investment, providing visibility and technical assistance to investment projects and making smarter use of financial resources.59

Another European Commission programme of note is the Social Business Initiative,60 which launched in 2011 with the aims of helping social businesses by improving access to finance, providing more visibility and optimising the legal environment.

In 2018, the European Commission launched its Sustainable Finance Action Plan, aiming to redirect capital flows towards a more sustainable economy. A notable achievement of this plan was the June 2020 announcement of a taxonomy of sustainable activities.

A related initiative is the European Investment Fund (EIF) Social Impact Accelerator (SIA) “fund of funds”,61 aiming to support social enterprises (i.e. a self-sustainable SME whose business model serves to achieve a social impact). The EIF also operates the Employment and Social Innovation (EaSI) guarantee instrument,62 which provides guarantees and counter-guarantees to financial intermediaries to invest in microfinance and social entrepreneurship projects. The EaSI also includes measures to help financial intermediaries build capacity for impact investing.63 The EIF also operates the European Fund for Strategic Investment (EFSI) Equity Instrument, which included an “impact-investing initiative” in 2020.

The European Commission hands out European Sustainability Awards, which recognise the efforts of individuals, businesses and organisations towards addressing the global SDGs with concrete solutions and opportunities. The awards aim to raise awareness of the SDGs in the European Union.64

A similar initiative is the European Social Innovation Competition,65 a challenge that calls on Europeans to come up with solutions to some of society’s biggest problems. Three yearly winners receive a prize of EUR 50 000, and a pool of 30 semi-finalists remain eligible for another prize the following year, which goes to the ongoing project achieving the highest impact.

The Social Challenges Innovation Platform66 is an online community in which people and businesses can discuss social and environmental challenges they are facing, and brainstorm solutions with a wider body of European innovators, start-ups and SMEs.

Government assistance

The European Union has set out due-diligence guidance in several sectors to help businesses – particularly SMEs – implement sustainable principles and standards in their supply chains. Due diligence ready! is an online portal with information, training materials and events, designed to help companies conduct proper due diligence on their supply chain.67

The European Union has also set up a social procurement programme to facilitate the uptake of socially responsible criteria in public procurement across the European Union.68

Mandatory compliance

Directive 2014/95/EU of the European Commission requires companies with more than 500 employees to disclose non-financial information on the way they operate and manage social and environmental challenges. Since 2018, companies have been required to include non-financial statements in their annual reports, including information about policies implemented on environmental protection, social responsibility and treatment of employees, respect for human rights, anti-corruption and bribery, and diversity on company boards (age, gender, and educational and professional background).69

The European Commission is considering a law requiring businesses to carry out due diligence to prevent human rights violations and environmental harm throughout their supply chain and has plans to develop a legislative proposal by 2021.70

Rewards and incentives

The EU Health Programme provides grants to public, non-governmental and private-sector bodies, which focus on current health issues and co-operation between member states. With a budget of nearly EUR 450 million for 2014-20, the programme aims to improve the overall health of EU citizens, reduce health inequalities, encourage innovation and increase the sustainability of health systems.71 In 2018, 21% of the programme’s beneficiaries were private organisations (Annual Report 2018).

Mandatory compliance

The European Framework Directive on Safety and Health at Work (OSH Directive) guarantees minimum safety and health requirements at work throughout Europe, and allows member states to maintain or establish stricter measures.72

The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) has also published “Coronavirus: EU guidance for a safe return to the workplace” which outlines guidance for firms to ensure that workers can return in a safe and healthy environment. There are guidelines in several areas including risk assessment and appropriate safety measures, managing workers who are or have been ill, planning and learning for the future, staying well informed and information for sectors and occupations.73

Rewards and incentives

The EU Prize for Women Innovators is awarded to women entrepreneurs that successfully bring new innovations to the market. The winners are awarded a prize of EUR 100 000, with an additional EUR 50 000 awarded to a Rising Innovator aged 35 or younger.

Government assistance

The European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) is an autonomous body of the European Union mandated to increase gender equality, ensure gender mainstreaming in EU policies and increase awareness of gender issues. The EIGE provides research and data that support evidence-based decision making, toolkits and training guides, and the development of best practices.74

The European Commission EU Action Plan 2017-19: Tackling the gender pay gap has 24 action points addressing root causes of the gender pay gap. The Commission has also adopted recommendations on strengthening wage transparency and work-life balance.75

Mandatory compliance

The European Union requires equal pay for equal work. Employers must follow equal pay without discrimination based on gender. Directive 2006/54/EC of the European Commission consolidates directives on gender equality in employment with the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and supports implementation.


The European Commission is implementing the European Green Deal, with the goal of being “climate neutral” – reducing emissions and compensating for those still produced – by 2050. The action plan includes investing in environmentally friendly technologies, supporting industry to innovate, using cleaner and cheaper forms of private and public transport, decarbonising the energy sector, ensuring buildings are more energy-efficient and working with international partners to improve global environmental standards.76 A central component of the European Green Deal is the Circular Economy Action Plan,77 which implements sustainability initiatives along the entire life cycle of products.

Rewards and incentives

The Innovation Fund is a large funding programme for innovative low-carbon technologies, funded by revenues from the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) (discussed more below). The programme targets SDG 7-Affordable and Clean Energy and is tightly linked to SDG 13-Climate Action. Projects with innovative technologies or that have the potential for significant emission reductions, in energy-intensive industries, or those having to do with renewables, energy storage, and carbon capture, use and storage are funded.78 The fund’s budget for 2020-30 is projected to be around EUR 10 billion (or EUR 1 billion per year on average), and comes from of EU ETS allowances (the price of which fluctuates on the market, making the exact budget uncertain).

Created in 1992, the LIFE programme is a funding instrument for environment and climate action. With a budget of EUR 3.4 billion for 2014-20, the programme offers funding opportunities for private entities, public bodies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in several environmental and climate-related areas. The LIFE programme publishes “best projects” and grants the LIFE Awards, which recognise the most innovative, inspirational and effective LIFE projects in climate action, environment and nature protection.79

The European Business Awards for the Environment (EBAE) celebrate private-sector leadership, specifically in companies at the forefront of eco-innovation, or that have environmental consciousness at the core of their business. Companies can apply in six categories: 1) management (micro and small companies); 2) management (medium and large companies); 3) product and services; 4) process; 5) developing country co-operation; and 6) business and biodiversity.80 This award covers actions related to SDGs 13, 14 and 15.

Mandatory compliance

The European Commission has a common emissions system for CO2 emissions, the EU ETS. The EU ETS operates in all EU countries plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, and works on the cap-and-trade principle. The cap on GHG emissions is also being reduced over time, so that total emissions fall.81 Under the European Green Deal, the European Commission plans to raise the ambition of emission reduction.


The Innovation Council (Conseil de l’innovation)82 is an expert committee composed of six qualified members (experts in their field) and six ministers, as well as representatives of the administration. It provides strategic advice on innovation policy to the Prime Minister’s Office, and proposes directions for subsidies financed by the Innovation and Industry Fund (Fonds pour l’innovation et l’industrie).83 This fund provides around EUR 250 million per year in subsidies. EUR 120 million of this is earmarked for five challenges determined by the Council,84 three of which are directly related to SDGs: energy storage for transport, artificial intelligence (AI) in medical diagnosis and biomedicines.

The Invest for the Future programme (Programme d’investissements d’avenir) is a multi-year investment plan, designed to increase growth over the long term. Three programmes have been launched under the plan since 2010, totalling EUR 57 billion in funding, and placing an emphasis on sustainability (see below for some actions related to health and the environment). A fourth programme was announced in September 2020 amounting to EUR 20 billion, part of which will direct to the post-COVID-19 recovery plan.85 Part of this programme aims at supporting specific strategies focused on high potential technologies in the fields of health, sustainable development, digital technologies and agro-industries. These strategies are produced on an inter-ministerial basis, in connection with ecosystems (e.g. companies, start-ups, public laboratories).

Rewards and incentives

The Social Business Act (Pacte de croissance de l'économie sociale et solidaire) enacts measures to improve the financing of social businesses86 including dedicated public venture capital (VC) funds (Fonds d’innovation sociale [FISO]),87 incentives for investors and tax and social contribution rebates for social businesses. Social business account for 14% of private employment and 10% of gross domestic product, and 80% are for not-for-profit organisations, according to the French definition of social business.

Government assistance

CSR Platform (Plateforme RSE).88 Under the umbrella of France Stratégie, a think tank linked to the Prime Minister's Office, this platform brings together trade unions, firms and NGOs to provide recommendations and advice on corporate social responsibility (CSR) to government and businesses.

CSR support. BPI France, a public sector development bank, provides support to SMEs willing to introduce a CSR dimension into their business.89 It also provides training and consulting services.

In 2019 (Plan d’action pour la croissance et la transformation des entreprises [PACTE] Law),90 France gave firms the option to include a “raison d’être” (non-financial objective) in their articles of incorporation, and to adopt a new legal status of “mission-oriented company” (“entreprise à mission”). Similar to “benefit corporations” in the United States (a type of non-profit corporate entity), mission-oriented companies must have a “raison d’être” and the actions taken in this regard are steered by a dedicated body, on which workers are represented. Mission-oriented companies do not benefit from any kind of preferential treatment (e.g. special tax provisions). Despite being recent, a significant number of large firms have adopted this new status (e.g. Danone,91 MAIF [insurer], Camif [retail sale of furniture]) or are considering doing so, and some smaller firms are also embracing it (e.g. Faguo92 [fashion]). The PACTE Law’s evaluation committee is collecting quantitative data on these “mission-oriented” companies, which should be available before the end of 2021.93

Mandatory compliance

Various laws and decrees enacted since 2001 mandate an “extra-financial reporting” duty for firms.94 Those with more than 500 employees, or which fall above combined thresholds for turnover and balance sheet size, have to report on 44 items pertaining to social, environmental and sustainability issues. This reporting follows a “comply or explain” principle; if some indicators are missing or are irrelevant for operations, firms have to provide an explanation as to why. Reports must cover subsidiaries and be certified by a third party.

France has enacted a “vigilance duty” law (Loi n° 2017-399 relative au devoir de vigilance des sociétés mères et des entreprises donneuses d’ordre). Large enterprises (>5 000 employees in France or >10 000 worldwide) are required to publish, follow and evaluate a vigilance plan covering the company, its subsidiaries, suppliers and subcontractors. The plan and its implementation report must be included in the annual management report,95 and covers issues of human rights, environmental protection and safety. The objective of the vigilance duty law is to extend the responsibility of the firm to operations abroad, including to actions of suppliers. A recent evaluation96 concludes that the law has had a positive impact, by increasing firms’ awareness on the impact of their operations abroad. However, this evaluation also calls for improvements to governmental reporting support and alignment with other reporting requirements.

Rewards and incentives

BPI France is responsible for the administration of several innovation subsidies on behalf of the state. Several of these focus on innovation in health, medicine, or well-being, as discussed below:

  • The “World Innovation Challenge” (Concours mondial d’innovation)97 is a selective innovation programme that supports “champions” with subsidies and equity investments (depending on the phases of the challenge). The challenge is structured around seven “ambitions”, two of which relate to SDG 3 (Ambition 5 “Individualised medicine” and Ambition 6 “Silver economy”). The challenge provided approximately EUR 300 million in funding during the 2017-19 period.98

  • Other small-scale programmes include subsidies for the development of medical devices based on AI,99 and for investment in flexible production facilities that can produce COVID-19 drugs, if needed.100

  • Several VC funds are operated by BPI France, including:

    • The Fonds accélération biotech santé, which is funded by the Invest for the Future programme. Its objective is to finance spin-offs from public research in health and biotechnologies.101

    • The InnoBio fund, which is invested in by BPI France as well as main pharmaceutical companies operating in France. It funds start-ups in the biotech, medtech or diagnosis industries.

    • The innovative biotherapies and rare illnesses (Biothérapies innovantes et maladies rares) fund, which invests in new ventures to develop therapies for rare illnesses and discover new applications for more common pathologies.

Mandatory compliance

French law mandates that employers must ensure the health and safety of workers through prevention, information and training. Employers must also assess the occupational risks in workplaces, which are recorded in official documentation. Employers must provide (or be affiliated to) an occupational health service for employees.

Mandatory compliance

Firms with more than 50 employees have to compute a Wage Equality Index on an annual basis and publish it on their website. The indicator also has to be communicated to the firm’s Social and Economic Committee, on which trade unions are represented, and to Labour Inspection Services. Data are centralised by the Ministry for Labour and available online for firms with more than 1 000 employees.102 The index is based on five indicators: the gender wage gap, the gender gap in pay rises, the gender gap in promotions (only for firms with more than 250 employees), the number of pay rises for women returning from maternity leave, and the gender balance of workers making the highest ten wages. If the total score awarded is less than 75 (on a 100 point scale), the firm has to take corrective measures to reach 75 within three years. If it does not, the firm is fined up to 1% of its wage costs.103

The Copé-Zimmerman Law, enacted in 2011, requires boards of directors have gender balance, with at least 40% of their members being women and at least 40% being men.104 The PACTE Law recently increased the sanctions in case of breach, and introduced a new requirement for management boards that at least one candidate from each gender must be considered at each step of the recruitment process.105

Rewards and incentives

The Innovation Challenge (iNov), financed by the Invest for the Future programme and jointly run by Ademe (Agency for Ecological Transition), funds SME R&D and innovation projects (EUR 80 million per year). Four of the nine calls for projects in 2020 were related to the environment, having to do with the circular economy, environmental performance of the built environment, adaptation to climate change and hydrogen.

Ademe also runs other aspects of the Invest for the Future programme related to the environment, such as demonstrations and pilot solutions for the energy transition, green transport and mobility.106 The Ecotechnologies fund, operated by Ademe as well as BPI France, is a EUR 150 million VC fund that targets innovative SMEs in the following sectors: renewable energy and green chemistry, circular economy, smart grids and vehicles of the future.

Mandatory compliance

The Circular Economy Act (Loi anti-gaspillage pour une économie circulaire),107 passed in 2020, lays the ground for a more circular economy. For instance, it aims to end single-use plastic packaging by 2040 through a gradual ban (e.g. the manufacture and import of single-use plastic bags have been prohibited since 1 January 2021), increase recycling, reduce waste and at tackle planned obsolescence (i.e. deliberately ensuring that a version of a product will expire or become obsolete in a given time frame).

The Climate and Resilience Act (Loi climat et résilience),108 inspired by the Citizen’s Convention for Climate (Convention citoyenne pour le climat), was voted by the Parliament in July 2021. Many of the policy instruments belong to the mandatory compliance category (e.g. regulation of advertising for carbon-intensive products such as fossil fuels, a CO2 score for products).

France levies an excise tax on fuel used for transport and heating (TICPE), with some sectoral exemptions. There are similar taxes on natural gas (TICGN) and coal (TICC).


The High-Tech Strategy 2025 aims to leverage research and innovation to shape the future of Germany. The strategy includes firms as well as other organisations and stakeholders. It is organised around 12 “missions”, nine of which relate to the SDGs: two to health, six to the environment, and one to working conditions.

Rewards and incentives

Innovation for SMEs (KMU-innovativ), an initiative from Germany’s Federal Ministry of Education and Research, provides funding to support research in German SMEs. Since 2007, EUR 1.3 billion has been granted to 1 700 projects. Firms are able to apply and gain access to other services within a single platform. Areas of focus relevant to the SDGs include medical technology, resource efficiency and climate protection, among others.109

The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) created the Central Innovation Programme for Medium-sized Companies (Zentrales Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand) (ZIM), Germany’s largest innovation programme for SMEs (EUR 559 million in 2019).110 The programme funds innovative SMEs with business operations in Germany that want to develop or improve new products, processes or technical services. Firms within all sectors and fields of technology are eligible, provided that their projects are highly innovative, market-oriented and entail a substantial technological risk. Thousands of new projects are launched every year, including many relevant to the SDGs, such as recycling solar panels and sustainable agriculture.111

Government assistance

The Hub for Sustainable Finance (H4SF) is an open network comprised of financial market players and other relevant stakeholders working on solutions for mainstreaming sustainable finance in Germany. Established in 2017 by the German Council for Sustainable Development (RNE) and the Deutsche Börse Group, this resource allows firms to share experiences, and provides recommendations for policy and best practices.112

The Regional Hubs for Sustainability Strategies (RENN) are four regional networks of the RNE. They promote knowledge sharing and networking among firms and other stakeholders, with the aim of facilitating integration of environmental and societal concerns into business practices.113

Mandatory compliance

Directive 2014/95/EU of the European Commission requires companies with more than 500 employees to disclose non-financial information on the way they operate and manage social and environmental challenges.114 On the basis of that EU Directive, Germany passed the CSR Directive Implementation Act in 2017, which requires some large companies (depending on their legal status), financial institutions and insurance companies to publish non-financial reports. The RNE developed a Sustainability Code (DNK) as a standard for disclosing the relevant information. The DNK is an internationally applicable reporting standard for topics related to sustainability and can be followed to ensure compliance with the CSR Directive Implementation Act.115

The Federal Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs and the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development are drafting a Due Diligence Act (Sorgfaltspflichtengesetz), a binding law to ensure corporate compliance with human rights and environmental standards.116 The current National Action Plan encourages companies to voluntarily declare whether and to what extent they are committed to human rights and environmental actions within their supply chains.117

Rewards and incentives

The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) put in place a special programme to fund the development of vaccines for SARS-Cov-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Firms are eligible to receive subsidies from a fund of EUR 750 million.118

Mandatory compliance

Germany’s Act on the Implementation of Measures of Occupational Safety and Health to Encourage Improvements in the Safety and Health Protection of Workers at Work mandates measures that firms must take to prevent accidents at work and other occupational health risks. Regulations include ensuring decent working conditions and emphasises a preventive approach. Coverage extends to employees in the public and private sectors.119

Government assistance

The National Agency for Women Start-ups Activities and Services (BGA), sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research; the Federal Ministry for Family, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth; and the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology, offers information and services to women entrepreneurs in all phases of company foundation, consolidation and succession. Alongside information sharing and – in some cases – direct financial support, BGA offers several advisory services including a database of experts who can provide mentorship, support programmes and a hotline for expert advice.120

Mandatory compliance

Under Germany’s Basic Law, women and men are equal and the state must promote gender equality. The Gender Equality Policy ensures equal pay for equal work and promotes pay transparency and women's equal access to leadership positions. Enacted in 2017, the Transparency in Wage Structures Act provides a clear legal basis for the principle of equal pay. Employees are entitled to information on wages, and firms must file reports on gender equality and are required to conduct internal pay reviews.121

The Act on Equal Participation of Women and Men in Leadership Positions in the Private and Public Sectors, enacted in 2016, requires large companies to reserve at least 50% of new board seats for women and (increased from 30%, in 2018). Medium-sized companies are required to set their own gender-balance requirements to increase the proportion of women in management, on supervisory boards and on boards of directors.122

Germany is currently considering a draft law, still to be voted on by the Bundestag (at the time of publication), which would require public companies to have at least one woman and one man on the executive board.


The Climate Action Programme 2030 outlines Germany’s target to cut GHG emissions by 55% of the 1990 level. The programme consists of several concrete steps including rewards for climate-friendly actions, pricing on CO2 emissions in the transport and heating sectors, phasing out coal-fired power stations, increased R&D investment and the National Decarbonisation Programme.123 This is supplemented with a National Hydrogen Strategy.124

Rewards and incentives

The International Climate Initiative (IKI) finances climate action in developing, emerging and transitioning countries through funding provided to Germany-based NGOs, business enterprises, universities and research institutes, among others (EUR 3.9 billion over 2008-19).125 Areas of focus for project funding include mitigating GHG emissions, conserving natural carbon sinks (with a focus on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation [REDD+]), conserving biological diversity and adapting to the impacts of climate change.126

The National Decarbonisation Programme, part of the Climate Action Programme 2030, supports green technology development, demonstration and deployment via grants (EUR 2 billion over 2021-24). It aims to reduce process-related emissions and fossil fuel combustion in “hard-to-abate” sectors.

The programme on CO2 avoidance and use in primary industries (Programm CO2-Vermeidung und -Nutzung in Grundstoff-Industrien) (EUR 0.5 billion over 2021-25), which is also part of the Climate Action Programme 2030,127 aims to further increase the technological readiness level of CO2 capture, storage and utilisation (carbon capture and storage and carbon capture and utilisation) techniques in basic industries. This involves the entire value chain covering CO2 capture, transport and storage.

A pilot programme for Carbon Contracts for Difference, focusing on the steel and chemical industries, is planned as part of the National Hydrogen Strategy published in June 2020 (EUR 0.5 billion for 2021-23). Companies engaging in low-carbon industrial production can sign a contract with the government, which provides insurance against carbon price fluctuations around a reference price (the strike price). If the carbon price is lower than the strike price, the difference will be covered by the government. If the carbon price is higher than the strike price, companies must pay the difference.

As part of the National Hydrogen Strategy and within the context of the Hydrogen for Climate Action Important Project of Common European Interest (IPCEI),128 the German government plans to fund the use of hydrogen in industry as well as the development and production of fuel cell systems (EUR 1.5 billion for the period 2021-26).129

In 2018, the BMWi published the seventh energy research programme under the heading “Innovations for the Energy Transition” (EUR 4.2 billion for project funding for the period 2018-22).

The BMBF developed an SDG-based strategy for Research for Sustainability (Forschung für Nachhaltigkeit) (FONA) in 2005. The fourth Framework Programme (FONA4) will be effective from 2020 to 2024 and has a total budget of EUR 4 billion. The calls for projects specifically target those having to do with green hydrogen, the circular economy, climate protection and the bioeconomy.

The federal support for energy efficiency in the economy (EUR 300 million in 2020) provides grants and loans in four areas: cross-cutting technologies (e.g. electric motors, pumps, fans), process heat from renewable energies, sensor technology and energy management software, and energy-related optimisation of plants and processes. The programme also makes use of a competitive tender, aiming to finance projects with the best cost efficiency (EUR 35 million in 2020).

Smaller programmes also target material efficiency and circularity. Examples include:

  • Technology Transfer Programme Lightweight Construction (TTP LB), EUR 60 million in 2020

  • Resource-efficient Circular Economy (Ressourceneffiziente Kreislaufwirtschaft), EUR 150 million for 2018-23.

The Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) is the German promotional bank. It provided EUR 77 billion of funds in 2019, of which 38% was linked to climate and environmental protection.130 The KfW finances energy-efficiency investments of SMEs through preferential loans and the development of renewable energies.131 It also contributes to the SDGs abroad, with EUR 8.8 billion invested in 2019 for the promotion of development and environmental actions in partner countries, via its KfW Development Bank subsidiary.132

Government assistance

SMEs are offered the support of qualified energy consulting within the framework of the BMWi programme Energy Consulting for SMEs. Consultants audit firms to identify potential strategies for energy savings and create proposals for energy-efficiency measures. The maximum funding amount per audit is EUR 6 000.

Energy Efficiency Networks (EEN) are networks of similar companies that set common energy efficiency and CO2 reduction targets, designed to allow firms to learn from each other. After a successful pilot phase of the EEN concept in 2014, the German government implemented EEN as a main pillar of the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NAPE). There were 282 active networks in 2020. Companies participating in a network must conduct an energy audit and set an energy savings target.

Mandatory compliance

From 2021, a national emission trading system for the built environment and transport will be introduced in Germany based on the Fuel Emissions Trading Act (BEHG) and as part of the Climate Action Programme 2030. The measure will be complementary to the EU ETS.133

An energy tax applies to oil products, natural gas and coal and coke products, at rates differing according to whether the product is used as a transport fuel or for heating and process purposes.134


Society 5.0.135 Society 5.0 is defined as "[a] human-centred society that balances economic advancement with the resolution of social problems by a system that highly integrates cyberspace and physical space." The concept envisions a sustainable, inclusive socio-economic system, powered by digital technologies such as big data analytics, AI, the Internet of Things and robotics.

SDGs Implementation Guiding Principles.136 This tool, under the responsibility of the SDGs Promotion Headquarters of the Government of Japan, lays out the expected actions by local governments in advancing the SDGs. It includes: 1) co-operation with stakeholders both in Japan and overseas; and 2) a registration/ certification system for local business in order to create an Autonomous Virtuous Circle through “SDGs for Regional Revitalisation Finance.” Currently, many regions of Japan are facing issues such as population decline and shrinking regional economies. The initiatives of local governments to achieve the SDGs should contribute to the resolution of these regional challenges.

Rewards and incentives

Japan SDGs Award. Under the Japan SDGs Action Platform, the Government of Japan established the Japan SDGs Award in 2017. The goal of the award is to promote a wide range of actions aimed at sustainable development. Companies, local governments and NGOs/non-profit organisations (NPOs) are eligible to apply. Although there is no prize money, winning organisations benefit from the recognition of their sustainability efforts by a wider audience, and can leverage a broad range of governmental communication channels.

The Subsidy Program for Monodzukuri, Commerce and Services (JPY 1.04 billion for FY2021). This programme supports capital investment for innovative service development, prototype development, and improvement of production processes that SMEs and small businesses are working on.

Government assistance

Promoting ESG investment. In 2016, the Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) formulated guidance for integrated corporate disclosure and company-investor dialogue. For the objective is to foster the creation of collaborative value, to encourage ESG integration into investment policy and to promote non-financial information disclosure. Furthermore, METI published a report and advocated a new concept, “sustainability transformation”, which integrates corporate sustainability (sustainability of corporate business models) and social sustainability (future vision for and sustainability of society).

SDG Management guidelines/toolkit. METI published the Guide for SDG Business Management in 2019 to promote the integration of SDGs into the management strategies of Japanese companies. These guidelines explain the SDG framework to companies and investors, and outline how companies can integrate SDGs into their business management.

Matching seeds to needs:

  • As part of Japan’s Society 5.0, the STI for SDGs Platform aims to connect Japan’s solutions (seeds) with global SDGs issues (needs). The platform seeks to connect Japan’s accumulated knowledge in the realm of science, technology and innovation with needs in other countries (e.g. introduction of an advanced Japanese refrigeration system for improving the cold chain of the fishery industry in another country). The platform also highlights Japanese firms’ SDG actions in foreign countries, and advertises firms’ advanced technologies (seeds) to foreign firms and governments.

  • Moreover, to improve the matching between seeds and needs, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) provides Japanese firms, particularly SMEs, with various programmes to support sustainable business137 in partner countries, such as survey and analysis of foreign needs, feasibility studies (F/S) of technologies and products, and know-how to develop a business model or a proposal.

Support for Overseas Expansion of SMEs by the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). It utilises both local and foreign networks and partnerships with foreign companies, JETRO supports Japanese SMEs’ and start-ups’ overseas development. A variety of support tools are provided according to situation and needs of Japanese companies including offering information about foreign countries business environment, setting booths in exhibits and opportunities to talk with foreign companies followed by after-sales support. These supports are conducted both in-person and online seamlessly. This scheme is related to SDGs 8 and 17. By supporting SMEs, JETRO contributes to the revitalisation of Japan's regional economy, which is suffering from declining population and employment.

JETRO, JICA and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These three entities signed a tripartite partnership agreement to promote SDGs through successful business in Africa. The three signatories have started to offer a platform to respond to the needs of Japanese companies, including SMEs, and to provide seamless support for various business activities ranging from the exploration of business opportunities to the expansion of business, by combining their existing support schemes and networks. The tripartite agreement will contribute to the economic and social development of Africa through support for Japanese companies to expand their operations in Africa. The Japanese government has high expectations for overseas markets amid the changing domestic market environment.

The project-based Regulatory Sandbox system. The Regulatory Sandbox system creates an environment where innovative technologies and business models can be demonstrated without the restrictions of existing regulations while making sure the participants and periods are limited, all to enable data collection for swift validation and regulatory reform. This initiative helps firms contribute to SDG 9.

J-Startup. Start-ups are selected based on their originality, growth potential and mission, in the fields of deep tech, platforms, and SDGs. J-Startup is an initiative to rally public and private resources to support selected start-ups that have a high growth potential. It provides useful information, networking opportunities to the selected start-ups.

Support for F/S and capacity building for quality infrastructure development (JPY 1.74 billion for FY2021). METI supports F/S for overseas infrastructure development projects with priority on digital transformation and carbon neutrality, in accordance with the “Infrastructure System Overseas Promotion Strategy 2025” formulated in December 2020. METI also supports capacity building for local human resources engaged in infrastructure development, utilising remote learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Achievement of Connected Industries. METI aims to achieve Connected Industries that will create new value added and find solutions to various problems in society through connectedness of various facets of modern life, including humans (including our roles as consumers and suppliers), machines, systems, companies.

Kansai SDGs Platform. In response to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Kansai SDGs Platform was established as a body designed to bring together a wide range of stakeholders from the Kansai region, including the private sector, civil society, NPOs, NGOs, universities and research institutions, local administration and government agencies (Secretariats: JICA Kansai, METI-Kansai, Union of Kansai Governments). More than 1 100 organisations are participating in the platform as of January 2021.The Platform has two major objectives: 1) widely publicise the concept of SDGs as well as the importance of the SDGs for the private sector, civil society, NPO/NGOs, universities and research institutions, local administration and government agencies, and the people in the Kansai region; and 2) foster networking and collaboration among all stakeholders in order to accelerate activities in the Kansai region that aim to build a sustainable society and economic activities that generate high social benefits. Many activities related to SDGs are ongoing through events and subcommittees.

Rewards and incentives

Innovation subsidies. The Government of Japan, across ministries, provides various kinds of grants and subsidies for medical and pharmaceutical R&D, such as CiCLE138 (JPY 55 billion for the period 2017-27, led by AMED). These grants are handed out to public research institutions, the private sector and universities. The government aims to put Japan at the forefront of medical technologies and services, and to improve the quality of medical care in other countries.

Government assistance

Overseas Expansion of the Healthcare Industry (JPY 410 million for FY2021). In order to contribute to solving healthcare issues in emerging countries, METI supports the overseas commercialisation of medical or elderly care and healthcare services by Japanese hospitals and companies.

Assistance to firms to develop water infrastructure overseas. METI promotes the following initiatives by providing assistance to firms that develop and expand water infrastructure projects abroad:

  • Support the introduction of Japan’s high-quality facilities of water infrastructure through F/S, public-private missions, policy dialogues with partner countries, and invitation of senior officials.

  • Support project formulation utilising assets of local governments in Japan such as their know-how and strong ties with local governments in partner countries.

  • Strengthen co-operation with public-private platforms.

  • Upgrade and improve procurement systems for infrastructure in each country through an institutional and cross-sectoral approach.

Mandatory compliance

Labour Standards Act and Industrial Safety and Health Act. Enacted on 7 April 1947, the Labour Standards Act governs health and safety requirements, wages, working hours, industrial accident regulations, and the prohibition of child labour. The Industrial Safety and Health Act, in conjunction with the Labour Standards Act, promotes the safety and health of workers.

Rewards and incentives

Eruboshi firms. Based on the Act on Promotion of Female Participation and Career Advancement in the Workplace, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare encourages firms to be certified as eruboshi139 (proactive in the promotion of women’s participation in the workplace). The certification requires submitting information on gender balance at the firm level. Eruboshi firms benefit from practical advantages, such as priority in public procurement, as well as reputational advantages in recruitment and in doing business.

Nadeshiko Brands”. METI and the Tokyo Stock Exchange jointly launched Nadeshiko Brands consisting of selected listed companies that actively promote participation of women on boards and in other important positions. Companies are evaluated on efforts for diversity management and disclosure. Nadeshiko Brands (firms encouraging women’s success in the workplace) labels provide a positive signal for potential investors.

The Best 100 Companies Engaged in Diversity Management. METI grants ministerial awards to outstanding companies that achieve innovation and enhanced productivity through diversity in their labour force. Moreover, among awarded companies, Prime Companies are those that exceed a threshold of female executive share and fulfil other prerequisites regarding diversity promotion.

Government assistance

Assistance for women’s employment. The Government of Japan continuously provides assistance and mentorship for women’s employment and reemployment. Initiatives and programmes, including seminars, job trainings and assistance for job applications, exist at all levels of government, including the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.140

Demonstration Programmes of Support Service for Working Women. METI subsidises demonstration programmes provided by a consortium of “femtech” suppliers, employers, medical institutions and local governments, to help female employees reconcile their career and life events such as pregnancy. It aims to contribute to enhancing women’s well-being as well as increase diversity in the workplace.

Mandatory compliance

Equal pay policies. The Labour Standards Act requires equal pay for equal work across genders. Employers must ensure equal pay without discrimination based on the type of employment contract. In addition, the Act on Improvement of Employment Management for Part-Time Workers was revised to prohibit unreasonable treatment gaps between part-time or fixed-term workers and regular employees in the same company. This revision entered into force in April 2020 and is effective from April 2021 onwards for SMEs. Although this law is not directly linked to gender equality, given the high share of women among non-regular workers, it aims to also contribute to reducing the gender pay gap.


Carbon neutrality objective and initiatives. In 2020, the Prime Minister of Japan set the goal of carbon neutrality at the national level by 2050. In addition, at the regional and local government levels, the Ministry of the Environment co-ordinates the “2050 Zero Carbon Cities in Japan” initiative,141 under which 163 local governments (as of 20 October 2020) including Tokyo, Kyoto, and Yokohama announced their commitment to net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. These local governments already represent 58% of Japan's population, and the list of participants is expanding. This initiative involves many stakeholders, including local firms. It aims to increase firms’ awareness of climate action and encourage their contributions to the goal by providing a long-term objective to plan and finance sustainability investment.

Environment Innovation Strategy. The Government of Japan provides various subsidies and research grants under the Environment Innovation Strategy142 (JPY 289 billion for FY2020) across many sectors for green innovation, such as renewable energies and decarbonisation technologies:

  • Renewable energy as the main power source. The aim is to make renewable energy the main power source by improving the productive and cost efficiency of photovoltaic systems with innovative materials and structures.

  • Promotion of energy efficiency. METI supports the installation of advanced energy-efficient technologies in factories and buildings. The total budget of “Renewable energy as the main power source” and “Promotion of energy efficiency” is JPY 210.5 billion for FY2021.

  • Accelerating the realisation of a hydrogen society (JPY 74.4 billion for FY2021). METI supports the construction of a consistent supply chain for hydrogen production, transportation/storage, and utilisation.

  • Development of Technology and Assessment Techniques for Next-Generation Refrigerants with a Low Global Warming Potential (JPY 650 million for FY2021). The goal of this project is to set up a development infrastructure for green and other next-generation refrigerants as well as for equipment using these refrigerants. The project involves R&D aimed at establishing safety and risk assessment methods for refrigerants and the corresponding equipment, in particular household air conditioning devices. This project also aims at the diffusion of next-generation refrigerants and the corresponding refrigeration/air conditioning equipment.

  • Research, Development and Demonstration Project for Carbon Capture Usage and Storage (CCUS) (JPY 6.03 billion for FY2021). Japan is implementing large-scale CCUS demonstration projects. In November 2019, the initial target of 300 000 tonnes of carbon injection was achieved, and the domestic CCUS technology was widely used. A number of R&D projects have been carried out for cost reductions and safety improvements, evaluations of environmental impacts due to the CO2 capture process, and geological surveys to identify potential CO2 offshore storage sites in Japan.

  • Promotion of CCUS/Carbon Recycling (JPY 45.3 billion for FY2021). This scheme provides R&D to develop a special type of concrete that absorbs CO2 (developing technologies to produce reinforced concrete products and reduce its cost). Depending on the product application, the support aims to have the new product be the same cost as the conventional product by 2030.

Rewards and incentives

Green public procurement.143 The Ministry of Environment has led the green public procurement initiative since 2002. All governmental organisations are required by law to prepare green procurement policies.

J-Credit Scheme. The Government of Japan runs the J-Credit Scheme144 to certify GHG emissions reductions through energy-saving investments, and provide compensation for land use change. Launched in 2016, the scheme is voluntary. Firms can easily advertise the amount of J-credits they obtained on their website and on their sustainability report.

International deployment of low-carbon and decarbonising technologies through the Joint Credit Mechanism (JCM). Implementation of F/S and demonstration projects in order to utilise the JCM. The JCM introduces low-carbon or decarbonising technologies to developing countries, quantitatively evaluates Japan’s contribution to GHG emission reductions or capture and deduct it from Japan’s emission reduction target.

Loan Insurance for Green Innovation. The Nippon Export and Investment Insurance, a government-owned insurance company, has launched Loan Insurance for Green Innovation in 2019 with an increased commercial risk coverage rate of 97.5%. Loans to projects in the field of environmental protection/climate change prevention are eligible for this insurance.

Promotion of international open innovation in the field of clean energy (JPY 12.46 billion for FY2021). METI launched a funding programme for Japanese research institutions, including consortia of private companies, to fund the joint R&D with foreign research institutions in the field of clean energy. Taking into account the trend towards digitalisation in energy and smart city development, METI provides support through capacity building programmes, and promotes international demonstration projects and standardisation of Japan’s advanced technologies and systems including renewable energy grid stabilisation, mobility (e.g. Mobility as a Service), energy management (e.g. storage batteries), and hydrogen.

Innovation for the development of and conversion to plastic substitutes (JPY 1.2 billion for FY2021). In order to solve the problem of marine plastic litter, METI supports the development of and conversion to plastic substitutes and encourages innovation in technologies and consumer lifestyles.

Safety restart of nuclear power plants and promotion of nuclear innovations (JPY 131.4 billion for FY2021). This project has three main areas. First, development of innovative nuclear reactors such as fast reactors and small modular reactors through co-operation with France and the United States. Second, strengthening of industrial foundations through support to essential suppliers of the sustainable nuclear industry. Third, steady support of nuclear host municipalities (development of regional resources considered with situations of host municipalities).

Contribution to the realisation of new daily life (JPY 114.6 billion for FY2021). This project supports the implementation of a small-scale, self-sustaining power system network (regional microgrid) that contributes to regional decentralisation and true local power production for local consumption (several dozen locations nationwide). It demonstrates control technology for utilising regional distributed power sources such as storage batteries for supply and demand adjustment of a wider regional grid.

Government assistance

Promoting disclosure of the climate-related information based on the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). The Government of Japan supports the use and further advancement of the framework led by the TCFD, which was set up by the Financial Stability Board (FSB), to promote disclosure of climate-related risks and opportunities for companies and investors. Japan launched the TCFD Summit in 2019 to raise awareness and to facilitate discussions of climate-related disclosure both in Japan and the world. It was followed by a second Summit in October 2020.

Promotion of Green Infrastructure. Green Infrastructure (GI) is defined as “sustainable and attractive community building, using the diverse functions of the natural environment in both a tangible and intangible aspect of the infrastructure and land use”. In March 2020, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) launched the Green Infrastructure Public-Private Partnership Platform, gathering multiple stakeholders such as national and local governments, private companies, research institutes, NPOs and private citizens. This Platform is promoting the concept of GI among society, including through research techniques and financial methods. In addition, MLIT provides financial and technical support to multiple stakeholders (e.g. local governments, private companies).

Support for the development of environmentally friendly public transportation systems. Based on the "Infrastructure System Export Strategy", MLIT will support the development of public transportation systems, such as urban railways and public bus service networks in foreign countries to contribute to the upgrading of transportation means, the alleviation of serious traffic congestion, and the reduction of CO2 emission in those countries.

Project to Promote the Advanced Utilisation of Recyclable Resources as part of Strengthening the Integration of the Recycling System. This project aims to maximise the effective use of Japan's resources, in particular the so-called “urban mines”, and to promote common efforts in areas where efficiency and high value added can be achieved across sectors by taking advantage of recycling systems (e.g. home appliances, construction, automobiles, small home appliances).

Promotion of Cleaner Energy Future Initiative for ASEAN (CEFIA). The co-operative initiative named CEFIA was created at the 16th ASEAN+3 Meeting of Energy Ministers in Bangkok in September 2019, as a platform to facilitate collaboration between the public and private sectors to accelerate the deployment of cleaner energy and low-carbon technology in the ASEAN region. The objective of CEFIA is to promote “business driven dissemination” of cleaner energy and low-carbon technologies in parallel with policy development.

Disaster risk management for firms. Japan’s Cabinet office provides guidelines to help firms draft their own business continuity and resiliency plans. It contributes to mitigating disaster risks for firms and employees, improving post-disaster business resilience and harmonising business continuity planning along supply chains. This scheme supports firms in achieving the SDG Target 13.1 “Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries”.


The National Council for Sustainable Development, in collaboration with other ministries and stakeholders, developed Korean-tailored SDGs (K-SDGs). The K-SDGs outline five overarching objectives including: 1) creating an inclusive society; 2) preserving a clean environment for all generations; 3) ensuring economic growth that improves quality of life; 4) protecting human rights; and 5) building inter-Korean peace and global co-operation. The K-SDGs website provides educational and networking materials.145 The National Council for Sustainable Development also promotes the performance of individual enterprises in the relevant field by showcasing successful firms and their contributions for sustainable development on the K-SDGs website.146

As a response to COVID-19, the government has developed the Korean New Deal, which addresses economic, environmental and social reform. Through the areas of the Digital New Deal and the Green New Deal, the strategy aims to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic and also foster the digital and green transformations.147 The Green New Deal pillar includes green innovation-related investments.

Rewards and incentives

The Research Investment for Global Health Technology Fund (RIGHT Fund) was created in 2018 to support global health R&D. It is a partnership between the Government of Korea, Korean life science companies, and international funder (including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). The RIGHT Fund serves as a platform for Korean industry to increase its contribution to global health, and advance discovery and development of new health technologies that meet the needs of low- and middle-income countries. The RIGHT Fund aims to cover up to 50% of the total project costs, in order to share the risk of developing products for public health. Current projects include COVID-19 diagnostic tests and vaccines.148

Mandatory compliance

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of Korea (1990) established standards on occupational safety and health, clarified the responsibilities of firms and outlined detailed requirements for documenting safety. In 2019, the Act was amended to increase penalties for infringement and expand employer obligations to include contract employees. The Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) regulates companies through the Safety & Health Check and evaluates safety and health management systems for the KOSHA 18001 Certification. KOSHA also provides technical support, training programmes, and continuous R&D for workplace safety and health. KOSHA now also provides resources on COVID-19 prevention measures.149

Government assistance

The Ministry of Gender Equality and Family facilitates professional and job-specific mentorship for women. The Ministry also facilitates educational programmes for managers to promote women into leadership positions.150

Mandatory compliance

Under Korea’s Equal Employment Opportunity and Work-Family Balance Assistance Act, employers must provide equal pay for equal-value work. Further, employers failing to meet established industry-level equality standards are required to report their gender pay gap status and plans to improve it to the Minister of Employment and Labour.151


The National Strategy for Green Growth (2009-50) provides a comprehensive policy framework that addresses: 1) the mitigation of climate change and energy independence; 2) the creation of new engines for economic growth; and 3) improvement in quality of life and enhanced international standing. There are ten policy directions within the objectives that range from mitigation of GHG emissions to becoming a leading exporter in the area of green research and technology.152

Government assistance

Established in 2010, the Framework Act on Low Carbon and Green Growth (LCGG Act) co-ordinates policies on climate change, green growth and sustainable development. In accordance with the LCGG Act, the Ministry of Environment establishes a new sustainable development plan every five years. The LCGG also provided the framework for the Sustainable Development Act, which aims to ensure that present and future generations have a high quality of life and that international sustainable development is sought.153 Through this act, Korea is embedding the SDGs into its legislative framework for domestic policies (OECD, 2018[2]).

The Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) created the Growth Hub for the Environmental Industry, which supports companies in expanding their domestic and international business on environmental technologies. KEITI also provides technology and policy information, and financial support for companies to register eco-label products. It also organises an award for outstanding environmental companies, allowing those recognised to access financial, export, human resources and marketing support.154

Mandatory compliance

In 2012, Korea passed the Act on Allocation and Trading of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowances, and in 2015 a mandatory system for CO2 emissions was established. The Korea Emissions Trading Scheme (KETS) is East Asia’s first countrywide mandatory ETS and the second largest system in scale following the EU ETS. A total number of emission credits are determined and allowances are allocated to companies. The system plays an essential role in achieving GHG reduction targets, including a 2030 nationally determined contribution target of 37% below business-as-usual emissions. The market covers 610 of the country’s largest emitters.155 Some changes to the system are expected in 2021, including allowing third parties, such as financial investment companies and private investors, to participate in the trading scheme.


Industry Transformation Plans (ITPs) involve working in partnerships between government, business, workers and Māori to develop long-term plans for key sectors. These sectors are: Agritech, Advanced Manufacturing, Digital Technologies, Food and Beverage, Forestry and Wood Processing, and Construction. The overarching aims of ITPs are to help drive the New Zealand economy towards increasing productivity and be more sustainable and inclusive by 2050. The principles guiding the development of ITPs share similarities with the SDG principles, including partnerships, sustainability and creating decent work with good wages and working conditions.

Rewards and incentives

The National Science Challenges:156 The National Science Challenges programme invests in 11 grand challenges, including land and water and sustainable seas (investment of NZD 680 million for 2014-24).

Government assistance

The Business of Human Rights: A guide for good corporate citizens (Human Rights Commission, 2016[3])” gives a broad introduction to human rights, their relevance for businesses, and how they can increase opportunities for firms.

Rewards and incentives

The Health Research Council of New Zealand157 provides grants and other types of funding to health research projects that apply to the Council. The aim is to improve New Zealanders’ health and quality of life by investing in a broad range of health-related research.

Mandatory compliance

The Health and Safety at Work Act 2015 governs how businesses manage work-related risks that could cause serious injury, illness or even death. It requires businesses to proactively engage with workers and enable businesses to manage health and safety risks of workers.

Rewards and incentives

The Enabling Māori Framework (EMF) is a NZD 6.5 million fund to facilitate Māori economic development within the scope of New Zealand’s ITPs, in line with He Kai Kei Aku Ringa (the Crown-Māori Economic Development Strategy) and New Zealand’s Industry Strategy. The focus areas for the EMF in Financial Year 2020/2021 are digital technologies, construction and agritech.

A number of initiatives also directly target the Māori community and its business potential. For instance, three initiatives that directly support Māori entrepreneurs and innovators are the Māori Innovation Fund (NZD 3 million per year), the Māori Innovation Hub, and a business accelerator called Kokiri.158

Mandatory compliance

The Equal Pay Act 1972 and Equal Pay Amendment Act 2020 are the legal requirements governing gender pay equality. Employers cannot refuse to offer the same terms of employment based on sex. The Amendment Act 2020 improves the process of pay equity claims and prevents discrimination on the basis of sex in remuneration and employment terms.

The Domestic Violence Victim's Protection Act159 is a legal protection in the workplace for people affected by domestic violence. Employees affected by domestic violence have the right to take at least ten days of paid domestic violence leave, ask for short-term flexible working arrangements, and cannot be treated adversely in the workplace because of domestic violence.

Rewards and incentives

The New Zealand Green Investment Fund Ltd160 was established as part of the government’s commitment to addressing climate change, and to support New Zealand’s goal of achieving a net-zero-emissions economy by 2050. Its objective is to accelerate low-emissions investment in New Zealand. It received a NZD 100 million capital injection from the government but operates independently.

Established in 2000, the Sustainable Farming Fund (SFF)161 has supported more than 1 000 sustainability projects – tackling issues like land management and climate change – through NZD 150 million of investment.

Led by Callaghan Innovation, New Zealand’s innovation agency, the C-Prize162 is a call for innovations addressing grand societal challenges. The 2019/20 round focused on environmental issues.

Established in November 2020, the NZD 70 million Government Investment in Decarbonising Industry (GIDI)163 fund aims to accelerate the decarbonisation of industrial process heat. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority administers the fund.

The Low Emission Vehicles Contestable Fund164 offers NZD 6.5 million a year to projects that will accelerate the uptake of electric vehicles and other low-emissions vehicles. Projects are co-funded with private and public sector partners.

The Bioresource Processing Alliance (BPA),165 funded by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, is a platform for firms and organisations involved in agricultural bioprocessing. The BPA invests NZD 2.4 million per annum in R&D projects with external research partners to increase export revenue through innovative, technical and industrial development.

Government assistance

The Ministry for the Environment166 provides a web platform (Government’s Transition Hub) to provide access to resources for firms to tackle climate change, and demonstrate examples of what firms are already doing. In July 2020 the government established a national new energy centre in Taranaki, called Ara Ake.167 It focusses on future energy development and will collaborate across New Zealand’s energy system to lead and facilitate development of low-emissions energy innovation and technology.

Mandatory compliance

The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS)168 puts a price on GHG emissions. This creates a financial incentive for businesses to reduce their emissions and gives landowners the ability to earn money through actions like planting trees to absorb CO2. Landowners get “units” for CO2 that is absorbed by their trees, which they can sell on the NZ ETS market. Businesses determined to have “surrender obligations” (legal obligations to hand over units) must then purchase enough units to balance their emissions.


[1] FAO (2000), “Fisheries management. 1. Conservation and management of sharks”, FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, No. 4, Suppl.1, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome,

[3] Human Rights Commission (2016), “The business of human rights: A guide for good corporate citizens”,

[2] OECD (2018), “OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Korea 2018”, OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris,


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