Annex 3D. Source, methodology and technical notes for Chapter D

This indicator was not included in Education at a Glance 2022.

This indicator was not included in Education at a Glance 2022.

Data on salaries of teachers and school heads refer to salaries of full-time teachers and school heads in public institutions. The indicator presents both statutory salaries and actual salaries of teachers as well as information on criteria for additional allowances in public institutions.

Annual salaries are provided in national currencies, and these data are converted into USD using purchasing power parities (PPPs) for private consumption from the OECD National Accounts database.

Information on the participation in the subnational data collection on salaries of teachers is available in Table X3.D3.2 (https://stat.link/vub723).

Northern Ireland: Northern Ireland announced on the 28 April 2020 that an agreement had been reached to resolve the long running industrial dispute of teachers’ pay and workload. The agreement gives effect to a pay award for all teachers in Northern Ireland of 2.25% from September 2017 and an additional 2% payable from September 2018. This means teachers will receive the pay increase backdated until September 2017 under the deal (https://www.education-ni.gov.uk/news/formal-agreement-teachers-pay-and-workload).

Statutory salary figures in Education at a Glance 2022 refer to Northern Ireland salaries before the 2020 announcement to provide a backdated pay increase for years 2017/18 and 2018/19.

Northern Ireland: Northern Ireland announced on the 28 April 2020 that an agreement had been reached to resolve the long running industrial dispute of teachers’ pay and workload. The agreement gives effect to a pay award for all teachers in Northern Ireland of 2.25% from September 2017 and an additional 2% payable from September 2018. This means teachers will receive the pay increase backdated until September 2017 under the deal (https://www.education-ni.gov.uk/news/formal-agreement-teachers-pay-and-workload).

Actual salary figures in Education at a Glance 2022 refer to Northern Ireland salaries before the 2020 announcement to provide a backdated pay increase for years 2017/18 and 2018/19.

Statutory salaries of teachers: salaries are presented for specific qualifications levels of teachers:

  • The minimum qualification to enter the teaching profession at a level of education,

  • The most prevalent qualification at a given level of education,

  • The most prevalent qualification at different points in teachers’ careers

  • The maximum level of qualification at a given level of education.

Please note that most prevalent qualifications may differ between the different stages of the career, and salaries are displayed in table D3.1 for most prevalent qualification at each stage of the career. For information on minimum, most prevalent and maximum qualification of teachers by level of education, see Table X3.D3.3 (https://stat.link/vub723).

For countries with different salary ranges and providing weighted averages for statutory salaries, the different salary scales are presented in Table X3.D3.4 (https://stat.link/vub723).

Social security and pension scheme contributions: Statutory salaries reported in the indicator must exclude the part of social security and pension scheme contributions paid by the employers and must include the part of social security and pension scheme contributions paid by the employees.

For information on whether statutory salaries include or exclude social security and pension scheme contribution, see Table X3.D3.5 (https://stat.link/vub723).

Australia:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Weighted average of data from reporting jurisdictions (government schools in the 5 largest jurisdictions). The weighting is based on the number government teaching staff in each of the jurisdictions. Australia does not have a national data collection on teacher salaries or school curriculum. Instead, the survey is sent out to all of the states and territories, with the results weighted to derive a national response. As such, the data from Australia should be seen as indicative only and comparisons between years should only be made with caution.

Notes on interpretation: The consensus may not reflect practice in some jurisdictions. These data may vary from year to year based on the jurisdictions that provide information. It includes government schools and preschools, while excluding early childhood educational programmes delivered in long day-care centres. The reported average minimum number of years to reach the top range is subject to the satisfactory performance of teachers’ duties. There is a hard barrier to reach the level of "Highly Accomplished Teacher" (top of the salary scale of the Standards Based Remuneration). To progress for this level the Teacher Accreditation authority must confirm "Highly Accomplished" accreditation. Teachers cannot reach this level prior to having completed certain years of teaching (depending on the requirement of the jurisdictions).

Caution should be used in interpreting national figures as practices vary from region to region.

Australia has no maximum qualification for being a teacher associated with a particular salary range. Only a minimum of four years of tertiary study that included a teaching qualification in primary, secondary or K-12 teaching (ISCED 6) is the qualification requirement.

Explanatory notes on decision making authority: Salaries are determined by an industrial Award, that is, the Crown Employees (Teachers in Schools and Related Employees) Salaries and Conditions Award. Bargaining parameters are approved and set by the Government Treasury. The Industrial Award itself is negotiated between the Department of Education and the Teachers' Federation.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: The minimum qualification of a teacher is also the most prevalent qualification.

Explanatory notes: (1) Salaries are determined by an industrial Award [that is, the Crown Employees (Teachers in Schools and Related Employees) Salaries and Conditions Award]. Bargaining parameters are approved and set by the Government Treasury. (6) The Industrial Award itself is negotiated between the Department of Education and the Teachers' Federation.

Austria:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Figures for the school year 2020/2021 refer to weighted means of the 2020 and 2021 salaries (4 months with the 2020 rate and 8 for the 2021 rate). Levels of compensation differ on the basis of the teacher´s remuneration scheme (new payment scheme for teachers recruited as of 2019/2020). Therefore, weighted means were determined for the respective ISCED-levels using the distribution of teachers according to the remuneration schemes.

ISCED 02: In Austria, the large majority of pre-primary education takes place at kindergartens. The remaining minority of pre-primary schools are not an independent entity but integrated into the schools at ISCED 1. There is no difference in any teacher-related matter between these two levels (working time, salaries etc.). Since the data of those teachers are not representative for ISCED 02 and there are no data available for kindergarten teachers this data is not included.

ISCED 34: At ISCED 34, the weighted means for statutory salaries of teachers include the salaries of teachers teaching in vocational programmes, in addition to those teaching in general programmes. In Austria, a large part of upper secondary programmes is oriented towards vocational education and training, comprising more than half of the students at age 15. In addition to this, due to the system characteristics, information on teachers is collected at two levels of administration: federal and provincial. While the federal schools are administered by the federal ministry and teachers there are federal employees, provincial schools are administered on the provincial level and teachers there are state provincial employees. Data delivered to the federal ministry provided by the provincial government includes salary data on all teachers within the scope of their responsibility and these data cannot be split by orientation of the programme.

Notes on interpretation: comments on qualifications of teachers: In Austria, there are various attainment levels that qualify a person to work as a teacher. Salaries are determined according to their attainment. Therefore, various salary scales apply to them. The salary data reported is therefore an average composed of various groups of teachers.

Basically, there are 6 different federal laws for teachers, except for pre-primary teachers.

Levels of compensation differ on the basis of the teacher´s remuneration group. To obtain reasonable figures, weighted means were determined for the respective ISCED-levels using the distribution of teachers on the existing remuneration groups. As of 2019/20, teachers who enter the teaching profession for the first time are compulsorily employed under the new payment scheme (implemented in 2015). Teachers who entered the educational system before 2019/20 under the old payment scheme will remain there until they retire. So for the next decades the old and new payment scheme will exist simultaneously.

Explanatory notes on decision making authority: The statutory salaries are country-wide determined by law.

Explanatory notes: The provinces have the responsibility for ECEC provision in Austria. There is no federal statistic that contains information about actual or statutory salaries. Statutory salaries can be found in provincial law for some provinces but there is no systematic overview for the whole of Austria. For the salaries of kindergarten teachers who are in an employment relationship with the federal provinces it is not possible to make any general statements. For the employment relationships (duration, contract type, (in)definite term) it is not possible to make a general statement about the occupational field of early childhood education. The respective legal requirements of provincial kindergartens are set out in the provincial kindergarten laws. The legal requirements for kindergarten teachers in private establishments are regulated by provisions in collective agreements. The minimum qualification for kindergarten teachers in general is a specialist training, good repute and extract from police records and suitable health documented by a medical certificate.

Comments on social benefits of teacher: Teachers in Austria are interpreted as all workers, including civil/public and private sector workers, therefor there is no difference when answering according to the different reference groups.

Comments on qualifications:

(Pre-primary) Primary teachers teaching in ‘pre-school classes’ were reported in primary schools at ISCED 0 in previous years. However, this practice has been abandoned because the information led to severe misinterpretations by users of the EAG data. These teachers are primary school teachers who are not different from other primary school teachers except the fact that the programme that they teach in is located at ISCED02.

(Primary) The bachelor is the minimum requirement, but within 5 years from the start of the employment teachers have to attain a master degree otherwise their employment ends. Attaining the master degree has no influence on the salary level. It is a criterion for the continuation of the employment and for this reason a minimum qualification for teachers who have been in service for 5 years or longer.

(Lower and upper secondary) The bachelor is the minimum requirement, but within 5 years from the start of the employment teachers have to attain a master degree. Otherwise, their employment ends. Attaining the master degree has no influence on the salary level. It is a criterion for the continuation of the employment and for this reason a minimum qualification for teachers who have been in service for 5 years or longer.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Notes on coverage and methodology: In this questionnaire, the required qualifications are taken into account. In the Flemish Community, there is also sufficient qualifications and other qualifications. Mostly, the pay scales of these do not differ from these of the required qualifications and mostly, the sufficient qualifications differ from the required qualifications on the fact that in secondary education, they don't need a formation in the specific content of the subject. For instance, for teaching mathematics in the third stage of secondary education a required qualification is a master in mathematics with certificate of teaching competence and a sufficient qualification is for instance a master in languages with certificate of teaching competence.

Government-dependent private schools are included.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Statutory salaries as mentioned include end-of-year bonus and holiday bonus.

Notes on interpretation: For the calculation of the 'Proportion of teachers paid according to this salary range' full time and part time teachers are taken into account.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: Teachers in pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education need a bachelor’s degree. It should be taken into account that the teachers with a bachelor's degree at lower secondary education have also a subject-related requirement. The training at ISCED 6 includes pedagogical training at the basic training as well. Teachers in the first two years (first stage) of upper secondary education are at minimum required to have a Bachelor of education: secondary education and at maximum a Master in the specified content of the course and a certificate of teaching competence. Teachers in the last two years (second stage) of upper secondary education are required to have a Master in the specified content of the course and a certificate of teaching competence.

Belgium (French Community):

Notes on coverage and methodology: Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries. Statutory salaries as mentioned include end of year bonus and holiday bonus.

  • End of the year bonus = EUR 746.31 + (base salary x 2.5%)

  • Holiday bonus = Gross salary x 70% x 86.93%

Government-dependent private schools are included.

Notes on interpretation: Comments on qualification of teachers: Teachers with “most prevalent qualifications” are teachers that hold a required title within a series of possible diplomas (e.g. Instituteur, “AESI: agrégation de l’enseignement secondaire inférieur” – lower secondary school teacher degree, “AESS: agrégation de l’enseignement secondaire supérieur” – upper secondary school teacher degree).

Most teachers have a required qualification, though sufficient qualifications also exist. Teachers in pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education need a bachelor’s degree, which is a sufficient qualification if it is not a specific bachelor’s degree. Then, teachers with “Minimum level of training” do not have the required title, but the sufficient one, whereas teachers with the following certificates [Pre-primary Teacher Bachelor degree (ISCED 6), Primary Teacher Bachelor degree (ISCED 6), and Bachelor degree (ISCED 6) + Lower secondary teaching diploma (AESI = Agrégation de l’enseignement secondaire inférieur)] have the required title. Teachers with “maximum qualifications” hold a required title and a master’s degree for primary school teachers and AESI.

Comments on social benefits of teachers: It has not to be interpreted as including all workers as “civil/public and private workers”. The calculation of the pension of a teacher (as a public servant) follows specific rules given that a teacher is part of both the public sector and the education sector.

Brazil:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The figures are based on the national wage floor of BRL 2 577.74 and include the 13th salary as well as the one-third vacation bonus. The National Law on the Teacher's Salary Floor n. 11,738.16 / 07/2008, establishes the national minimum salary for basic education teachers working in public schools, with minimum ISCED 3 (aimed at teacher training: "Normal/Magistério") and a workload of, at most, 40 hours per week. The teacher's salary floor does not distinguish the level of qualification of teachers.

In Brazil, it is the responsibility of the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, together with their respective educational systems, to ensure the approval of statutes and career plans for teachers in the public sector. However, there is a minimum national salary for teachers working in public schools. Starting salaries provided is the legal minimum teacher salary. As a consequence, the actual average statutory starting salary for teachers in Brazil is probably higher.

Notes on interpretation: Starting salary is calculated based on the teacher's salary floor established by law, for basic education teachers working in public schools with minimum ISCED 3 training, in the "Normal" modality and a workload of, at most, 40 (forty) hours per week. In 2019 it corresponds to the monthly amount of BRL 2 557.74, plus the 13th salary and the third vacation bonus.

Explanatory notes on decision making authority: Comments on qualifications of teachers: Brazil has a decentralised system, each one of the 26 states, the federal district and more than 5 thousand municipalities has their own teachers career plan. Many of them have a structured qualification scheme, while others do not. The salaries can be determined by central government, regional authorities or local authorities, depending of which school network is the teacher working for. However, there is a minimum national salary for teachers working in public schools.

Canada:

Notes on coverage and methodology:

The methodology for calculating the Canada-level response for quantitative indicators uses two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response:

  1. 1. At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide a response, and

  2. 2. Reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

Like the quantitative methodology, the qualitative methodology for calculating the Canada-level response is to use two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response.

  1. 1. At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide the same response, and

  2. 2. That the reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

If the two criteria above are met, the Canada-level average is weighted by the number of full-time student enrolments (from combined elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary levels) for all jurisdictions who submitted figures for the 2021 joint Eurydice-OECD salaries of teachers and school heads data collection survey.

Notes on interpretation: Data reported are not necessarily representative of all of Canada, but only of the Canadian provinces and territories that took part in the data collection. Where cells are left blank, there was not enough consensus amongst provinces and territories to develop a pan-Canadian response.

Many different collective agreements are used to determine salaries across jurisdictions. For the majority of provinces and territories, salaries are negotiated through a collective bargaining process between the provincial/territorial government, teachers' associations, and education boards/districts. These agreements are typically valid for a 2–5-year period and are then renegotiated through a formal process.

Colombia:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Data on salaries correspond to the regulated by the statute teacher 1278 / 2002 and do not include or additional bonuses or compensation.

The salaries do not include social security paid by the employer. Data on percentage of teachers are obtained from the Information System SINEB and corresponds to the participation of teachers with respect to the total of the corresponding educational level. Only classroom teachers from statute 1278 are taken into account (there is a prior statute, 2277 of 1979, and those teachers who entered when that statute was in place, still work according to it).

The teaching experience is counted from the date of recruitment in the public sector.

Notes on interpretation: For this report we used information regulated in the Statutory Teacher Compensation 1278 of 2002 considering that the new entrants in the public sector is governed by this statute Therefore, the percentages are measured in relation to this scale.

It is important to mention that under this scale a teacher can reach the highest salary in 9 years since it depends on the qualification and skills assessments, so the qualification has a great weight to reach the top salary. In some cases, the salary of 10 years is equal to the 15 years.

Notes on qualifications:

(Pre-primary and primary) Teachers must overcome the merit contest for entry into the teaching career.

(Lower secondary) The teachers must overcome the merit contest for the teaching career. Professionals with different degrees than a bachelor's degree in education must prove that they have completed or have completed a postgraduate degree in education, or that they have completed a programme in pedagogy.

(Upper secondary) In Colombia, teachers in secondary education can teach indistinctly for ISCED 24 and ISCED 34 levels. So we cannot differentiate between the two levels. The percentage applied for ISCED 24 applies for both.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Christmas bonus, service bonus and holiday bonus.

Costa Rica:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The wage categories (salary scales) are dependent on the level of training of the individual, and although there are several categories within a wage class, an individual can enter directly into the highest wage category, since the only requirement is a relevant academic qualification. This means that the salary scale is not a ladder that each teacher must cross to ascend during their teaching career. Teachers can directly be placed in the highest category of their professional group. In addition to the base salary, which is dependent on the level of qualification, teachers are paid based on the years of service. Therefore, for each salary scale, starting salary are calculated without years of experience and the salary at the top of the scales are calculated with 30 years of experience.

Notes on interpretation: Comments on qualifications of teachers: In Costa Rica teachers enter the teaching profession within one of three different categories: Qualified teachers; Authorised teachers and Aspiring teachers. Qualified and Authorised teachers are further classified into additional sub-categories, again related to their level of qualification. Since the majority of teachers enter into the highest category (that of qualified teachers) the data provided for most prevalent and maximum qualifications are the same. Each sub-group within this classification has an associated base salary. This base, plus the annual increase (equivalent to 2% of base salary per year of service), and the teaching incentive are the only elements of pay common to all teachers and the statutory amounts reported relate to these elements only.

The wage categories are dependent on the level of training of the individual, and although there are several categories within a wage class, it is important to keep in mind that an individual can enter directly into the highest wage category, since the only thing you need to complete is an academic requirement. This means that the salary scale is not a ladder that each teacher must cross to ascend in their teaching profession, but directly can be placed in the highest category of their professional group.

Explanatory notes on minimum qualifications: For all purposes related to this law (Statute of Civil Service), the Teaching Staff, according to their academic preparation and personal history, are classified as: Qualified teachers; Authorised teachers and Aspiring teachers. Authorised teachers are those who, without having a degree or specific degree for the position they hold, have others who are related, as determined, for each case, in this law. In this case, we are taking the category called MAU1 for (lower and upper) secondary.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: salaries include: 13th month, school salary or 14th month, and educational incentive (8.33% of the salary).

Czech Republic:

In January 2020 the salaries of public service employees increased. Due to this the statutory salaries of teachers were increased by 8%. There was also an increase of 10% (statutory part) + 5% (allowances and additional payments part) from January 2019. This is shown in all data on actual salaries as this data are reported with a one-year delay.

Notes on coverage and methodology: The annual gross statutory salary is calculated combining two different salary tables from the Government Regulation on Pay Terms of Employees in Public Services and Administration: one valid from September 2020 to December 2020 (4 months in school year 2020/2021) and the second from January 2021 to August 2021 (8 months in school year 2020/2021). Salary tables consist of 6 pay categories (8th-10th for pre-primary teachers, 11th-13th for primary and secondary teachers) depending on complexity, responsibility and demandingness of the work they perform, and 7 pay grades according to the length of professional experience (0-2 years, 2-6 years, 6-12 years, 12-19 years, 19-27 years, 27-32 years, 32+ years). Teachers are placed to the 10th pay category (pre-primary teachers) and to the 13th pay category (primary and secondary teachers) only on exceptional circumstances (usually school counsellors with completed prescribed qualification). The reported statutory salaries are estimates combining the salary tables with data on number of teachers in each pay category and pay grade according to the database ISS 2019 and ISS 2020 (reference year 2019/20).

Notes on interpretation: A special salary scale system is established for education staff. In addition to teachers and school head, the education staff also includes SEN specialists, educational childcare staff, teacher's assistants, school psychologists and other professionals.

Salary scale system designed for teachers consists of 6 salary categories (8th-10th for pre-primary teachers, 11th-13th for primary and secondary teachers) depending on complexity, responsibility and demandingness of the work they perform and 7 salary grades according to the length of professional experience (0-2 years, 2-6 years, 6-12 years, 12-19 years, 19-27 years, 27-32 years, 32+ years). Teachers are assigned in 10th (for pre-primary teachers) and 13th salary category (for primary and secondary teachers) only on exceptional circumstances, predominantly if they work as school counsellors. The salary scales do not allow pay advancement by gaining further qualifications, with the exception of school counsellor and education management staff. To perform these roles, it is required by law to have completed the prescribed in-service training. After its completion, the school head may delegate duties to the teacher which entitle him / her to a higher salary category (at the basic and upper secondary schools from 12th to 13th pay category). Some other additional responsibilities of teachers are paid by the system of allowances (for example class teachers, teachers responsible for coordination in the area of ICT, prevention of social-risky behaviour and some others).

Qualification of teachers follow the Act on Education Staff:

  1. 1. Pre-primary teachers at nursery schools (ISCED 02) most often obtain their qualification in four-year secondary school programmes completed with the school leaving examination in a field aimed specially at pre-primary school teacher training (ISCED 354) or in shortened study programmes completed with the school-leaving examination (ISCED 354) and at tertiary level (ISCED 6 or 7).

  2. 2. Primary teachers (ISCED 1) are required to have a Master’s degree (ISCED 746 or 747).

  3. 3. Teachers of general subjects at secondary levels (ISCED 24, 34) are required to have a Master’s degree (ISCED 746 or 747). The teachers of the general subjects more often obtain the teaching qualification in the concurrent study.

Qualification requirements for salary purpose:

  • 8th salary category: secondary education with a school-leaving examination in a field aimed specially at pre-primary school teacher training (ISCED 354).

  • 9th salary category: tertiary professional education (ISCED 655) or secondary education with a school-leaving examination in a field aimed specially at pre-primary school teacher training (ISCED 354).

  • 10th salary category: Bachelor’s degree (ISCED 645) or tertiary professional education (ISCED 655).

  • 11th – 12th salary category: Master’s degree (ISCED 746, 747) or Bachelor’s degree (ISCED 645).

  • 13th salary category: Master’s degree (ISCED 746, 747).

Teachers are included in the salary categories following the Recommendation of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports:

  1. 1. Teachers at ISCED 02 can be classified into three salary categories 8th-10th:

    • 8th salary category: Beginning teachers who perform direct educational activities and do not have sufficient knowledge to create the school education programme.

    • 9th salary category: Teachers whose subject of work is the creation of the school educational programme for a nursery school; teachers performing all educational and training activities using available methods in the overall development of interests, children's knowledge and skills; introducing teachers.

    • 10th salary category: School heads; teachers who create and coordinate school education programmes; teachers who create education programmes for children with special education needs; teachers defining individual education plans.

  2. 2. Teachers at ISCED 1, 24 and 34 can be classified into three salary categories 11th-13th:

    • 11th salary category: Especially beginning teachers who perform direct educational activities in cooperation with introducing teacher, and according to methodological recommendations from the field of pedagogy and psychology.

    • 12th salary category: Teachers who perform comprehensive educational activities associated with the creation and continuous updating of pedagogical documentation, and according to which he/she proceeds in the performance of his/ her direct pedagogical activity or connected with creation and continuous updating of individual education plans.

    • 13th salary category: School heads; school counsellors with completed in-service training; teachers who create and coordinate school educational programmes; teachers who create and coordinate international educational projects (e. g ERASMUS, eTWINNING etc.), or those who perform specialised methodological activities in the area of pedagogy and/or psychology.

Explanatory notes on minimum qualifications: (Pre-primary) (ISCED 354 qualification). Exception: A teacher who does not have an appropriate qualification can perform direct educational activity if he/she was 55 at least on the date of 1 January 2015 and if he/she provided the direct teaching at the particular type of school during 20 years (or he/she was 50 at least on the date 1 January 2005 and has at least 15 years of practice at the particular type of school). The school can ensure education for a necessary time and extent by education staff who do not meet the prerequisite of appropriate qualification if it cannot provide these activities by a qualified worker. At the same time, however, the school head is responsible for the professional and educational level of the instruction at the school. (Primary to upper secondary) (ISCED 746 or 747 qualification). Exception: Teacher who does not have an appropriate qualification can perform direct educational activity if he/she was 55 at least on the date of 1 January 2015 and if he/she provided the direct teaching at the particular type of school during 20 years (or he/she was 50 at least on the date 1 January 2005 and has at least 15 years of practice at the particular type of school). The school can ensure education for a necessary time and extent by education staff who do not meet the prerequisite of appropriate qualification if it cannot provide these activities by a qualified worker. At the same time, however, the school head is responsible for the professional and educational level of the instruction at the school.

Denmark:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The reported salaries for teachers at primary level is a weighted average between teachers at grade 1 (børnehaveklasse/class 0) and teachers at grade 2-7 (class 1-6). Teachers at grade 1-6 are the same as at lower secondary level and their salary is from the same salary scale. The salary for teachers at grade 1 (børnehaveklasseledere) is a little lower and regulated by another salary scale. The national salary scale and additional national salary regulations are decided by collective agreements between the national authorities for public employers - Local Government Demark (KL) and the Ministry of Finance (Public Sector Innovation) – and the national teacher unions (for ISCED level 02, the Danish Union of Early Childhood and Youth Educators (BUPL) and, for ISCED levels 1, 24 and 34, the Confederation of Teachers Unions (LC). The collective agreements also state that a part of the total salary has to be decided at local level. This part has increased over the last 10-20 years.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: The reported statutory salaries include the payments regulated by the national salary scales including the national additional pay rates to be a part of the minimum statutory salary for the teachers in accordance with the collective agreements at national level.

Notes on interpretation: The statutory salaries reported here includes only the part of social security and pension scheme contributions paid by the employees. In addition to the reported statutory salaries, which is given in accordance with the general salary scale as a part of collective agreements, each teacher will typically have personal bonuses given and decided at school level, by local authorities or by collective agreements at local level. These personal bonuses are not included in the reported statutory salaries here.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: The minimum and typical education for a teacher at pre-primary level (i.e. peadagog), primary and lower secondary levels, is a Bachelor’s degree or equivalent (ISCED 6). At the upper secondary level, the minimum and most prevalent education for a teacher is a Master’s degree or equivalent (ISCED 7). In general, a teacher in upper secondary must have completed a master in a specific subject e.g. in biology or history. As a newly appointed teacher in upper secondary general education, the teacher must complete pedagogy (Pædagogikum) over the first year.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on coverage and methodology: The statutory salary figures reported are weighted averages of the separate geographical pay ranges: the Inner London Area, Outer London Area, the Fringe Area, and England and Wales (excluding the London Area). A fully-qualified classroom teacher who has achieved Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) is paid on the main, upper or leading practitioner pay range. The starting salary for teachers with minimum qualifications refers to a weighted average of the minimum salary points on the main pay range across all four geographical pay ranges. The salary at the top of the range for teachers with maximum qualifications refers to a weighted average of the maximum salary points on the leading practitioner pay range across all four geographic pay ranges.

Data refer to maintained schools. The governing board for academies, which classify as publicly funded independent schools and make up around three quarters of secondary schools and a third of primary schools, may choose to use these pay ranges or may choose to use their own pay ranges. The minimum qualifications for heads/teachers do not apply to academy schools, but the vast majority of heads/ teachers will have these minimum requirements. A significant proportion of provision of ISCED 02 (66% of provision for 3-year-olds) is provided in settings other than state-funded schools. The statutory salary figures provided apply only to teachers of pupils in nursery and primary schools and do not apply to other ISCED 02 settings. Teachers of students at ISCED 34 are employed in both schools and further education colleges. The figures are only for teachers of pupils in schools and do not apply to further education colleges. Proportion of teachers paid according to this salary range: The population of teachers used as the denominator is full-time teachers paid on the unqualified teacher, main, upper and leading practitioner pay ranges aged between 25 and 64 who are employed in maintained schools and academies.

Proportion of teachers paid according to this salary range: The population of teachers used as the denominator is full-time teachers paid on the unqualified teacher, main, upper and leading practitioner pay ranges aged between 25 and 64 who are employed in maintained schools and academies.

Notes on interpretation: Classroom teacher: The statutory salary ranges apply to classroom teachers paid as fully-qualified teachers on the main, upper and leading practitioner pay ranges. A fully-qualified classroom teacher who has achieved Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) is paid on the main, upper or leading practitioner pay range.

Public schools: The statutory pay ranges apply only to maintained schools, that is, local authority-maintained schools. The governing board for academies, which classify as publicly funded independent schools and make up around three quarters of secondary schools and a third of primary schools, may choose to use these pay ranges or may choose to use their own pay ranges.

Sources:

Decision making authority: The top-level authority responsible for determining statutory salaries is the UK Government.

Minimum qualification to enter the teaching profession

Classroom teachers who have achieved Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) and are not employed in a leading practitioner post are paid on the main or upper range. The main and upper pay ranges exist to allow for salary progression based on performance and can be accessed by all teachers.

QTS is a professional accreditation based on the Teachers’ Standards, which define the minimum level of practice expected of teachers. Assessment for QTS should enable trainee teachers to meet all the Teachers’ Standards, set by the Secretary of State, across the age range of training and ensure that no trainee teacher is recommended for the award of QTS until they have met all of the Standards.

Most initial teacher training programmes leading to QTS also lead to an academic award such as the PGCE (consecutive model) or a bachelor’s degree (concurrent model). The award of the academic qualification is separate from the award of QTS. It is awarded by a university or other higher education institution with degree awarding powers (DAP), which, as such, is responsible for its own awards, the conditions on which they are awarded and qualification titles.

Maximum qualification to enter the teaching profession

Classroom teachers who have achieved Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) and are employed in a leading practitioner post are paid on the leading practitioner pay range. Although the leading practitioner pay range does not require any specific additional qualification, in order to be appointed to a post on this range, a teacher must demonstrate specific skills in modelling and leading improvement of teaching skills. The pay range is only accessible in schools where the leading practitioner post exists.

The relevant body shall determine in accordance with its pay policy an individual pay range within the leading practitioner pay range. The relevant body must ensure that there is appropriate scope within an individual pay range to allow for performance related progress over time (STPCD 2018, p. 21).

Estonia:

Between 2017/18 and 2018/19, statutory salaries have increased around 9 % as the result of budget negotiations, following the objective in the (2013) Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy 2020 to raise teachers' salaries to the level of the average salary of highly educated employees. The compensation system has not changed but there has been a rapid increase of resources from state budget to cover the fixed minimum wage of all teachers.

Notes on coverage and methodology: The data on the annual gross statutory salary refers to the fixed minimum wage that applies for all teachers. The notion of starting statutory salary depending on the level of qualification (minimum or maximum) does not exist in Estonia. Data on the annual gross statutory salary for teachers at ISCED 1, 24 and 34 refers to the minimum salary set by the top-level authority following discussions with national associations of local authorities and teachers.

Notes on interpretation: the Basic and Upper Secondary Schools Act § 76 sections 1 and 2 that foresee the procedure for establishment of the minimum wage of teachers according to the Collective Agreements Act (see https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/519042021001/consolide). However, § 76 section 3 stipulates that where the agreement specified in subsection 1 of this section is not reached, the minimum wage of teachers is established by a regulation of the Government of the Republic specified in subsection 2 of this section. In fact, since 2012 the minimum wage has been established by government following discussions with stakeholders, but without the collective agreement procedure.

Comment on qualification levels of teachers: The description of the specification of most prevalent, minimum, maximum qualification of teacher is based on legislative acts and data of teachers' highest education collected in Estonian Education Information System. (1) On the conditions and in accordance with the procedure provided for in the Collective Agreements Act, the minimum wage of teachers will be agreed on: 1) as the representatives of employers: by the minister responsible for the field, authorised representatives of national associations of local authorities, authorised representatives of local authorities and authorised representatives of private legal persons that manage private schools, and 2) as the representatives of employees: authorised representatives of registered associations of teachers. (2) On the basis of the agreement specified in subsection (1), the Government of the Republic will establish the minimum wage of teachers by a regulation.

Notes on qualifications for ISCED 02: Higher education is the minimum in any field. Teacher qualification requires:

  • completion of the curriculum of a early childhood education teacher at the university (upon graduation they receive a professional certificate)

  • applying for the profession of a teacher (EstQF level 6 (Estonian Qualifications Framework) from the Estonian Teachers' Union; here, as a rule, completion of in-service training is a prerequisite)

the head of an educational institution assesses competencies in accordance with the professional standard (the assessment is valid only in the educational institution). Teacher qualification requirements who work with children with special needs: higher education, special pedagogical competences and pedagogical competences.

Finland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The data refer to fully qualified teachers, who constitute 90% of the teaching force. For pre-primary education, data is reported on the majority, i.e. kindergarten teachers. The data include all teachers in Finland. As of 2024, newly qualified Kindergarten teachers (ISCED 02) will have a Bachelor's degree in education including Kindergarten teacher studies.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Statutory salaries include bonus holiday pay. It is 4% for starting teachers, 5% for teachers with 10 years of experience and 6% for teachers with at least 15 years of experience. Bonus holiday pay is temporarily reduced 30% in 2017-19.

Notes on interpretation: The data on pre-primary teachers includes the salary data of kindergarten teachers who are the majority.

Comments on qualifications of teachers

(Pre-primary) Bachelor-level qualification of kindergarten teacher/social services including studies in early education and socio-education ISCED 6 concurrent.

(Primary) Masters-level qualification with education science as major ISCED 7 concurrent.

(Secondary) Masters-level qualification with teaching subject as major ISCED 7 concurrent or consecutive.

In Finland the most prevalent qualification of teachers is the same as the minimum qualification and it is associated with the required degree and studies attained after initial teacher training.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Statutory salaries include bonus holiday pay. It is 4% for starting teachers, 5% for teachers with 10 years of experience and 6% for teachers with at least 15 years of experience. Bonus holiday pay was temporarily reduced by 30% in 2017-19.

France:

New allowance included in teachers' statutory salaries:

  • Computer equipment allowance since 01 February 2021, decree no.2020/1524 of 5 December 2020.

  • Attractivity allowance : between the 2nd and the 7th level included of the "Normal Class", decree no.2021/276 of 12 March 2021.

In addition, the index's revalorisation at the top of the "hors classe" for the professeurs des écoles and professeurs certifiés (+15 pts) on 01 January 2021.

Notes on coverage and methodology: The teachers’ statutory salaries are gross annual incomes (rémunération annuelle brute statutaire) related to statutory salary scales.

The following bonuses received by all teachers at a given level of education are an integral part of teachers’ statutory salaries in France:

  • Residence allowance

  • Computer equipment allowance (EUR 176 per year)

  • Attractivity allowance: between the 2nd and the 7th level of the 'classe normale' category (i.e. between EUR 1 400 to EUR 500). This new allowance, which came into effect on 1 May 2021, is calculated at a pro-rata (4/12) for 2020/21.

In addition, teachers at ISCED 02 and 1 levels receive the following bonus:

  • ISAE (bonus for follow-up and tutoring): EUR 1 200 per year.

Similarly, teachers at ISCED 24 and 34 levels receive the following bonuses:

  • Fixed portion of ISOE (bonus for follow-up and tutoring): EUR 1 213.56 per year. The variable part of this bonus - for teachers taking the role of referent teacher (professeur principal) - is not included in the statutory salary.

  • Bonus for 2 HSA overtime hour (heure supplémentaire année): This overtime hour cannot be refused by teachers of secondary education. The other types of extra hours are not included in the statutory salary.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: People who want to become teachers at all levels of ISCED (02-3) must obtain a master's degree and pass a competitive examination. Those who passed the competition have to complete a one-year paid traineeship as a trainee civil servant, at the end of which a jury will determine whether or not they can be officially granted the status of teacher and become civil servants. At ISCED 02-1, teachers who want to become “professeurs des écoles” have to pass the competitive examination "concours de recrutement de professeurs des écoles". At ISCED 2-3, candidates who want to become “professeur certifié” (minimum and most common qualification) have to pass the competitive examination “concours du certificat d'aptitude au professorat de l'enseignement du second degré”. At ISCED 2-3 Candidates who want to become "professeur agrégé" (maximum qualification) have to pass the competitive examination "agrégation". The specifically designed 2-year master's programmes for teachers (introduced in 2015) are currently being redesigned. The Law for a School of trust (2019) created the Higher National Institutes of Professorship and Education (INSPE), in charge of providing this new teacher training.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Residence allowance; student counselling (ISAE at ISCED 02 & 1; ISOE at ISCED 24 & 34); supplementary hours HSA (two hours: first one paid 1,2 and second one paid 1 at ISCDD 24 & 34); computer equipment allowance (all); attractivity allowance (teachers from the 2nd to the 7th level of the "classe normale" category).

Germany:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The statutory salaries represent a weighted average of the data available at Länder level for civil servants in 2020/21 and include general post allowances where applicable and special annual payments. Since November 2006 a salary scale which is used throughout Germany no longer exists. Therefore, the Länder are asked to report the average annual gross statutory and the number of teachers in each category. Weighted means are calculated from the Länder data. Kindergarten teachers (ISCED 02) are generally paid in remuneration group S6 of the Collective Agreement for the Public Sector (Tarifvertrag für den öffentlichen Dienst – TVöD). Those with professional experience are usually allocated to level 2. Higher levels are achieved after several years with the same employer.

Notes on interpretation: Erzieherinnen and Erzieher (state recognised youth or child-care workers) are generally paid in remuneration group S6 of the Collective Agreement for the Public Sector (Tarifvertrag für den öffentlichen DienstTVöD), with the salary levels of this remuneration group being based on professional experience. Erzieherinnen and Erzieher who already have professional experience are allocated to level 2 as a rule. Higher levels are achieved only after several years with the same employer. Employees in establishments bound by collective wage agreements are significantly better off than those in establishments not bound by collective wage agreements. According to a study of the Hans-Böckler Foundation, around 75% of Erzieherinnen and Erzieher work in establishments bound by collective wage agreements.

(Primary and secondary) Depending on the länder, teacher candidates must pass a first state examination or have a Master’s degree before the preparatory service. All of them must take a second exam after the preparatory service.

Comments on the social benefits of teachers: Regarding teachers' pension and/or social security system in Germany teachers with civil servants (Beamte) status have no special pension and/or social security system in reference to other civil servants (Beamte). Employed teachers (Angestellte) have no special pension and/or social security system, too. The reference is "other workers" (alle Angestellten). The reference "other workers" means in this case other civil/public servants (i.e. Beamte).

Greece:

Notes on interpretation: (Minimum and most prevalent qualifications) The salaries for teachers of Pre-Primary Education include only teachers working in Pre-Primary Education Schools (nipiagogeia) that are supervised by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. The reference year is 2020/21 (September 2020-August 2021). Data on gross annual statutory salaries are reported on the basis that teachers complete certain years of work experience on 1st September 2020. The freezing of salaries is also taken into consideration. A month's salary in 2020 and 2021 refers to the full salaries provisioned in Law 4325/2015 (G.G. 47/A) taking into consideration the salary freezing of previous years (2016-2017). From 1 January 2018 salary progression has been activated. Regarding the qualification levels of teachers to enter the teaching profession in the reference year according to legislation (Law 3848/2010 as amended and in force) a degree from a tertiary institution or equivalent is required for teachers in Pre-primary Programmes supervised by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, as well as by teachers in Primary, Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary General Education. Higher than minimum qualifications (i.e. Master's or PhD degrees) are recognised as relevant to the teaching profession after entrance, i.e. they are not used as qualifications required to enter the teaching profession, they are not related to a different salary range, but they are remunerated as additional years of teaching experience. Ref: Circular of the General accounting office nr. 2-31029/DEP/06.05.2016 (ΑDA: OL9SI-0ΝΜ) (ΑΔΑ: ΩΛ9ΣΗ-0ΝΜ) https://www.minfin.gr/documents/31321/245847/E%CE%B3%CE%BA%CF%8D%CE%BA%CE%BB%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%82+N.+4354.2015%2C+2.31029.%CE%94%CE%95%CE%A0.6.5.2016+%28%CE%91%CE%94%CE%91+%CE%A9%CE%9B9%CE%A3%CE%97-0%CE%9D%CE%9C%29.pdf/3235ee77-e374-4a2c-9a31-9725906233bf.

Comments on the qualifications of teachers: In Greece the minimum level of qualification is equal to the most prevalent qualification level of qualification of teachers for all levels of education. The qualification levels of teachers entering the teaching profession in the reference year, legislation (Law 3848/2010 as amended and in force) require a degree from a tertiary institution or equivalent for teachers in Pre-primary Programmes supervised by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, as well as by teachers in Primary, Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary General Education. Higher than minimum qualifications (i.e. Master's or PhD degrees) are recognised as relevant to the teaching profession after entrance, i.e. they are not used as qualifications required to enter the teaching profession, they are not related to a different salary range, but they are remunerated as additional years of teaching experience.

Hungary:

The starting salaries for teachers with the minimum (BA (ISCED 6)) and most prevalent (MA (ISCED 7)) qualifications have been adjusted to the relevant minimum wage.

Notes on coverage and methodology: The starting salary refers to ‘fully-qualified trainee teachers'. The other salaries refer to the promotion level of ‘Teacher 1’. All salaries include the ‘sector specific motivation allowance’ paid to all teachers.

Comments on salary scales: With the exception of the teacher in the Trainee category, teachers shall be promoted on the basis of employment in a teacher position once in three years’ time one pay grade higher. The teacher shall be promoted to the higher pay category on the first day of the year in question. With the promotion to the higher pay category the three years waiting time shall start again.

Notes on interpretation: From 2013 on the 326/2013 government decree stipulates a yearly increase of salaries until 2017. In 2017 it became part of the Act on general education. The BA and MA starting salary at ISCED 02-3 have been adjusted to the relevant minimum wage. Should teachers at lower secondary level have MA degree, they are entitled to be paid according to the salary scheme linked to teachers with MA degree (i.e. the same as at ISCED 34). The legal regulations stipulate that the minimum qualification for teachers at ISCED 02, 1, 24 is BA/BSc, while teachers at ISCED 34 is MA/MSc. New entrants teaching at ISCED 2 have a MA due to ITE system.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: (primary) Act CXC of 2011 on Public Education (97.§ (20) stipulates that teachers without two years’ experience on 1st September 2013 are categorised as trainee teachers (1 year in case of new undivided ITE degree). This induction period lasts 1 year in the case of new graduates from undivided ITE programme or 2 years according to the “Government decree 326/2013. (VIII. 30.) on the teacher promotion system and the implementation of the Act XXXIII of 1992 on public servants in public education institutions (2§ (1))” and the trainee has a mentor who helps him/her (15/A § and 15/B§). After this induction period the trainee has to pass an exam (2§ (6)).

(Lower secondary) It is legally possible to enter the teaching profession with a BA degree, although since 2010, teacher training for secondary school teachers is available only at MA/MSc courses. Act CXC of 2011 on Public Education (97.§ (20) stipulates that teachers without two years’ experience on 1st September 2013 are categorised as trainee teachers (1 year in case of new undivided ITE degree). This induction period lasts 1 year in the case of new graduates from undivided ITE programme or 2 years according to the “Government decree 326/2013. (VIII. 30.) on the teacher promotion system and the implementation of the Act XXXIII of 1992 on public servants in public education institutions (2§ (1))” and the trainee has a mentor who helps him/her (15/A § and 15/B§). After this induction period the trainee has to pass an exam (2§ (6)). As a consequence, salary range related to BA degree is reported as "Other minimum qualification of teachers with some years of experience" (salary range C). The BA degree is also the most prevalent one at that level and the salaries are reported in most prevalent qualification at each stage in the career and salary range (other salary range).

(Upper secondary) Act CXC of 2011 on Public Education (97.§ (20) stipulates that teachers without two years’ experience on 1st September 2013 are categorised as trainee teachers (1 year in case of new undivided ITE degree). This induction period lasts 1 year in the case of new graduates from undivided ITE programme or 2 years according to the “Government decree 326/2013. (VIII. 30.) on the teacher promotion system and the implementation of the Act XXXIII of 1992 on public servants in public education institutions (2§ (1))” and the trainee has a mentor who helps him/her (15/A § and 15/B§). After this induction period the trainee has to pass an exam (2§ (6)).

Iceland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Data for ISCED levels 0, 1, 2 and 3 statutory salaries have been assembled by a panel of experts from the Teachers Union and Icelandic Association of Local Authorities in cooperation with the Ministry of Education. The statutory salary of teachers in ISCED3 is a combination of a collective agreement on pay and a special agreement for each institution (institutional framework for salaries). Statutory salaries for upper-secondary teachers were estimated on the basis of the institutional agreement from a representative school.

Notes on interpretation: For pre-primary, a collective agreement exists between The Association of Local Authorities and The Teachers Union on behalf of the Union of Pre-School Teachers, starting June 1 2015 and ending March 31 2019. Renewed agreement valid from January 1 2020 ending December 31 2021.The agreement outlines, pay, pay-scales and progression, organisation of working time, other rights and compensations, professional development, sick leave and vacation time. The collective agreement applies to public and private schools.

For primary a lower secondary, a collective agreement between The Association of Local Authorities and The Teachers Union on behalf of the Union of School Teachers, , starting September 1 2020 and ending December 31 2021. The agreement outlines, pay, pay-scales and progression, organisation of working time, other rights and compensations, professional development, sick leave and vacation time. The collective agreement applies to public and private schools.

For upper secondary, there is a base collective agreement, but each institute enters into a specific institutional agreement which compensates the institute for extra expenses in salaries.

Explanatory notes on decision making authority: Collective agreement between The Association of Local Authorities and The Teachers Union on behalf of the Union of Pre-School Teachers, starting September 1 2020 and ending December 31 2021. The agreement outlines, pay, pay-scales and progression, organisation of working time, other rights and compensations, professional development, sick leave and vacation time. The collective agreement applies to public and private schools.

Comments on qualification of teachers: Minimum qualification to obtain a teacher certificate is proscribed by law and is equivalent to 5 years of university education, or a master’s degree (ISCED 7).

Practicing teachers are required to spend 150 hours of each school year in professional development, which may include formal education equivalent to ECTS credits. Therefore, most prevalent education of a teacher with 15 years of experience is the minimum requirement plus any additional credit worth of professional development attained during the course of these 15 years. This is estimated to be the equivalent of 60 ECTS credits (this is an estimate provided by the teacher union).

Comments on social benefits of teachers: In the Icelandic labour market to teachers, regarding the social benefits, applies the same as to all other workers.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Included are two annual one-time payments. One in December and one in June. Applies to all school levels, both public and government dependent schools.

Ireland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The salary range for teachers with the minimum qualification (range A) is based on the salary scales in place from 1 January 2011. The salary range C refers to the salary arrangements in place for teachers appointed prior to 2011.

Notes on interpretation: (Pre-primary) Salaries for practitioners in early childhood settings are set by the owners of the settings which are private entities. The only requirement on the settings is that the practitioners are paid at least the national minimum wage for an experienced adult employee in accordance with the National Minimum Wage Act. Since 1 January 2020, the national minimum wage was EUR 10.10 per hour which increased to EUR 10.20 per hour for an experienced adult worker on 1 January 2021.

(Pre-primary) From 31 December 2016, as stated in the Child Care Act (Early Years Services) Regulations 2016, all staff working directly with children are required to hold a minimum of Level 5 Major Award on the National Framework of Qualifications in Early Childhood Care and Education.

The State pays a capitation fee to playschools and day care services participating in the Early Childhood Care and Education scheme. In return, they provide a pre-school service free of charge to all children within the qualifying age range for a set number of hours over a set period of weeks. For Preschool Services participating in the ECCE scheme, room leaders are required to hold a minimum QQI Level 6 Major Award in Early Childhood Care and Education (or equivalent) from December 2016. A higher capitation is also available to Preschool Services where the Preschool Leader has achieved a major award in early childhood care and education at Level 7 on the National Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) and where the assistants have achieved the minimum Level 5 Award.

Comments on qualification of teachers

(Pre-primary) From 31 December 2016, as stated in the Child Care Act (Early Years Services) Regulations 2016, all staff working directly with children are required to hold a minimum of Level 5 Major Award on the National Framework of Qualifications in Early Childhood Care and Education. The State pays a capitation fee to playschools and day care services participating in the Early Childhood Care and Education scheme. In return, they provide a pre-school service free of charge to all children within the qualifying age range for a set number of hours over a set period of weeks. For Preschool Services participating in the ECCE scheme, room leaders are required to hold a minimum QQI Level 6 Major Award in Early Childhood Care and Education (or equivalent) from December 2016. A higher capitation is also available to Preschool Services where the Preschool Leader has achieved a major award in early childhood care and education at Level 7 on the National Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) and where the assistants have achieved the minimum Level 5 Award.

(Primary) These are the minimum qualifications for entry to teaching in accordance with the teaching qualification pathway followed by the teacher i.e. concurrent teacher education programme (Bachelor of Education (pass degree) (ISCED 6)) or consecutive education programme (Primary Degree and Post Graduate Masters in Education (ISCED 6 and ISCED 7)). The salary for teachers with minimum qualifications below is for teachers who entered teaching from 2012, as effective from 1 October 2020. Under this revised pay scale for new entrants to teaching from 2012, teachers are no longer given discrete recognition for differing or additional qualifications as had been the case for those who entered teaching prior to 2011. The common salary scale for all teachers entering the profession from 2012 has incorporated qualification allowances previously provided for separately. This increase of 8.4% is because teachers are now on point 13 after 10 years rather than point 11.

(Lower secondary) These are the minimum qualifications for entry to teaching in accordance with the teaching qualification pathway followed by the teacher (i.e. concurrent teacher education programme (Bachelor of Education (pass degree) (ISCED 6)) or consecutive education programme (Primary Degree and Post Graduate Masters in Education (ISCED 6 and ISCED 7)). The salary for teachers with minimum qualifications below is for teachers who entered teaching from 2012, as effective from 1 October 2020. Under this revised pay scale for new entrants to teaching from 2012, teachers are no longer given discrete recognition for differing or additional qualifications as had been the case for those who entered teaching prior to 2011. The common salary scale for all teachers entering the profession from 2012 has incorporated qualification allowances previously provided for separately.

(Upper secondary) These are the minimum qualifications for entry to teaching in accordance with the teaching qualification pathway followed by the teacher (i.e. concurrent teacher education programme (Bachelor of Education (pass degree) (ISCED 6)) or consecutive education programme (Primary Degree and Post Graduate Masters in Education (ISCED 6 and ISCED 7)). The salary for teachers with minimum qualifications below is for teachers who entered teaching from 2012, as effective from 1 October 2020. Under this revised pay scale for new entrants to teaching from 2012, teachers are no longer given discrete recognition for differing or additional qualifications as had been the case for those who entered teaching prior to 2011. The common salary scale for all teachers entering the profession from 2012 has incorporated qualification allowances previously provided for separately.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: The salaries of teachers in rows CS1, CS2 and CS3 are applicable to teachers who entered teaching prior to 1 January 2011 and include minimum qualification allowances in addition to their base salaries. At ISCED 1, the salary above includes salary at relevant point on common salary scale for teachers (EUR 52 338 at 12th point of scale after 10 years; EUR 58 297 at 17th point of scale after 15 years; EUR 65 588 at top of scale) + allowance for Batchelor Education (Pass) Degree (EUR 1 939). At ISCED 24 and ISCED 34, the salary above includes the salary at the relevant point on the common salary scale (EUR 53 774 at 13th point of scale after 10 years; EUR 58 297 - at 18th point of scale after 15 years; EUR 65 588 at top for scale) + allowance of EUR 1 939 for primary degree (pass) and allowance of EUR 622 for Post Graduate Diploma in Education (Pass). Teachers at the top of their career after 10 years also receive a long service allowance of EUR 2 446.The salaries of teachers in D2, D3 and D4 are applicable to teachers who entered teaching prior to 1 January 2011 and include qualification allowances in addition to their base salaries. At ISCED 1, the salary above includes salary at relevant point on common salary scale for teachers (EUR 52 338 - at 12th point of scale after 10 years; EUR 58 297 at 17th point of scale after 15 years; EUR 65 588 at top of scale) + allowance for Batchelor Education (Honours) Degree (EUR 5 177).At ISCED 24 and ISCED 34, the salary above includes the salary at the relevant point on the common salary scale (EUR 53 774 at 13th point of scale after 10 years; EUR 58 297 - at 18th point of scale after 15 years; EUR 65 588 at top for scale) + allowance of EUR 5 177 for primary degree (Honours) and allowance of EUR 622 for Post Graduate Diploma in Education (Pass). Teachers at the top of their career after 10 years also receive a long service allowance of EUR 2 446.

Israel:

Notes on coverage and methodology: In 2021 a starting teacher begins with an ISCED 6 first degree qualification (BA) minimum in all stages of education. In upper secondary education, 86% of the teachers worked under the terms and conditions of the "Oz Letmura Reform". For the upper secondary education, the reported wage is an average between the salaries of the F.T.E. teachers included in the reform and the salaries of the F.T.E. teachers who are not. All new teachers who join the education system receive their salaries according to the terms of the new reforms. In all other stages of education there is only one salary scale. In the pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education the wage table is based on nine promotional levels; each level represents a 7.5% increase in salary.

Comments on salary scales: Since the new reforms, a starting teacher begins with an ISCED 6 first degree qualification (BA) minimum. In 2019/20, the New Horizon reform implementation in all levels of education exceeded about 99% of the F.T.E. teacher’s position. In upper secondary education, 83% of the teachers worked under the terms and conditions of the "Oz Letmura Reform". For the upper secondary education, the reported wage is an average between the salaries of the F.T.E. teachers included in the reform and the salaries of the FTE teachers who are not. All new teachers who join the education system receive their salaries according to the terms of the new reforms. The wage table of the “New Horizon Reform” is based on nine promotional levels; each level represents a 7.5% increase in salary.

Notes on interpretation: Annual statutory teacher salary is based on salary tables according to the Wage Agreements and includes necessary adjustments and supplements paid one time a year to all the teachers, like bonus for vacation, clothing and "Long School Day".

The remuneration for subjects/level coordination is cancelled for new teachers in the first-year teaching, with the assumption that new teachers will not receive such duty.

The actual salary includes all the bonuses and allowances even if few teachers only received them. The statutory salary includes only the basic salary and the bonuses and allowances paid to all the teachers.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: All teachers with a minimum and a most prevalent qualification in Israel hold a bachelor’s degree (ISCED 6) and a teaching certificate. Since the start of the implementation of the New Horizon Reform, the minimum and most prevalent qualifications are very similar, as teachers expect and require to be promoted in accordance to seniority and qualification. At the top of the salary scale, the only differences between minimum and most prevalent qualification come from professional development activities. Teachers with most prevalent qualifications have higher professional development. Professional development activities come with higher remuneration.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Vacation/Clothing/Jubilee Grant.

Italy:

Notes on interpretation: The National Collective Contract is stipulated between ARAN (the technical agency that representing public administration) and the trade union organisations of the school sector. This contract governs the employment relationship from a regulatory point of view (hours, qualifications and duties, type of relationship, etc.) and from an economic point of view (salary, seniority, etc.).

Notes on qualifications of teachers

(Pre-primary) The minimum qualification consists of a specific master on education (ITE). Pre-primary school teachers, after the completion of their specific ITE, have to pass a public competition at national level to entry to the profession. After being assigned to a teaching position, teachers are required to pass a one-year probationary period, in order to become fully qualified teachers.

(Primary) The minimum qualification consists of a specific master on education (ITE). Primary school teachers, after the completion of their specific ITE, have to pass a public competition at national level to entry to the profession. After being assigned to a teaching position, teachers are required to pass a one-year probationary period, in order to become fully qualified teachers.

(Lower secondary) To become a qualified teacher, HEIs graduates have to pass a competition. To be admitted to this competition, the candidates have to complete 24 ECTS in anthropo-psycho-pedagogical subjects as well as in teaching methodologies and technologies. These 24 ECTS can be obtained during master’s degree programmes (if included) or after the completion of master’s degree programmes (if not included). Those who pass the competitions are hired with permanent contracts and, after being hired, will follow an induction period of one year.

(Uppers secondary) To become a qualified teacher, HEIs graduates have to pass a competition. To be admitted to this competition, the candidates have to complete 24 ECTS in anthropo-psycho-pedagogical subjects as well as in teaching methodologies and technologies. These 24 ECTS can be obtained during master’s degree programmes (if included) or after the completion of master’s degree programmes (if not included). Those who pass the competitions are hired with permanent contracts and, after being hired, will follow an induction period of one year.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: 13th month, Professional Salary Profit (three class of years of service - the same to ISCED), contractual allowances.

Japan:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Statutory salaries are described based on the model salary schedule for reference referred to by the ordinance salary schedules in many prefectures.

Explanatory notes on minimum qualifications (Primary) As a premise for the qualification required to get an educational personnel certificate, it is necessary to be over 18 years old and attain ISCED3 equivalent. The qualification, units, and degrees then vary according to kinds of certifications which he or she would like to get and processes to achieve. In the most prevalent case, many applicants learn required subjects in university or college, get an educational personnel certificate, and take teaching staff examination in each prefecture and ordinance-designated city.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries that are included in statutory salaries: Terminal allowance, special allowance for compulsory education staff.

Notes on interpretation: Comments on qualifications of teachers: The most prevalent qualification of teachers is defined as the required qualification to comply with the requirements to enter to the teaching profession in the public sector. In this sense, minimum and most prevalent qualifications of teachers are the same. In Japan, teachers have to obtain an “educational personnel certificate”, defined by the Education Personnel Certification act, to be licenced teachers, in addition to having a given ISCED level of attainment. An educational attainment, such as a bachelor’s degree, is part of the basic requirements to be a certified teacher. The typical level of attainment in Japan is an ISCED-A 660 qualification except for pre-primary education. Teachers in pre-primary school can be holders of an ISCED 540 or 660 qualifications. In order to receive the teacher certificate ISCED-A 660 graduates need more credit points than ISCED-A 540 graduates. Teachers’ certificates for pre-primary education are awarded to graduates with ISCED-A 540 and 660 but the proportions vary every year.

Comments on social benefits of teachers: Teachers in Japan are as well as non-teaching staff working for public schools as civil servants and they are covered by the same social security system, whereas other workers in the private sector are covered by a different one.

Korea:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Salaries are calculated on the basis of the law and regulations as well as a typical teacher's career. The Cabinet of Ministers issues the regulation where minimum (lowest) monthly salary rate for teachers is defined.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Allowance for good attendance, Holiday bonuses, Allowances for meals and transportation expenses, Allowance for the teaching profession.

Notes on interpretation: No maximum has been defined for starting teachers’ salaries in Korea. The salaries of starting teachers vary considerably depending on their previous work experience and level of education.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: In Korea, teachers have to hold a teaching certificate to be fully qualified teachers. Most often, teachers with 15 years of experience and most prevalent qualification, teaching in all levels of education, hold the First Class Teacher Certificate.

In terms of their level of attainment, teachers with most prevalent qualification at pre-primary level hold ISCED 6 qualifications. In primary and lower secondary education, the majority of teaches hold an ISCED 6 qualification. In what concerns the minimum qualifications of teachers, these are all identical as the most prevalent qualifications expect for teachers in pre-primary education, where the minimum is an ISCED 5 qualification, although the proportion of teachers with this level of attainment is very low.

Latvia:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The Regulation sets the minimum monthly salary rate for 30 hours work week. School heads decide on the teachers' salaries depending on their workload and performance and on the school budget. Salaries can be higher but not lower than the minimum defined in the Regulation.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: The Regulation says that a teacher receives his/her monthly remuneration for working time in astronomical hours, including breaks between the lessons. A teacher's workload includes teaching of lessons, preparation of lessons, and individual work with pupils/students, marking/correcting of student's papers, responsibilities of class (group) teacher, methodology work, project management, and other activities related to the development of education institution.

Notes on interpretation: The regulation on teachers' work remuneration sets only minimum monthly salary rate. In compliance with the teacher’s salary increase schedule, with September 2020 the minimum salary rate for all ISCED 0-3 teachers was EUR 790 for one work-load per month.

Notes on qualifications of teachers: The Regulation on Requirements for Necessary Education and Professional Qualification, and Procedure of Continuing Professional Development of Pedagogues (2014) defines requirements for necessary education and professional qualifications for teachers working at pre-primary, primary, secondary, and tertiary education level. These requirements are necessary for all teachers to work in the teaching profession, without specifying teachers or making a distinction on minimal, maximal or most prevalent qualifications. The requirements refer to a higher education qualification (Bachelor or Master level) and a professional teacher's qualification.

According to the regulation a prospective student teacher in his/her final year(s) of initial teacher education may already work in school or pre-school as a teacher. These young teachers are referred here as starting teachers with minimum level of qualification. The actual percentage of such teachers is derived from the State Education Information System.

Lithuania:

Compared to previous year data, statutory salaries at pre-primary, primary and secondary levels increased by 30% to 43% (depending on the stage of the career) due to the combination of an increase in salaries of teachers and an increase of taxes included in gross salaries reported.

Notes on coverage and methodology: Teachers may be recruited without the 1-year pedagogical qualification provided that they acquire it within 2 years. Four career categories exist in Lithuania: 'teacher', 'senior teacher' (at least 4 years of experience), 'methodology teacher' (at least 5 years of experience) and 'expert teacher' (at least 6 years of experience). Different coefficients apply to the salary scale, according to the career category. All indicated statutory salaries correspond to the 'teacher' career category, with the lower minimum salary.

Luxembourg:

Since 2019, the part of the social security and the pension scheme paid by the employers are excluded from the reported statutory salaries (-2.8% for social security and -8% for pension scheme compared to the reported statutory salaries the previous years), as required by the guidelines of the data collection.

Notes on coverage and methodology: Statutory salaries are calculated on the basis of point indiciaire assigned to public servants, including teachers, during their career with the value of one point indiciaire taking account of adjustments for cost of living. This gives the gross salary per month before any deductions or allowances. This amount is then annualised and included the 13th salary at the end of a year (a bonus paid as part of annual salary to all teachers, as stated in the relevant legislation). The points indiciaires increase with years of experience, and according to career progression (at different rates for ISCED 1 and ISCED 2 and 3).

Actual salary data are derived the statutory amounts. The average reported for all teachers is equivalent to the sum of the annual salary at the beginning and end of the career, divided by 2.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Payments on social security and pension scheme are included (including part paid by the employee, excluding part paid by the employer). Due to restrictions regarding privacy, actual salaries of teachers cannot be accessed and therefore statutory salaries are reported.

Notes on interpretation: Comments on qualifications of teachers: In Luxembourg the minimum level of qualification is equal to the most prevalent qualification level of qualification of teachers for all levels of education. The minimum qualification is a bachelor degree for a pre-primary or primary teacher and a Master degree for a teacher in the secondary level.

Mexico:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Salaries for teachers with the minimum qualification refers the lowest salary levels of salary scale and salaries for teachers with the most prevalent qualification refers to the intermediate salary levels of the scale, in which a large majority of teachers manage to reach. All teachers start at the traditional level and there is no other level to enter the teaching profession.

(Maximum qualification) Pre-primary, primary and lower secondary: Starting salary comes from Tradicional salary scale, and salary after 10 years of experience is the sum of this starting salary and five-year payment. Salary after 15 years of experience refer to salary of teachers with 15 years of experience from K1A salary scale, and salary at the top of the scale refer to salary of teachers with 15 years of experience from K1B salary scale. Upper secondary: Starting salary comes from the salary scale for Senior lecturer A, then salaries after 10 and 15 years of experience also come from the salary of Senior lecturer A with 10 and 15 years of experience, respectively. Salary at the top of salary scale refer to the salary of Senior lecturer B with 15 years of experience.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Christmas bonus, Vacation bonus, Extraordinary payment for curricular services, Assignment for the organisation of the school year, End-of-year compensation, Assignment of cultural activities, Days of permanence for support in education, Compensation for strengthening temporary and compatible compensation, Help transportation, Extraordinary annual payment, National single compensation.

Comments on salary scales: Programme of magisterial career for ISCED levels 02, 1 and 24: The magisterial career is a horizontal promotion system in which teachers participate voluntarily and individually. They have the possibility of promoting themselves to the following level. They must meet the requirements and are evaluated according to normative rules. A teacher’s career starts for all participants at the traditional level. The programme consists of five stimulus levels or scales (see salary scales). A teacher must stay in each level for a given period of time before being promoted to the next level. This programme has three categories: classroom teachers (1st), personnel with directive or supervisory functions (2nd), and teachers who develop technical or pedagogical activities (3rd). The objective is to help improve the quality of education by recognising and stimulating the work of the best teachers. It also reinforces interest in the continuing improvement of teachers; it enhances the teaching vocation and encourages teachers to remain in the teaching profession. It also supports teachers who work in underdeveloped areas in the country.

Notes on interpretation: Though the average number of years of service from the starting to the top of the salary ranges is 14 years, teachers do not necessarily reach the top of their careers after 14 years. The promotions occur in the different moments of career in which the salary improvement periods are offered and they must comply with the requirements of the salary level to increase their salaries.

Netherlands:

Increase in wages due to new collective agreements (around 10 % increase in primary and 5 % increase in secondary education). Weights used in this average change yearly due to the different mix in salary scales every year.

Notes on coverage and methodology: The statutory salary reported in the data collection is the total statutory salary of a year (allowances included), weighted by the ratio in salary scales on 1 October 2020 for all the categories if applicable. ISCED 02 and 1: Weighted starting salary 10 years and 15 years is: (71.2/100 x L10) + (28.3/100 x L11) + (0.5 x L12). ISCED 24 and 34: Weighted salary start, 10 years and 15 years is: (42.5/100 x LB) + (32.5/100 x LC) + (24.4/100 x LD). Unweighted maximum salary is LD. The salaries of the three salary scales are the same country-wide. In the Randstad area (urban region in the western part of the Netherlands), at the secondary level, more teachers are in the higher salary scale (Randstadregeling). ISCED 02 is a 3-year cycle with the first year organised in day care institutions and the last two, in primary schools. Here, only ISCED02 teachers working in primary schools are considered.

The proportion of teachers who are in each salary range can be found in Table X3.D3.4 (https://stat.link/vub723).

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: holiday pay (8%), year-end allowances (7.1% in ISCED 0,2 and 1 and 8% in ISCED 24 and 34)

Notes on interpretation: ISCED02: only teachers in primary schools (group 1 and 2, children in age group 4 and 5 at the start of the school year). Day care is excluded. ISCED24/34: A second degree qualification is required for teachers in lower secondary education and a first degree qualification for teachers in upper secondary (general) education. Generally teachers in upper secondary education have more often salary scale LD and teachers in lower secondary education have more often LB or LC. But the distribution of teachers between these different scales at these ISCED levels is not exactly known. A related problem is that this classification does not correspond with the bachelor/master classification. For example, the master Special Educational Needs does not result in a first degree qualification.

Comments on social benefits of teachers: In the Netherlands, pension and/or social security system differ for teachers compared to other workers in the private sector. For teachers, the employer contributes for 70% to the pension. This percentage is different for employers in the private sector.

New Zealand:

Compared to previous year, statutory salaries for teachers and school heads increased as a consequence of a new collective agreement agreed in 2019 and implemented in 2019.

Notes on coverage and methodology: The New Zealand Education System does not have a separate explicit ISCED 24 system. ISCED level 24, “Lower secondary” covers Years 7-10 in the New Zealand system. Year 7-8 are part of New Zealand's “primary” system and years 9-10 are part of New Zealand's “secondary” system. Data for lower secondary level salaries reflects an average of two scales as data for ISCED 24 is the average of ISCED levels 1 and 34.

Comments on salary scales: There is only one pay scale in New Zealand. The gross salaries at the top of the scale are given for ISCED 1 and 34 only. Teachers, who work in schools that teach ISCED24, are paid in accordance with one of the two collective teaching contracts.

Notes on interpretation: In New Zealand, primary school is from year 1 to 8, and secondary school is from year 9 to 13. For Education at a Glance reporting, ISCED 1, primary education, covers years 1 to 6, and ISCED 34, upper secondary, covers years 11 to 13. ISCED 24, lower secondary education figures are the averages of primary education and upper secondary education. The teachers of the first two years of ISCED 24 (years 7 and 8) have the same salary conditions as those for ISCED 1, while the last two years of ISCED 24 (year 9 and 10) have the same salary and as those for ISCED 34. Therefore, the ISCED 1 figure applies to Years 7 and 8 of ISCED 24. The ISCED 34 figure applies to Years 9 and 10 of ISCED 24. The reported ISCED 24 figure is an average of these two. Caution should be used in interpreting the figures because this average does not reflect any real situation in New Zealand. The last increase in the teachers’ base scale salary was effective on July 2020.

Further changes to the information published in previous years do not reflect a real change as well, but a reporting revision. Therefore, caution should be used when interpreting the figures.

Teachers reach the top of the scale typically after 7 years; hence statutory salaries will be the same for all three time points: 10 years, 15 years, and the typical point when they reach the top of the scale. Therefore in New Zealand, any teacher who has been teaching for 10 years is considered to be at the top of the salary scale. Progression is on an annual basis subject to competent performance (a test situation against national professional standards), so a teacher would be expected to progress one step each year. Entry points differ according to the level of qualification upon entry into the service. In addition, the number of years it takes teachers to progress to the maximum salary step is dependent upon their qualifications.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: The minimum qualification required to be a teacher at either primary or secondary level (ISCED levels 1-34) is a three-year Bachelor of Teaching (ISCED 6). There are teachers in the workforce with historical initial teaching qualifications such as a Trained Teachers Certificate or Diploma of Teaching which are below ISCED 6. However typically today, a teacher at secondary level (years 9-13 covering the last two years of ISCED 2 and ISCED 3) will hold a subject or specialist qualification (at ISCED 6 or New Zealand Qualifications Framework Level 7) in addition to their one-year Graduate Teaching Diploma (again at ISCED 6, or New Zealand Qualifications Framework Level 7). At primary level (years 1-8, covering ISCED 1 and the first two years of ISCED 2, the most prevalent qualification is more likely to be a Bachelor of Teaching (ISCED 6 about 50% of ITE graduates)) although the pattern is increasingly shifting more towards that of secondary teachers. For secondary graduate teachers (years 9-13) the minimum and most prevalent qualifications are the same (i.e. subject content qualification (usually a Bachelors) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching). However, teachers who have trained overseas or are “primary trained” can work in secondary schools thus there could be differences between the minimum and typical for secondary teachers.

Comments on social benefits for teachers: New Zealand has a Teachers Retirement Savings Scheme; however, this is now closed to new members.

Norway:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The collective agreement between The Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS) and the teachers’ unions determines statutory minimum salaries. The local authorities are free to set the wages higher than the minimum wages in the collective agreement. As of 2022/23, the minimum qualification requirement to become a teacher in primary and secondary education will be a Master's degree in education (5 years at ISCED 7).

Notes on interpretation: Comments on qualifications of teachers: There are different types of qualifications that are linked to the educational level, which again determines the statutory salary level of the teachers:

  1. 1. Bachelor's Degree (180 ECTS)

  2. 2. Bachelor's Degree (240 ECTS)

  3. 3. Bachelor's Degree (300 ECTS)

  4. 4. Master's Degree (300 ECTS)

  5. 5. Master's Degree (360 ECTS or more).

At the pre-primary (ISCED 0) level, there is no difference between the minimum and maximum level of qualification. Thus, the most prevalent qualification is the minimum level, which is (1). At the primary (ISCED 1), lower secondary (ISCED 24) and upper secondary (ISCED 34) level; the minimum required level of education is (2). However, the most prevalent qualification varies between the ISCED levels. At the primary and lower secondary level, the most prevalent level of education is (3). At the upper secondary level, the most prevalent level of education is (5). The salary level in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education depends on the level of education; i.e. a teacher in primary education has the same statutory salary level as a teacher in upper secondary education if both of them have the same level of education and the same years of experience.

Comments on social benefits of teachers: The pension system for teachers in Norway does not differ significantly to the one of other workers in the public sector, but it does differ from workers in the private sector.

Poland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: For starting teachers, calculation was based on the salary of those classified as ‘trainee teachers’ on the professional promotion scale. For teachers with 10 years of experience, calculation was based on the salary of teachers classified as 'appointed teachers' on the professional promotion scale. For teachers with 15 years of experience, calculation was based on the salary of the teachers classified as 'chartered teachers' on the professional promotion scale. The local authorities may increase funds for teachers' remuneration, including the minimum statutory salaries determined in regulations. They may also authorise school heads, in individual cases and within the constraints of the school financial plan, to grant a higher minimum basic remuneration rate.

Notes on interpretation: The amended Teachers' Charter (amendment adopted on the 18th of February 2000) has introduced four grades in the teaching career (steps on the professional advancement scale): trainee teacher, contract teacher, appointed teacher and chartered teacher. There are no differences in the remuneration systems between teachers teaching in general and vocational programmes. Any possible differences in scheduled gross annual salaries of teachers in vocational and general programmes may be due to different minimum qualifications required from these teachers. Salaries of educational personnel who may not have teaching qualifications (that may happen in the case of professional personnel who teach vocational subjects) cannot be higher than a salary of the teacher with the highest promotion grade (chartered teacher). Only a small percentage of professional personnel does not have teaching qualification (around 1%) in the population of all teachers/professional personnel teaching vocational subjects at the ISCED levels from 3-5. In Poland the number of teachers with the lowest qualifications is negligible, so the results for this group are not representative and should not be published. Since school year 2019/2020 ISCED 1 includes 4 years of primary school (grades1-4) and ISCED 2 includes another 4 years of primary school (grades 5-8). Minimum qualifications required from teachers on ISCED 1 and ISCED 2 are the same.

Portugal:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Data refers to full-time equivalent teachers from public schools under the tutelage of the Ministry of Education, excluding vocational schools. However, at secondary level, teachers may teach general and/or vocational courses. Regardless of the entry qualifications and the education level, all teachers are paid on the same salary range, which consists of ten levels of four years each, except the 5th level which lasts two years.

The criteria ruling salary progression include participation in professional development activities and quotas. Lower and upper secondary teachers belong to some formal group (i.e. professores do 3.º ciclo do ensino básico e do ensino secundário). For this data collection, each teacher has been classified in the ISCED level in which his/her teaching load is higher.

In Portugal, the teacher’s career is unicategorical (e.g., the same, for all ISCED levels). It is composed by ten levels, all with the duration of 4 years, except the 5th level with 2 years. The progression is dependent on a set of rules, from participation in professional development activities, to the setting of quotas.

As a large proportion of upper secondary teachers teach both General courses and Vocational ones (and often at the same institution), Portugal reports aggregated data for upper secondary teachers in “General” (34) and “Vocational” (35). A teacher who does not teach scientific-humanistic courses in a given school year, may teach these courses in the following year.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Teachers are paid overtime work for the hours they teach beyond the statutorily established. The cost per hour depends on the position in the teaching career and the number of overtime hours (25% for the first hour and 50% for the second or more hours).

Notes on interpretation: Regardless of the entry qualifications and the education level, all teachers are paid on the same salary range, which consists of ten levels of four years each, except the 5th level which lasts two years. The criteria ruling salary progression include participation in professional development activities and quotas.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: In Portugal minimum, most prevalent and maximum qualification of teachers can be considered as the same. Therefore, the most prevalent qualification of teachers with 15 years of experience is a pre-bologna Licenciatura/post-Bologna Mestrado degree (ISCED 2011 level 7) and being a fully qualified teacher (e.g. approving provisional periods and other criteria). In addition, they have to undergo a certain length of service and approve periodical evaluations. To become a teacher, they must have pre-Bologna "Licenciatura" or Post-Bologna "Mestrado" (ISCED 7); initial teacher education (concurrent or consecutive); successful completion of a probationary period and an induction programme; competitive application (for the available teaching positions).

Scotland (United Kingdom):

Notes on coverage and methodology: The salary scales for different levels of teaching staff are agreed nationally and pay scales are set by the Scottish Negotiating Committee for Teachers (SNCT, see http://www.snct.org.uk/wiki/index.php?title=Appendix_2.1). SNCT is a tripartite body comprising members from teaching organisations, Local Authorities, and the Scottish Government. Data was cross-checked with Scottish Government officials responsible for the Scottish Negotiating Committee for Teachers and Early Learning and Childcare. Teachers' statutory salaries refer to the main grade scale.

As of April 2020, the starting salary is GBP 32 994 and goes to GBP 41 412 after 5 years.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: School teachers receive holiday pay.

Notes on interpretation: Comments on qualifications of teachers: "Pre-primary" is interpreted as Early Learning and Childcare (see http://www.gov.scot/Topics/People/Young-People/early-years/parenting-early-learning/childcare). "Entry to the teaching profession" is interpreted as having met the Standard for Full Registration, before which teachers will have met the Standard for Provisional Registration (see http://www.gtcs.org.uk/professional-standards/standards-for-registration.aspx.

All teachers need a graduate degree or equivalent plus a teaching qualification to gain Qualified Teacher Status. Teaching qualifications include undergraduate degrees (BEd, BA, BSc; ISCED 6) and postgraduate qualifications (PGDE; ISCED 7). The Standard for Provisional Registration (SPR) specifies what is expected of a student teacher at the end of Initial Teacher Education who is seeking provisional registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS). Having gained the SPR, all provisionally registered teachers continue their professional learning journey by moving towards the attainment of the Standard for Full Registration (SFR). The SFR is the gateway to the profession and the benchmark of teacher competence for all teachers.

Comments on social benefits of teachers: Teachers occupational pensions are different from other workers. However, social security arrangements are standard for all workers (both public and private sectors). The quoted salaries are gross salaries.

Slovak Republic:

Notes on interpretation: Moreover in the salary schedules of the Slovak Republic a higher level of qualification can increase the salary more than the years of experience, thus the differences in salaries for teachers with a minimum qualification and most prevalent qualification differ by around 10% in the categories salary after 15 years of experience and top scale but there is no difference between salaries for teachers with minimum qualification and most prevalent qualification in the categories starting salaries and salaries after 10 years of experience. Another explanation for the fact that there is no significant difference between both types of qualification, for starting salaries and salaries after 10 years of experience, is that sometimes minimum qualification is the same as most prevalent qualification.

  • Government Regulation No. 388/2018 Coll. which establishes increased scales of salary tariffs of employees performing work in the public interest (Nariadenie vlády SR č. 388/2018 Z. z. ktorým sa ustanovujú zvýšené stupnice platových taríf zamestnancov pri výkone práce vo verejnom záujme) https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2018/388/20200101.

  • Salary tariffs for teaching and professional staff and increase in salary tariffs depending on the length of credited work experience effective from 1 January 2020 No. 2019-18526:1-B2001 (Platové tarify pedagogických zamestnancov a odborných zamestnancov a zvýšenie platových taríf v závislosti od dĺžky započítanej praxe účinné od 1. januára 2020) https://www.minedu.sk/data/att/16799.pdf.

  • Decree No. 1/2020 Coll. of the Ministry of Education on qualification standards of pedagogical employees (Vyhláška Ministerstva školstva, vedy, výskumu a športu Slovenskej republiky č. 1/2020 Z. z. o kvalifikačných predpokladoch pedagogických zamestnancov a odborných zamestnancov) https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2020/1/20200115.

  • Assigning pedagogical employees to pay grades / Classification of pedagogical staff and professional staff into salary classes depending on the acquired level of required education and classification into career level from 1 January 2019 (Zaraďovanie PZ a OZ do platových tried v závislosti od získaného stupňa požadovaného vzdelania a zaradenia do kariérového stupňa od 1. januára 2019) https://www.minedu.sk/data/att/13950.pdf.

  • Law 553/2003 Coll. on the remuneration of certain groups of employees working in public interest and on the amendment of certain laws (Zákon 553/2003 Z. z. o odmeňovaní niektorých zamestnancov pri výkone práce vo verejnom záujme a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov) https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2003/553/20200101.html.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: Slovak teachers in public schools are public servants. It is obligatory to have an attainment at ISCED 7 as the minimum qualification for teachers in public schools to teach at ISCED 1, ISCED 24 or ISCED 34. Kindergarten teachers need a minimum qualification of ISCED 34, but they can also have ISCED levels 6 or 7. For this reason, the difference between minimum qualification and most prevalent qualification of teachers in Slovak Republic is negligible.

Comments on social benefits of teachers: In the Slovak Republic the pension and social security system is exactly the same for teachers as for civil/public servants and for civil/public and private sector workers.

Slovenia:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The December 2018 agreement for the public sector introduced a three-stage upgrade of the salary scale for pre-school teachers and teachers in primary, secondary and upper secondary education (general programmes). Both in January and November 2019, the minima and maxima grades were increased by one level. In September 2020, the maxima grades were increased by one level. In the reference year, teachers at ISCED levels 1, 24 and 34 were placed in grades 32 to 46 (compared to 30 to 43 in 2018). Pre-school teachers at ISCED level 02 were placed in grades 32 to 44 (compared to 30 to 41 in 2018).

Comments on annual statutory salaries of teachers with minimum qualification: Teachers’ annual statutory salaries include: (I) basic salary of a teacher which is determined by the salary grade into which the post is classified or the teacher has acquired through salary progression, (II) length of service bonus (years of employment; 0,33% of basic salary per year), (III) holiday bonus (EUR 1050.00) and (IV) reimbursement for meals during work (on average EUR 4.09 per working day - for 10.5 months).

Each category of teachers is also classified in a particular salary grade according to the promotion of salary grades depending on years of experience and performance appraisal and to the promotion of professional title (three promotions on the teaching career ladder are possible: Mentor, Advisor and Councillor). The criteria for reporting the annual statutory teacher compensation for a teacher with minimum level of qualification includes the following characteristics:

ISCED level 0:

  • Starting salary: 32. salary grade (12 months) + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

  • Salary after 10 years’ experience: holding professional title Mentor (mentor), 36. salary grade (12 months) + length of service bonus for 10 years of employment + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

  • Salary after 15 years’ experience: holding professional title Advisor (svetovalec), 42. salary grade (12 months) + length of service bonus for 15 years of employment + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

  • Salary at the top of the range: holding professional title Councillor (svetnik), 44. salary grade (12 months) + length of service bonus for 40 years of employment + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

ISCED levels 1, 24 and 34:

  • Starting salary: 32. salary grade (12 months) + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

  • Salary after 10 years’ experience: holding professional title Mentor (mentor), 35. 37. salary grade (12 months) + length of service bonus for 10 years of employment + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

  • Salary after 15 years’ experience: holding professional title Advisor (svetovalec), 43. salary grade (12 months) + length of service bonus for 15 years of employment + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

  • Salary at the top of the range: holding professional title Councillor (svetnik), 47. salary grade (12 months) + length of service bonus for 40 years of employment + holiday bonus + reimbursement for meals during work.

Explanatory notes on decision making authority: Statutory salaries are determined by the Public Sector Salary System Act (Central/State government or top level authorities) and with the Collective Agreement for Public Sector and other regulations based on the Act and CA, which specify common salary bases of all employees in the public sector and also allowances and additional payments. There is a common salary scale with 65 salary grades. All posts are classified into salary grades. Teachers at ISCED levels 1 to 2 and teachers in general programmes at ISCED 34 level are classified on a salary scale from 31 to 44 (since November 2019, 32 to 45 and since September 2020, 32 to 46), while pre-school teachers (ISCED level 0) from 31 to 42 salary grade (since November 2019, 32 to 43 and since September 2020, 32 to 44).

Notes on qualifications: In Slovenia, teachers may enter the teaching profession after acquiring initial teacher education (starting salary). After at least 5 months of experience, they have to pass the state professional examination that fully qualifies them for teaching. A fully qualified teacher is: ISCED level 0: First cycle higher education degree in pre-school education (ISCED 6) and state professional examination; ISCED levels 1, 24 and 34: Adequate second cycle higher education degree (ISCED 7), state professional examination.

Prior to year 1996, the required minimum level of attainment of teachers at ISCED level 1 and 2 was adequate short-cycle higher education degree (ISCED 5). Due to policy change the qualification requirements raised, but reported data includes also teaching staff with attainment at ISCED level 5. Similarly, before 1996 the required qualification of teachers at ISCED 0 was adequate upper secondary (ISCED 3) or short-cycle higher education degree (ISCED 5), after that the qualification requirements increased (ISCED 6). These teachers receive salary that is one or two salary grades lower than it would be if they had the required level of attainment.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: length of service bonus (years of employment; 0,33% of basic salary per year), holiday bonus (EUR 1 050) and reimbursement for meals during work (on average EUR 4.09 per working day, for 10.5 months).

Spain:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The data provided are weighted average teachers´ statutory salaries, which have been calculated from the regional educational departments based on the salaries in different Autonomous Communities weighted by the number of teachers in each one of them.

In Spain, decisions regarding teachers' and school heads' salaries are made by the Central Government and by the education authorities of the 17 Autonomous Communities (top-level authorities). The Central Government establishes the basic salary, the amount for seniority (trienios, as term use in Spanish)) and the allowance related to the level of the civil servant position held; the Autonomous Communities, by their part, establish the allowances related to the teaching profession, to in-service training (sexenios, as term use in Spanish) as Continuous Professional Development (CDP), and other salary supplements. The basic extra pays are established by the Central Government, but its specific amounts are decided by the Autonomous Communities.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: Teachers receive two extra payments per year. Each extra payment amounts to less than one month’s basic salary plus part of the bonus linked to length of service. In addition, the extra payment, in most of the Autonomous Communities, includes all of the allowances. A group of superior teachers (Catedráticos) receives an additional payment for this level. This category that can be achieved through a competency process where qualifications, experience, and educational background are evaluated.

Sweden:

Notes on coverage and methodology: There are no statutory salaries. The reported salaries refer to actual salaries including bonuses and allowances for the calendar year 2020. All salaries refer to full-time salaries, which means that part-time salaries have been calculated on a full-time basis.

Salaries on upper secondary general programmes (ISCED 34) also include salaries for upper secondary vocational programmes (ISCED 35). Teachers who teach mathematics in a general programme and/or in a vocational programme are included. Note that the data does not include salaries for teachers teaching vocational subjects. Teachers on ISCED level 0 were included in the register in 1999. Therefore, the data on this level is not as reliable as for other ISCED levels. Data for teachers on ISCED 0 only include teachers in pre-school class and leisure time centres. This applies when data on teachers' salaries is reported on basis of work experience, since Sweden lack information about work experience for pre-school teachers.

Salaries on upper secondary level (ISCED 34) also include salaries for ISCED 35, vocational education (but exclude the salaries of teachers teaching vocational subjects).

Notes on interpretation: Salary scales do not exist in Sweden. Salaries and workings conditions are stipulated in the country-wide collective agreement between teacher´s union and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and interpreted on a local level. Pay and working conditions are governed by collective agreements between the teacher unions and the employers' organisation the Swedish Association of Local Authorities. These stipulate minimum salaries and general working conditions. The more specific salary and working conditions of individual teachers are determined locally (i.e. at school level) in an individual-based pay system.

Starting teacher has been interpreted as teachers having worked for 1-2 years and Minimum level of training as teachers with pedagogical qualifications. In both cases, the median salary value is reported for the teachers in this category and therefore there are no data o which percentage of all teachers receiving this salary. Top of salary scale has been interpreted as teachers belonging to the 90th percentile, which means that 10% of teachers have higher or the same salary. Most prevalent qualifications have been interpreted as teachers with minimum level of training, i.e. fully qualified teachers with pedagogical education. Data on maximum qualifications are not available for Sweden. Data are not reliable enough to be reported yet, due to the fact, that registers only contain the extent of studies included in degrees from 1995 onwards.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: Salary scales do not exist in Sweden. "Starting teacher" has been interpreted as teachers having worked for 1-2 years. The median value of these teachers’ salaries is reported and therefore there are no data on which percentage of all teachers receiving this salary.

"Minimum level of training" has been interpreted as teachers with pedagogical qualifications. The median values of these teachers’ salaries are reported and therefore there are no data on which percentage of all teachers receiving this salary.

Data on "maximum qualifications" are not available for Sweden. Data are not reliable enough to be reported yet, due to the fact, that registers only contain the extent of studies included in degrees from 1995 onwards.

"Top of salary scale" has been interpreted as teachers belonging to the 90 percentile, which means that 10 % of teachers have higher or the same salary as the 90 percentile. Therefore there are no data on which percentage of all teachers receiving this salary.

"Typical qualifications" has been interpreted as teachers with minimum level of training, i.e. fully qualified teachers with pedagogical education.

To be qualified to teach at a school, a teacher should be registered and qualified for certain subjects and grades. Registration is required for a teacher to be able to independently set grades and to be a mentor to new teachers. Only registered teachers are qualified for permanent employment. A teacher can apply to be registered after a degree in initial teacher training. Generally, newly employed teachers must also complete an introductory period. The introduction should be adapted if the newly employed is newly graduated or has previous professional experience. The teacher will develop his/her teaching for a minimum of one academic year with the support of a mentor.

Switzerland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Teachers' salaries are determined by the 26 cantons as top-level authorities. The minimum qualification to enter the teaching profession is the same across cantons. The average number of years of service necessary to go from the starting to the top of the salary scale is an average of the 26 canton pay scales. Figures represent the weighted average of the cantonal legal requirements (2020) taking into account the number of full-time equivalents (2019/20).

Notes on interpretation: The differences between the cantons have to be interpreted in the context of their economic conditions, tax systems, living costs and wage levels.

For teachers with the minimum level of training and 10 years of experience, the available data refer to teachers with 11 years of experience. Special education teachers are not included.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: Teacher training in Switzerland underwent a change in the first decade of the years 2000. Newly trained pre-primary and primary school teachers have now qualifications at ISCED 64. The training programmes for teachers at the lower secondary level lead now to qualifications at ISCED 74. Before the change of the training system, lower secondary teachers needed, depending on the performance track in which they taught, to have either qualification at ISCED 34 or at ISCED 64.

Türkiye:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Teachers are provided with an expense fee at the beginning of the educational year.

There was an increase in the salaries of the teachers and school heads because of the regular increase for all public service employees. Each year the government determines how much to increase salaries of public service employees.

Notes on interpretation: Calculations of teacher salaries are based on maximum teaching hours (30 lessons per week). There are two kinds of laws depend on the experience of the teachers. The starting teachers and teachers with 10-year experience are subject to the law no. 5510 and the teachers with 15-year experience teachers are subject to the law no 5534. As the experience increases, the pay cuts increase. This causes 10-year teachers to receive more salaries than 15-year teachers.

Comments on qualifications of teachers: In Türkiye the minimum level of qualification is equal to the most prevalent qualification level of qualification of teachers for all levels of education.

United States:

Notes on coverage and methodology: In the United States, most teacher compensation issues are decided at the school district level. However, 17 of 50 states currently make use of state-wide teacher salary schedules to guarantee some level of minimum pay for teachers based on qualifications and years of experience. For more detailed information on state teacher salary schedules, please see this policy analysis written by the Education Commission of the States: http://www.ecs.org/ec-content/uploads/State-Teacher-Salary-Schedules-1.pdf.

The methodology for weighting departmentalised teachers differs between 2000 data and data for 2005-2013. Beginning in 2004, teachers were asked to indicate a grade level for each period taught and they were weighted using the grade for each period/class taught and counting the number of classes taught in each education level and using this to adjust the ISCED level weights. In 2000, teachers were not asked to specify grade levels for each period taught, so a question is used which asked teachers to indicate, overall, whether they taught students in each grade level. Each grade teachers indicated they taught was weighted equally to distributed teachers into ISCED levels for 2000.

Teachers’ salaries are decided at the local level and vary across local areas and states. Data for this survey come from a nationally representative sample survey of schools, teachers, and principals (National Teacher and Principal Survey 2017-18) inflated to 2020-21 constant dollars using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Data on statutory salaries are reported for median salaries based on teacher's reported base salaries.

Data on starting teachers are based on the median salary amounts earned by teachers with 2 or fewer years of teaching experience, in order to have larger sample sizes and more robust estimates. Across all ISCED levels, this represents about 10% of the teacher sample. In order to have larger sample sizes and more robust estimates, data on 10 years of teaching experience are based on the median salary amounts of teachers with 9, 10, and 11, years of teaching experience. Similarly, data on 15 years of teaching experience are based on the median salary amounts earned by teachers with 14, 15, or 16 years of teaching experience. Data on teachers at the top of the salary scale are based on the median salary amounts earned by teachers with 30 or more years of teaching experience.

Notes on interpretation: Comments on qualifications of teachers: The award given to teachers at the end of their initial teacher education, (typically) a bachelor’s degree, is not the same as the most prevalent qualification (for most ISCED levels and data years) but as the minimum qualification.

Data on salaries of teachers with most prevalent qualifications at the level of education are based on the median salary of all teachers with the qualification held by the largest proportion of teachers at each ISCED level (not necessarily the majority; but the most common qualification). For EAG 2022, the most prevalent qualification for pre-primary teachers was a bachelor’s degree; for primary, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers the most prevalent qualification was a master’s degree. Data on salaries of teachers with most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers’ careers are based on the median salary of all teachers with the qualification held by the largest proportion of teachers at the career point at each ISCED level (not necessarily the majority; but the most common qualification). For EAG 2022, the most prevalent qualification for starting teachers was a bachelor’s degree at all ISCED levels; the most prevalent qualification of teachers with 10 or 15 years of experience or at the top of the salary range was a master’s degree.

Note that the methodology for minimum and most prevalent qualification was revised for some categories in 2015 and this should be considered when comparing EAG estimates to data previously published before 2015.

Comment teachers’ salaries: Teachers’ salaries at the pre-primary level only includes pre-primary teachers in schools which have at least one grade above the pre-primary level; thus, teachers who teach in stand-alone pre-primary institutions are not included and these data are not representative of all pre-primary teachers in public institutions.

Teacher base salary does include employee contributions to the federal social security system which are withheld from employee wages throughout the year. This is true for all employees in the United States

Australia:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Data are based on weighted averages of state and territory education department responses.

Notes on interpretation: The consensus may not reflect practice in some jurisdictions. These data may vary from year to year based on the jurisdictions that provide information. It includes government schools and preschools, while excluding early childhood educational programmes delivered in long day-care centres.

Austria:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The actual average salaries were calculated for full-time equivalent teachers. Headmasters, deputies and assistants as well as heads of departments are excluded. Pre-primary education is largely provided in kindergartens, for which there are no data available. The remaining minority of pre-primary schools are integrated in primary schools. Data on these teachers are the same as for ISCED 1. At ISCED 34, vocational programmes are included.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Mean of the school heads monthly compensations over a school year. At ISCED 34, vocational programmes are included.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The sources are the staff payment database and the staff assignment database of the policy domain of education and training. Full time personnel aged 25 to 64 years in general subjects and required qualifications are included in the calculations and the scales mentioned in public regular pre-primary, primary and general secondary schools on 15 January of the reference year. The allowances and additional payments are included.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: The source is the staff payment database of the policy domain of education and training. Full time personnel aged 25 to 64 years and required qualifications are included in the calculations and the scales mentioned in public regular pre-primary, primary and secondary schools on 15 January of the reference year. The allowances and additional payments are included.

Notes on interpretation for teachers: Government-dependent private schools are included.

Notes on interpretation for school heads: For lower and upper secondary, only those schools that reflect the structure of ISCED level 2 and ISCED level 3 are included. Government-dependent private schools are included.

Belgium (French Community):

Notes on coverage and methodology: Average salary scale at ISCED level including the annual gross salary, end of the year bonus and vacation pay. Government-dependent private schools are included.

Notes on interpretation: The statutory teacher’s salary is about the same as the actual salary, except for teachers with the minimum level of qualification at the upper secondary level, whose actual salary is much lower. Moreover, their level of qualification is lower than the typical level of qualification of lower secondary teachers.

Costa Rica:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The data for the month of October 2021 are extracted, and extrapolated for the calculation of annual amounts.

Czech Republic:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Estimated data; the percentage of teachers for the reference year 2019/20 is calculated from the ISS databases for 2019 and 2020. As basic schools include primary and lower secondary level of education the salaries referring to ISCED levels 1 and 24 are the same. It is not possible to separate lower grades of multi-years gymnazia (ISCED 24) and vocational programmes of secondary education (ISCED 35), thus they are included in upper secondary level (ISCED 34).

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports uses data on teachers’ and school heads’ salaries from the database "Information system of salaries in the public sector” of the Ministry of Finance. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is not responsible for correctness of this database.

Denmark:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The reported actual salaries refer to all teachers by ISCED level. The part of pension contributions paid by employers has been excluded.

Notes on interpretation for teachers: The statistical databases containing actual salary data for teachers do not provide salary data excluding the part of pension contributions paid by employers, and including the part of pension contributions paid by employees. This distinction is without any practical importance in the Danish salary system because both parts are transferred to the teacher’s account for pension. So the actual salary data are therefore presented in the databases either with the total pension contribution included, or without pension contributions as a whole. The pension contribution paid by the employee has been calculated as 1/3 of the total pension contribution and added to the salaries

Please note that teachers in schools for students with special needs are not included, even though these schools are also public. This exclusion ensures the consistency with the method used in previous years.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: The reported actual salaries refer to all school heads by ISCED level. The part of pension contributions paid by employers has been excluded. Actual salaries of school heads aged 25-34 at the primary and lower secondary levels are not reported due to very small sample size (less than 10 individuals).

Notes on interpretation for school heads: The statistical databases containing actual salary data for school heads do not provide salary data excluding the part of pension contributions paid by employers, and including the part of pension contributions paid by employees. This distinction is without any practical importance in the Danish salary system because both parts are transferred to the school heads account for pension. So the actual salary data are therefore presented in the databases either with the total pension contribution included, or without pension contributions as a whole. The pension contribution paid by the employee has been calculated as 1/3 of the total pension contribution and added to the salaries.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The population of teachers covered by the actual salary figures includes full-time classroom teachers aged between 25 and 64 who are employed in maintained schools and academies. The population includes teachers paid on the unqualified teacher pay range, who are following an employment-based route to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS), and teachers paid the main, upper and leading practitioner pay ranges. It includes teachers paid on all four geographical pay ranges in the framework.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: The population of head teachers covered by the actual salary figures includes full-time head teachers aged between 25 and 64 who are employed in maintained schools and academies. The population includes head teachers paid on the head teacher pay ranges Group 1-8. It includes teachers paid on all four geographical pay ranges in the framework. Executive headteachers, that is to say headteachers who are responsible for more than one school, have been excluded.

Notes on interpretation: Percentage of teachers with attainment at ISCED level 5 or lower/level 6/levels 7 or 8: The figures do not add up to 100% because there are a minority of teachers for whom the ISCED level is unknown.

Both maintained schools and academies are publicly funded, but whereas maintained schools classify as public schools, academies classify as publicly funded independent schools. Academies are not required to follow the statutory pay ranges for maintained schools. Both maintained schools and academies are included in the actual salary figures.

ISCED 02 and ISCED 1: The actual salary figures provided for ISCED 02 and ISCED 1 are combined. A significant proportion of provision of ISCED 02 is provided in settings other than schools. The figures are only for teachers of pupils in nurseries and primary schools and do not apply to other ISCED 02 settings.

ISCED 24 and 34: The actual salary figures provided for ISCED 24 and 34 are combined. A significant proportion of provision at ISCED 34 is provided in further education colleges, including sixth form colleges. The figures are only for teachers of pupils in schools and do not apply to further education colleges.

Estonia:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The data of average annual actual teacher compensation are not only for the group of 25-64, but for all teachers. We do not have salaries information by age or by gender. 91% of public preschool teachers and 87% of public general education teachers are aged between 25-64. Percentage of teachers aged 25-64 by ISCED level of attainment: % of teachers in full-time equivalent.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: The data of average gross annual salary of school heads are not only for the age group of 25-64, but for all heads. We do not have salaries information by age or by gender. Percentage of school heads aged 25-64 by ISCED level of attainment - percentage heads in full-time equivalent. 91% of public preschool heads and 93% of public general education teachers are aged 25-64. Percentage of school heads aged 25-64 by ISCED level of attainment: Primary + lower secondary + upper secondary programmes: the number of heads in full-time equivalent is divided between different ISCED levels according to the share of pupils between the ISCED levels.

Notes on interpretation: The data of average annual actual teacher/school head compensation are not only for the group of 25-64, but for all teachers/school heads. We do not have salaries information by age or by gender. 89% of public preschool teachers and 91% of public general education teachers are aged 25-64. Percentage of teachers/school heads aged 25-64 by ISCED level of attainment: percentage of teachers in full-time equivalent.

Finland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Data from October of the reference year. Monthly actual salary with the holiday bonus which is 4-6% of the salary. The data on pre-primary teachers includes the salary data of kindergarten teachers who are the majority of teachers at ISCED 02.

Notes on interpretation: For the years 2017-2019 holiday pay was cut due to a nationwide competitiveness pact. This reduced the holiday pay roughly 30%. This is why, there are negative changes in average gross annual earnings between the school years 2016/17 and 2017/18. As of 2020 the holiday pay cut does not apply anymore, the holiday pay has returned into its normal level.

France:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The SIASP database uses monthly payroll records of the state for the majority of their public servants. The data reported on teachers' actual salaries refer to full-time civil servant (permanent) teachers (employed for more than 95% of the statutory number of hours of work for a full-time employee over a complete school year). The scope of teachers' actual salaries is broader than that of teachers’ statutory salaries:

  • At ISCED 02-1 levels, teachers with a partial release from their teaching obligations accounting for 50% or more of the full teaching time are excluded from the teachers’ scope but included in the school heads’ scope (see Head2).

  • At ISCED 2 and 3 levels, besides professeurs certifiés (most prevalent qualification) and professeurs agrégés (maximum qualification), the scope includes other permanent teachers (sport teachers (EPS), professeurs d'enseignement général des collèges (PEGC), VET teachers teaching in general programmes, etc.).

Data refers to 2019 and covers the whole France, except Mayotte. The gross actual salary is obtained by adding to gross salary indexes, the residence allowance (IR), the family allowance (SFT) and other allocated bonuses and allowances.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: The SIASP database uses monthly payroll records of the state for the majority of their public servants. The data reported on heads’ actual salaries refer to full-time civil servant (permanent) school heads (employed for more than 95% of the statutory number of hours of work for a full-time employee over a complete school year). At ISCED 02-1, teachers with a partial release from their teaching obligations accounting for 50% or more of the full teaching time are excluded from the teachers’ scope but included in the school heads’ scope at ISCED 02-1.

Data covers the whole France (excluding Mayotte). The gross actual salary is obtained by adding to gross salary indexes the residence allowance (IR), the family allowance (SFT) and other allocated bonuses and allowances.

Note on interpretation for teachers: The scope of teachers’ actual salaries is broader than the one of teachers’ statutory salaries: it includes teachers with maximum qualifications (“professeurs agrégés”) at ISCED 2-3. At ISCED 02-1 levels teachers with a partial release from their teaching obligations accounting for 50% or more of the full teaching time are excluded from the teachers’ scope but included in the school heads’ scope at ISCED 02-1 levels. Concerning the percentage of teachers by ISCED level of attainment: the available data do not enable to differentiate teachers of ISCED 02 level from those of ISCED 1 level and teachers of ISCED 24 level from those of ISCED 34 level.

Note on interpretation for school heads: The actual salaries for school heads at ISCED 02-1 levels and at ISCED 2-3 levels are aggregated data for these levels.

Changes in actual salaries of teachers and school heads:

  • The PPCR for the period 2017-2020 increased the "indice majoré" (or base amount that is multiplied by the index point to calculate the base salary) on 1st January 2019: +5pts.

  • Increase at the beginning of the 2019 school year in the allowance received by teachers and school head working in disadvantaged area (REP+) (decree of August 28th, 2018 - NOR:MENH1821396A and decree of July 23th, 2019 - NOR: MENH1919173A)

  • In September 2019, decree no. 2019/309 of 11 April 2019 came into force, creating a second overtime hour (Heure Supplémentaire Année) that cannot be refused by teachers. The first overtime hour (HSA) counts as 1.2 (20% increase of the rate of pay), the second hour counts as 1.

Germany:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Salaries represent a weighted average of the data available at Länder level for civil servants and include general post allowances where applicable and special annual payments. Holiday pay is included. The figures provided for the actual salaries are estimations. In addition to the figures provided, the family allowance must be taken into account for which, however, no data are available. The family allowance varies according to the salary group and the family circumstances of the civil servant. Level 1 relates to the family situation of the civil servant, while levels 2 and above relate to the number of children he or she has. The family allowance also varies across the Länder.

Greece:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Data for ISCED 1 include teachers in ISCED 02 (nipiagogeia) and in special needs education. Data for ISCED 34 include teachers in lower secondary education, special needs education, vocational education and adult education programmes for attainment of ISCED 24 level. More than 10 000 teachers were recruited in August 2021: 13.04% in ISCED 02, 40.84% in ISCED 1 and 46.12% in secondary education (ISCED 24 and ISCED 34). The calculation of actual salaries does not take into account their pay (which covers a period of one month or less).

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Data for ISCED 1 include school heads in ISCED 02 (nipiagogeia) and in special needs education. Data for ISCED 34 include school heads in lower secondary education, special needs education, vocational education and adult education programmes for attainment of ISCED 24 level.

Notes on interpretation for teachers: Gross salaries include base salaries and allowances given to individual teachers depending on their circumstances (e.g. number of dependent children, allowances for teaching in disadvantaged or remote areas, etc.) before taxation and including all contributions paid by teachers for pension, insurance, solidarity, etc. This must be taken into consideration when these average salaries are compared to average teachers' salaries of countries that report net salaries instead of gross, or in the case of countries that report only average base salaries. Salaries of teachers who do not teach full-time as specified in relevant legislation (Law 3848/2010, art.5 para. 1) or teachers who are school heads or teachers who serve as school counsellors or directors or regional directors etc. have not been included. Salaries of pre-primary teachers refer only to teachers in Kindergartens (for children aged 4-5) of the Hellenic Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.

Statutory salary grades and scales do not distinguish between male and female teachers. Also, they do not distinguish between teachers in general programmes and teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes or special needs education programmes or adult education programmes.

ISCED 02 and ISCED1: administrative data from 52 150 teachers with permanent contracts and 26 512 full-time substitute teachers have been used including teachers serving in special needs education schools, as their exclusion from the data was not possible. ISCED 24 and ISCED 34: administrative data from 54 196 teachers with permanent contracts and 13 961 full-time substitute teachers have been used including teachers in vocational secondary schools, adult education programmes (for completion of ISCED 2), and special needs education schools, as their exclusion from the data was not possible.

All ISCED levels: Average salaries of teachers aged 25-64 and the average salaries by gender do not include teachers older than 64 and younger than 25 this year. Attainment level statistics exclude categories of substitute teachers for whom full attainment level data were not available, so they are based on attainment statistics for 52 150 teachers for ISCED 02 and ISCED 1, and 54 196 teachers for ISCED 24 and 34. Attainment data are given with reservation, as they are not collected and updated systematically by the payroll system, and it is possible that part of the data have not been updated (especially data on attainment at ISCED levels 7 or 8).

Notes on interpretation for school heads: Gross salaries include base salaries, the school head allowance, and allowances given to school heads depending on their circumstances (e.g. number of dependent children, allowances for working in remote areas, etc.) before taxation and including all contributions paid by the school heads for pension, insurance, solidarity, etc. This must be taken into consideration when these average salaries are compared to average school heads' salaries of countries that report net salaries instead of gross, or in the case of countries that report only average base salaries. The salaries reported refer to all school heads including school heads with more than minimum qualifications requirements. School head attainment data are given with reservation, as attainment data are not collected systematically by the payroll system, and it is possible that a part of the data (on school heads with attainment at ISCED level 7 or 8) have not been updated.

Administrative payroll data have been used. In ISCED 02 and ISCED 1 school heads' average salary data, school heads serving in special needs education schools have also been included, as their exclusion from the data was not possible. In ISCED 2 and ISCED 3 school heads' average salary data, school heads serving in special needs education schools have also been included, as well as school heads in vocational secondary schools, adult education programmes (for completion of ISCED 2), due to the fact that their exclusion from the data was not possible. Average salaries of school heads aged 25-64 and the average salaries by gender include school heads older than 64 and younger than 25. Attainment data are given with reservation, as they are not collected and updated systematically by the payroll system, and it is possible that part of the data have not been updated (especially data on attainment at ISCED levels 7 or 8).

Hungary:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Pre-primary data include teachers in NACE 85.1 and ISCO 2342. Primary and lower secondary teachers include teachers in NACE 85.2 and 85.3 and ISCO 2341. The actual salary figures under primary level refer to teachers teaching at primary and lower secondary levels with no distinction between education levels. Upper secondary school teachers include teachers in NACE 85.3 and ISCO 2330.

Data refers to the actual annual average gross values of teachers' earnings in HUF (Hungarian Forint). Data are based on the Hungarian Structure of Earnings Survey. The individual wage/earnings survey has been carried out according to the EU requirements for the Structure of Earnings Survey in Hungary since 2002. The circle of data suppliers includes all institutions in the public sector. The survey covers full-time, as well as part-time employees. The survey is carried out for the reference month of May. Monthly gross earnings are calculated for the reference month including regular earnings elements and 1/12th of the total amount of non-monthly bonuses and rewards received in the previous year. The methodology of the calculation assures that gross earnings for May represent an average monthly earning in the surveyed year. Therefore, gross monthly earnings can be used to calculate gross annual earnings.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Pre-primary data include educational managers in NACE 85.1 and ISCO 1345. Primary and lower secondary educational managers include teachers in NACE 85.2 and ISCO 1345. The actual salary figures shown under primary education refer to school heads in single structure primary and lower secondary schools. Upper secondary school heads include teachers in NACE 85.3 and ISCO 1345. Furthermore ISCO 1345 consist of other occupations than Educational Manager. Actual salaries at upper secondary level include actual school head salaries in 4-, 6- and 8-year gimnazium.

Notes on interpretation for teachers: It is not possible to provide separate data about primary and lower secondary education. Primary schools in Hungary provide education from age 6 to age 14. Teachers teaching in these schools are classified as primary school teachers, although these teachers teach in lower secondary grades as well. Teachers teaching at ISCED2 in 8-and 6- year gimnázium are in the primary category.

Notes on interpretation for school heads: It is not possible to separate educational managers in primary education and lower secondary education for single structure primary and lower secondary schools. Therefore, at primary level school head salaries of single structure primary and lower secondary (which provide education from age 6 to age 14) school heads are shown. Educational manager working in these schools are classified as primary school teachers, although these educational managers work in lower secondary grades as well. Values at upper secondary level also include school heads of 6- and 8-year gimnazium, which cover ISCED2 (at least partly) and ISCED 3.

Iceland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: Data on salaries is from the Icelandic Survey on Wages, Earnings and Labour Costs that is a sample survey. Means are weighted means according to the survey design. In pre-primary about 50% of employees working with caring and teaching of children are classified as teachers aids and are not included in the data. Pre-primary also include teachers in ISCED 01. It is not possible to distinguish between primary and lower secondary school teachers. Upper secondary also include teachers in ISCED 35 (vocational programmes).

Notes on interpretation: The period is the academic school year from August 2020 to July 2021. Salaries are rounded to the nearest thousand ISK. In pre-primary schools it is not possible to distinguish between teachers with ISCED level 6 and 7. Thus, some teachers in pre-primary schools that have ISCED level 7 are included in ISCED level 6.

Ireland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The reported actual salaries correspond to the average of the second payroll in February 2021 (full-time equivalents).

Notes on interpretation for teachers: The revised basic pay scale took effect from 1st January 2011; however certain allowances were awarded to teachers who entered the teaching profession between January 2011 and February 2012. Therefore teachers who started within this date range are paid in line with the revised salary scale and are eligible for certain allowances not awarded to teachers who entered the profession after February 2012. The circular 0060/2020 states It should be noted that certain allowances for new beneficiaries were abolished with effect from 1 February 2012 and their appearance in the attached pay scales does not confer an entitlement to the allowance where the staff member was not already entitled to the allowance.

Israel:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: According to the manual, actual salary is based on annual salary of all the FTE that is 90% or more of full-time statutory job. In each level of education, the actual salary is calculated by dividing the total wages of those positions by the number of FTE, according to necessary adjustments and supplements paid one time a year, like bonus for vacation, clothing and "Long School Day". Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads:

  1. 1. According to the manual, actual salary is based on annual salary of all the FTE that is 90% or more of full-time statutory job. In each level of education, the actual salary is calculated by dividing the total wages of those positions by the number of FTE, according to necessary adjustments and supplements paid one time a year, like bonus for vacation or clothing.

  2. 2. The data reported in the table are for school heads working full-time (over 90% statutory definition of a local job in Israel), by setting the OECD guidelines.

  3. 3. In 2008 begin the realization of the New Horizon Reform in the pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education. All the school heads in the primary and lower secondary education are working under the conditions of the reform. There are no school heads in the pre-primary education.

Notes on interpretation: For the average actual teachers' salaries (including bonuses and allowances) there is no statistically significant data for male teachers at ISCED 02 as there are less than 50 male kindergarten teachers in the system.

The distribution of salary data by age and gender for teachers in upper secondary school is not available.

Notes on interpretation for school heads: The school heads whose level of attainment is ISCED6 or lower, are school heads in post for a long time. Today, in all the education levels, a new school head needs at least a MA (ISCED 7) to receive the job.

Italy:

The decrease of actual salaries of around 1% is due to hiring of large number of part time teachers. Many of them were older than the entry level salary age, so they entered, with basic salary in higher salary classes. This mismatch among age and seniority caused in every class decreasing of weighted mean.

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Weighted average of salaries between classes of teachers.

Teachers at ISCED 0 and ISCED 1 level have the same qualification and remuneration, therefore the value refers to an aggregate of the two levels.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Weighted average annual salary of school heads by age group.

Notes of interpretation for school heads: As each school generally comprises several ISCED levels, it is not possible to give actual figures separately for each level. Compared to last year salaries are lower because new school heads have been employed and so the number of regent school heads has decreased. Indeed, at the regent school head is paid an integration of allowances (80% of the variable part). Moreover, due to this integration, the actual average salary is higher than the statutory salary.

Korea:

Notes on interpretation: For ISCED 02, only public kindergarten (governed by the Ministry of Education) is included in the data collection; public child care (governed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare) is not included in the data collection as no data is available.

Latvia:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Actual salaries are calculated together from all funding sources (state and local government). Only salaries of teachers working 0.9 of one work-load and more are included. Average actual salaries of full-time teachers are calculated according to their age groups. Information about incidental/occasional additional payments to teachers is not included; however other allowances are included. The State Education Information System does not differentiate between qualifications at ISCED level 6, 7 or 8.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Salaries are calculated together from all funding sources (central level (state) and local government). Only salaries of school-heads working 0.9 of one workload and more are included. Average actual salaries of school heads are calculated according to the respective age group.

Notes on interpretation for teachers: The State Education Information System contains information whether a teacher has higher education or not (not below ISCED 5 for pre-primary teachers, and not below ISCED 6 for primary to upper-secondary teachers). Data are not differentiated further whether a teacher has actually ISCED 6, 7, or ISCED 8 level of attainment. No data available this year in the register about male pre-primary teachers. From 1 September 2020, the lowest salary rate for teachers was set at EUR 790 (1 September 2019, the lowest salary rate was 750 EUR) i.e. an increase of 5%. Trends affecting real average wages: The number of primary and lower-secondary education teachers who work with a workload that is less than 0.9 in total for all schools where a teacher is employed has increased; the number of teachers over the age of 64 has increased overall.

Notes on interpretation for school heads: Trends affecting actual average salary data: Large municipalities have increased support in the form of bonuses for school heads; the number of teachers and school heads over the age of 64 has increased overall.

Lithuania:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Actual data include all teachers, working in public institutions. It is not possible to compute a representative average of actual salaries of teachers paid at different levels of education. The data on actual salaries include teachers who are unqualified.

Netherlands:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The actual salary figures are calculated as from the pay scales and allowances stipulated in the collective agreement weighted to the number of teachers paid on each salary scale and step (according to data provided by the school boards), including part-time teachers (converted to full-time equivalents). Additional allowances that school boards may grant are not included.

Notes on methodology for school heads: The actual salaries are the weighted average for the FTE’s for each scale and period times the statutory salary for each combination of scale and period. The level of attainment is collected via a questionnaire.

Notes on interpretation: Teachers hired via employment agencies are excluded. These data are not available.

New Zealand:

Notes on methodology: Average salary calculations are based on teachers that worked over 90% of the February-November period, given that December-January is the summer holiday period.

Notes on interpretation for teachers: The New Zealand Education System does not have a separate explicit ISCED 24 system. The first two years of ISCED 2 (Years 7 and 8) are part of the NZ primary system, and the second two years (Years 9-10) are covered by the NZ secondary system. The last increase in the school heads base scale salary was effective on July 2020.

Data supplied for these tables for ISCED schools includes all teachers at Intermediate (Year 7 & 8) and Restricted Composite (Year7-10) schools, as well as Teachers on a Primary Contract at Secondary (year 7-15 or 9-15) Schools, and Teachers on a Secondary Contract at Composite (Year 1-15) schools.

Notes on interpretation for school heads: The New Zealand Education System does not have a separate explicit ISCED 24 system. The first two years of ISCED 2 (Years 7 and 8) are part of the NZ primary system, and the second two years (Years 9-10) are covered by the NZ secondary system. The last increase in the school heads base scale salary was effective on July 2020. Data supplied in this worksheet for ISCED schools includes all Principals at Intermediate (Year 7-8), Restricted Composite (Year 7-10) schools, Composite (Year 1-15) and Correspondence School.

Norway:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The municipalities submit information on actual wages to The Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS) once a year. The reference date is December 1st each year. The municipalities shall state the salary earned in November and paid in December. The municipalities shall provide information on all of their employees, except employees with a very loose (volatile) employment. KS reviews the data and the municipalities must, if necessary, correct the data.

Notes on interpretation: The figures for the percentage of teachers aged 25-64 by ISCED level of attainment do not include employees with unknown education. For some employees it is hard or impossible to determine their ISCED level of attainment. Therefore, the figures reported this year do not include these employees.

Poland:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Due to the ongoing coronavirus epidemic, temporary limitation of the functioning of education system units in school-year 2020/21 (not all teachers were fully paid - some teachers were not entitled to all allowances) as well as the method of collecting data on teachers' salaries in School Education Information System database (8-month and annual settlement), it is not possible to present the actual salaries of teachers for year 2020/21. Incomplete calculation results may lead to misinterpretation of the survey.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Due to the ongoing coronavirus epidemic, temporary limitation of the functioning of education system units in school-year 2020/21 (not all teachers were fully paid - some teachers were not entitled to all allowances or received demurrage wages), as well as the method of collecting data on teachers' salaries in School Education Information System database (8-month and annual settlement), it is not possible to present the actual salaries of teachers for year 2020/21. Incomplete calculation results may lead to misinterpretation of the survey.

Notes on interpretation: Due to the educational reform in Poland implemented since the beginning of 2017, 3-year lower secondary school called gimnazjum (ISCED 24) ceased to operate in 2019 after the last cohort of students completed this type of school. The main assumptions of the education reform are the liquidation of lower secondary schools and the return to the eight-year primary school, as well as the modification of vocational education by replacing basic vocational schools with stage I sectoral vocational schools. One of the objectives of the reform is also to extend the cycle of education in general secondary schools from three to four years and in technical secondary schools from four to five years. Since school year 2019/20 ISCED 1 includes 4 years of primary school (grades1-4) and ISCED 2 includes another 4 years of primary school (grades 5-8).

Portugal:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: The average annual gross salary has been calculated on the basis of salaries paid in May 2020. Allocation of teachers in lower or upper secondary education has been made according to their respective teaching load.

Notes on interpretation: Explanation of the differences between the data that is now reported, and the data reported and published in the past, by Eurydice Network:

  • All the teachers were considered by Eurydice Network, regardless of age.

  • The same average gross annual salary for lower and upper secondary teachers was reported, since in Portugal these teachers can teach lower and/or upper secondary programmes.

Actual salaries must exclude the part of social security and pension scheme contributions paid by the employers. If they are included, please indicate and justify: In Portugal, in public schools under the tutelage of the Ministry of Education, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers (ISCED 2 and 3) may have part of his/her weekly teaching time allocated to vocational programmes. However, the differences are not significant.

Notes on methodology for school heads: Average annual gross salaries have been calculated on the basis of the salaries paid in May 2018. As the same school/school cluster could teach programmes of various ISCED levels, the same value was considered to all ISCED levels.

Notes on interpretation: In Portugal, most schools are grouped in school clusters, which contain schools teaching courses in various ISCED levels. In these cases, the school head may be from any ISCED level taught at any of the schools belonging to that school cluster, and are paid similarly. Principals, deputy principals and principal's assistants receive an increase in salary during the assignment for the position and according to the total number of students enrolled in their respective clustered and non-clustered schools.

Slovak Republic:

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Actual salary data for school heads are included in actual salary data for teachers.

Notes on interpretation: The collected data on average salary refers to average salaries for ISCED 1 and ISCED 24. Both categories are pooled together and cannot be separated.

Slovenia:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Data on the reported actual salaries refer to: at ISCED 02, pre-school teachers at ISCED 01 and 02; at ISCED 1, generalist (class) teachers; at ISCED 2, subject specialist teachers; at ISCED 34, general subjects teachers (in general and vocational upper secondary schools) and educators at residence halls for students. At ISCED 1, 2 and 34 levels, the reported actual salaries include the average of three-monthly salaries in 2019 and nine in 2020 (provisional data). The calculations are based on the payments to teachers who worked full-time for the same employer the entire year (SURS). At ISCED 02, the reported actual salaries correspond to the sum of the average salaries of teachers at ISCED 01 and 02 in the school year 2019/20. Data include teachers of all ages (ISPAP). Data on the average annual actual teachers’ salaries do not include all additional payments and allowances (annual holiday bonus, reimbursement for meals during work, reimbursement of travel expenses, long-service award (jubilejna nagrada)).

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: Data on the average actual school heads’ salaries is composed of a sum of average salaries received in school year 2019/20. Data include head teachers of all ages. At ISCED 02 level, data refer to school heads of kindergartens that provide ISCED 01 and 02 levels (kindergartens provide both levels and are headed by one school head). At ISCED 1 and 24, data refer to school heads of basic schools that provide both educational levels (single structure basic school is headed by one school head). At ISCED 34, data refer to school heads (directors (direktorji) and head teachers (ravnatelji) of schools, school centres and organisational units of schools/centres which provide general educational programme.

Notes on interpretation: Data on the average annual actual teachers’/school head’s salaries include additional payments and allowances except the annual holiday bonus, reimbursement for meals during work, reimbursement of travel expenses, long-service award (jubilejna nagrada).

Sweden:

Notes on coverage and methodology for teachers: Actual teachers' salary are based on data of teachers with pedagogical qualifications from Statistics Sweden (SCB) and include bonuses and allowances. Salaries on upper secondary level (ISCED 34) also include salaries for ISCED 35, vocational education (but exclude the salaries of teachers teaching vocational subjects).

Pay and working conditions are governed by collective agreements between the teacher unions and the employers' organisation the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR). These stipulate minimum salaries and general working conditions. The more specific salary and working conditions of individual teachers are determined locally (i.e. at school level) in an individual-based pay system.

Notes on coverage and methodology for school heads: First, a joint table was created from the Register of teaching personnel 2020 and the Register of personnel in pre-primary 2020 Duplicates were corrected. If an individual appears both as a teacher and a school head, he/she is considered as principal if the scope of school head service is > 50%, otherwise he/she will be counted as a teacher. However, if the service scope for the teacher service and the school head service is high (50/50 or 65/65), the individual was counted as a teacher. This has historical reasons, before the collection of school head´s salaries in OECD teachers with a teacher service and a school head service of (for example of 50/50 or 65/65) was only counted as teacher.

Second, a match was made to the Register of wage and salary structures and employment in the primary municipalities 2020, to retrieve data on salary, age, and gender. Then the groupings were made according to the instruction. Allowances are included.

Notes on interpretation for teachers: Teachers on ISCED level 0 were included in the register in 1999. Therefore, the data on this level is not as reliable as for other ISCED levels. Data for teachers on ISCED 0 only include teachers in pre-school class and leisure time centres. This applies when data on teachers’ salaries is reported on basis of work experience, since Sweden lack information about work experience for pre-school teachers.

Notes on interpretation for school heads: It is not possible to distinguish the salaries between school heads on ISCED 1 and ISCED 24, therefore the same salary is reported. Data is missing for school heads on ISCED 34 aged 25-34 because of too few observations.

United States:

Notes on methodology and interpretation: Data for this survey come from a nationally representative sample survey of schools, teachers, and principals (National Teacher and Principal Survey 2017-18) inflated to 2020-21 constant dollars using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Data reported for actual salaries of teachers include median teacher earnings from base pay, extracurricular activities, and merit/bonus pay. Data reported for actual salaries of school heads are the same as reported for statutory salaries - median salaries based on school head's reported base salaries - but include only salaries of school heads ages 25 to 64.

Please note that other combinations of earnings are also possible with the inclusion of pay from teaching summer school, non-teaching jobs at school during the summer, and non-school jobs.

Australia:

Notes on interpretation: The consensus may not reflect practice in some jurisdictions. These data may vary from year to year based on the jurisdictions that provide information. It includes government schools and preschools, while excluding early childhood educational programmes delivered in long day-care centres.

Allowances related to students counselling, special tasks: Collective bargaining as set out in the Enterprise Agreement for each jurisdiction. Information on amount of allowance and how it is calculated has not been provided by jurisdictions.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teacher: Rural and remote incentive schemes may (not mandatory) incorporate a range of incentive options, including (but not limited to): subsidised accommodation, concessional travel arrangements, education assistance for dependents, additional leave entitlements, additional learning and development entitlements and priority transfer following a period of service. Information on amount of allowance and how it is calculated has not been provided by jurisdictions.

Austria:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Head of department: 67% of head's allowance.

Administrative support of head: 33% or 50% of head's allowance depending on the type of school; Coordination of teachers: between EUR 87 and EUR 104 per month depending on the school size.

New service code: Head of department: EUR 349 to EUR 989 per month depending on the type of school and school size

Administrative support of head: EUR 466 to EUR 838 per month depending on school size.

Coordination of teachers: EUR 175 per month.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: 1.3% of the monthly salary per teaching-hour.

Allowances related to students counselling: Between EUR 82 and EUR 328 per month depending on the school size; New service act: EUR 175 per month.

Allowances related to special tasks: Training student teachers: on average EUR 2 100 per year. New service act: Training student teachers: EUR 175 per month.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Between EUR 96 and EUR 213 per month depending on level of education/type of school for 10 month a year; New service act: no additional payment but statutory duty.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: EUR 122 and EUR 204 per month depending on the number of starting teachers; New service act: between EUR 105 an EUR 175 depending on the number of starting teachers.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: For teachers recruited as of 2019/20 only: for teaching 'work-intense' subjects (more time required for preparation, corrections e.g. (foreign) language, mathematics) between EUR 15 and EUR 36 per weekly hour per month for 12 months a year depending on the subject and level.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Only new service act: for special education teachers in mainstream classes up to EUR 175 per month depending on the proportion of assignment.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of the teacher: Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation), the pay is Maximum - 140% of the basic salary.

Allowances related to teachers’ qualifications, training and performance: Further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc. From EUR 45.82173 to EUR 137.488 per month for the successful completion of specific education leading to certain certificates and diplomas.

Belgium (French Community):

Notes on interpretation: Most representative salary scale at ISCED level including the annual gross salary, end of the year bonus and vacation pay.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Lessons in addition to a full-time schedule (= ancillary function) represent only 0.0035% of total hours worked at ISCED levels 02, 1, 24 and 34. Additional teaching hours are paid on the minimum salary scale and don't entitle to holiday benefits nor to thirteen-month benefits.

Allowances related to special tasks: The amount vary according to the level in which the training student is doing his trainee:

  • EUR 2.61 per period (of 50 minutes) if the student does his trainee at ISCED 02, 1 or 2, with a maximum of 40 days per year and per teacher.

  • EUR 3.86 per period (of 50 minutes) if the student does his trainee at ISCED 3, with a maximum of 160 days per year and per teacher.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: Teachers at ISCED 02, 1 and 24 who, in addition to the minimum qualification (bachelor), hold a master's degree in educational science, are paid at scale 501 (the most common scale at ISCED 34) instead of the scale 301. At the beginning of career, they are paid EUR 39 817 instead of EUR 32 010 (scale 301).

Brazil:

Notes on interpretation: Brazil has a decentralised system; therefore each one of the 26 states, the federal district and more than 5 000 municipalities has their own teachers career plan.

Colombia:

Notes on interpretation: For this report we used information regulated in

the Statutory Teacher Compensation 1278 of 2002 considering that the new entrants in the public sector is governed by this statute Therefore, the percentages are measured in relation to this scale.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: All the teaching positions go out to public contest and have defined the functions and their salary is determined by national law. There are directive positions called coordinators, but these are not teachers and do not have teaching obligations. Teachers cannot assume management responsibilities.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: The value of overtime is determined in the salary law.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: It is voluntary at the discretion of individual teachers or heads of schools. No additional payment.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: it is not required.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: The entrance to the teaching career is carried out through a merit contest and salary range is in accordance with the teacher's qualification. A teacher enters at a specific salary range, and when he/she finishes a postgraduate program, must hand in formally the corresponding documents, to receive an increase in their salary, according to the increment established by the salary law.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: There is no direct salary increase or allowance for having participated in these professional development activities. These are offered by the national and local governments, and may give points during promotion merit contests, so this is not considered an allowance.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The exercise of the teaching career will be linked to the permanent evaluation. Education professionals are personally responsible for their performance in the corresponding work, and as such they must submit to the evaluation processes of their work. But Colombia has not established monetary incentives for outstanding performance or evaluation results.

There will be at least the following types of evaluation:

  1. 1. Trial period evaluation.

  2. 2. Periodic regular evaluation of annual performance.

  3. 3. Competency evaluation.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area: The salary law establishes an increase in the base salary as a set percentage for teachers who work in areas that are difficult to access (for geographical or violence-based reasons).

Allowances related to residence allowance: Transportation and food aid is paid to teachers who earn up to a certain salary level.

Costa Rica:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Teachers get this allowance when working with specific functions for example the assessment committee.

Allowances related to students counselling: Some primary school teachers have an extra payment for working in two specific technical committees. There is a position for a specific teacher to deal with these activities in secondary education.

Allowances related to special tasks: Teachers are not paid for training student teachers nor providing support to other teachers.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: In primary, teachers who are leaders get an additional 25% of salary in order to provide technical support to others teachers.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The evaluation shall be taken into account in any "Personnel Action" that benefits the server and as a factor that will be considered for transfers, increases in salaries, licenses and, in general, for the other purposes stated in this law and other applicable laws and regulations.

The evaluation and qualification of services shall be given to officials, regular or interim that during the school year perform work in the same institution, provincial, official or department, for at least four months, continuously or alternatively. The result of the qualification will be given in order of merit according to the following concepts: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Insufficient and Unacceptable.

It is estimated that more than 95% of public servants get Excellent or Very Good scores.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): There are teachers exclusively trained for this purpose, so they receive a base salary for attending this student population.

Czech Republic:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties (e.g. serving as head of department or co-ordinator of teachers): Leadership of other employees set in a percentage of the highest salary steps in the given category: 5-50% according to the level of leadership. School heads set the criteria for assigning the exact amount.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: An allowance for direct teaching above a specified range for teachers is equal to a double of the hourly average earnings for every hour of direct teaching. Overtime pay for work above the statutory weekly working hours is at least 25% of the hourly average earnings.

Allowances related to students counselling: School prevention specialist in the area of social-risky behaviour prevention (further qualifications is required) receives CZK 1 000-2 000 monthly. School head decides on the exact amount. For school counsellor performing specialised methodical activities and more complicated counselling activities (further qualification is required), this position allows to progress from 12 to 13 salary range. The extent of weekly direct teaching activity of teachers who perform the function of a school counsellor is reduced by 1-5 lessons a week, depending on the school size.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Individual allowance, up to 50% (in exceptional cases up to 100%) of the highest salary steps in the given range (usually the individual allowance amounts to 3% of the gross salary). Individual allowance may be granted as appreciation of long-term achievement of very good work results or fulfilment of a larger range of work tasks than other employees (e.g. administration of a school library, checking school materials, organising school competitions, mentoring and support for other teachers). Performance is evaluated by school head. School head decides on exact amount.

Allowances related to special tasks: See Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Allowance for a 'class teacher': CZK 1 500-3 000 monthly. School head sets the criteria for assigning the exact amount.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Individual allowance, up to 50 % (in exceptional cases up to 100 %) of the highest salary steps in the given range. Individual allowance may be granted as appreciation of long-term achievement of very good work results or fulfilment of a larger range of work tasks than other employees. Performance is evaluated by school head. School head decides on exact amount.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: Remuneration for the successful completion of an extraordinary or exceptionally important work task. School head decides on the exact amount.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: Performance of specialised activities which requires further qualifications (co-ordination in the area of ICT, developing and co-ordination of School Framework Programmes, prevention of socially pathologic phenomena and activities related to the environmental education and activities of special education teachers related to the spatial orientation of visually disabled children and pupils or to those with speech difficulties ): CZK 1 000-2 000 monthly. School heads set the criteria for assigning the exact amount. The weekly direct teaching activity of a teacher who works as an ICT methodologist is reduced by 1 to 5 lessons.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The individual allowance can also be paid for the continuing excellent performance at work. The teacher performance is evaluated by the school head.

Other allowances related to teachers' qualifications, training and performance: Specialised methodological activity in pedagogy and psychology which requires further qualification - study for school counsellor. The position allows to progress from 12 to 13 salary range. The extent of weekly direct teaching activity of teachers who perform the function of a school counsellor is reduced by 1-5 lessons a week, depending on the school size.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Teachers working in classes with pupils of different age: CZK 750-2 500 monthly. School heads set the criteria for assigning the exact amount.

Other: Teachers working with pupils/students with special educational needs in special schools, classes or groups (i.e. in those specially designed for these pupils/students): CZK 750-2 500 monthly. School heads set the criteria for assigning the exact amount.

Allowances related to family status: No allowances are paid on the base of family status only. In case of bad socio-economic situation, the teacher (as any other) can apply for children`s benefits.

Other allowances: Among the forms of support for teachers can also be included a possibility to grant employees a special pay (pay completely outside the salary system) to appraise their work by employers, e.g. at an anniversary.

Denmark:

Applicable to all criteria: The compensation system is negotiated and decided by collective agreements between, on the one hand, the teachers' unions (e.g. BUPL/LC/akademikerne) and, on the other hand, the national employers' authorities, i.e. Ministry of Finance (Minister of Innovation) and Local Government Denmark (KL). Decisions on pay scales, grades and steps, payment for pension and general allowances are a part of the agreements. It is also a part of the collective agreements that a part of the total salary has to be decided at local level. This part of the salary has been growing over the last 10-20 years.

ISCED 34: On a national level, it has been decided collectively that the specific entitlement criteria and amounts will be decided locally. Thus, the national collective agreements put out the framework (pay scales, grades and steps, payment for pension etc.) under which local (school-level) negotiations take place. Category 6 (collective agreement) is used for all task categories in column nr. 1, with the caveat that the specific regulation is administered on a local level (at school level). For each task category the text columns specify what is meant by this.

The responses shown in Tables D3.17 and D3.19 are those that that seem fitting for ISCED 02, 1 + 2. The reason for this choice is that the authority level differs between these ISCED levels and ISCED34. In the cases, where there are differences to ISCED34, ISCED34 is reported as the exception to the rule, and an explanation is provided on the differences with other levels. Often the only difference will be that the local authority level is different.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: At primary and lower secondary level where the teacher who handles the deputy function at schools where no deputy is employed is granted a supplement of DKK 15 400 (https://www.dlf.org/media/14788178/saerlige-tillaeg-011021-k.pdf).

At upper secondary level (ISCED 34) the job as deputy school leader is regulated by special collective agreement like the agreement for school leaders. The salary for deputy school leaders will typical be higher than the top salary for teachers, but lower than the principal's salary.

The highest ranked management posts, where teachers participate in management, i.e. deputy school leader or head of department, are compensated with additional pay and regulated by collective agreements.

A larger number of teachers with subordinate management tasks such as project managers, managers of professional groups will typically be compensated with time reduction and/or additional payment. Decision on this is typically taken at the local school level by the school leader.

Allowances related to students counselling: The collective agreement stipulates that these allowances will be decided by the municipality/school management at ISCED 1 and 2 or the school management at ISCED 34.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: This task is not typically carried out by the schools. Local sports/game/drama-clubs/organisations organises these events/activities.

Allowances related to special tasks: The collective agreement stipulates that these allowances will be decided by the municipality/school management at ISCED 1 and 2 or the school management at ISCED 34. At ISCED levels 02, 1 and 24, an additional payment of DKK 10 000 can be paid as a 'teaching guidance allowance'.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: At ISCED 1 and 2, the municipality/school management can take the specific decisions locally, but there is no additional payment for doing this task. At ISCED 34, it is decided through collective agreement that the school management can take the specific decisions locally.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: At ISCED 02, 1 and 2, the municipality/school management can take the specific decisions locally, but there is typically no additional payment for doing this task, although at some schools extra payment is a possibility.

At ISCED 34, it is decided through collective agreement that the school management can take the specific decisions locally. Teachers usually have a reduction in the teaching time although an extra payment may also be possible.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: At upper secondary level, the school management may grant an additional payment to teachers having a higher qualification than the minimum.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: The collective agreement stipulates that these allowances will be decided by the municipality/school management at ISCED 1 and 2 or the school management at ISCED 34.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The collective agreement stipulates that these allowances will be decided by the municipality/school management at ISCED 1 and 2 or the school management at ISCED 34. The typical nature of the compensation is regular payments, which teachers can receive through assessment of teaching skills, personal skills etc.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): At ISCED 02, 1 and 2, it is decided through collective agreement that the municipality/school management can take the specific decisions locally, but normally no allowance is paid.

At ISCED 34, it is to the discretion of the school management.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area: The collective agreement stipulates that the municipality/school management at ISCED 02, 1 and 2, and the school management at ISCED 34, will decide on this allowance.

The payroll for teachers gives a little higher salary in high-cost areas. In order to attract teachers to areas where it is difficult to attract teachers, a higher salary is sometimes paid. Decisions about this are taken locally.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on interpretation: The framework for pay, which is set at central level and published in the School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD), allows for an allowance to be awarded for an additional responsibility which has the purpose of ensuring the continued delivery of high-quality teaching and learning and for which the teacher is made accountable. Such allowances are called “teaching and learning responsibility” payments (TLR). TLRs are not subject to the geographical variations that apply to statutory salary ranges.

Before awarding any TLR the relevant body must be satisfied that the teacher's duties include a significant responsibility that is not required of all classroom teachers and that:

  1. 1. is focused on teaching and learning

  2. 2. requires the exercise of a teacher’s professional skills and judgement

  3. 3. requires the teacher to lead, manage and develop a subject or curriculum area; or to lead and manage pupil development across the curriculum

  4. 4. has an impact on the educational progress of pupils other than the teacher’s assigned classes or groups of pupils

  5. 5. involves leading, developing and enhancing the teaching practice of other staff.

The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award an allowance and its level.

  1. 1. First teaching and learning responsibility (TLR1): May be awarded when a teacher takes on "sustained additional responsibility" that "includes line management responsibility for a significant number of people" (STPCD 2018, p. 25-26). The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines the value of the TLR in accordance with its pay policy. The annual value for a TLR1 must be no less than GBP 7 853 and no greater than GBP 13 288.

  2. 2. Second teaching and learning responsibility payment (TLR2): May be awarded when a teacher takes on "sustained additional responsibility" that does not include line management duties for a significant number of people (STPCD 2018, p. 25-26). The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines the value of the TLR in accordance with its pay policy. The annual value for a TLR2 must be no less than GBP 2 721 and no greater than GBP 6 646.

  3. 3. Third teaching and learning responsibility payment (TLR3): May be awarded when a teacher takes on "additional responsibility” for "clearly time-limited school improvement projects or one-off externally driven responsibilities" (STPCD 2018, p. 25-26). Although a teacher cannot hold a TLR1 and a TLR2 concurrently, a teacher in receipt of either a TLR1 or a TLR2 may also hold a concurrent TLR3. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines the value of the TLR in accordance with its pay policy. The annual value must be no less than GBP 540 and no greater than GBP 2 683.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): The framework for pay allows for additional payments to be made for 'participation in out-of-school hours learning activity agreed between the teacher and the headteacher'. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award a payment and its level.

Allowances related to students counselling: The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award a TLR for students counselling and its level. See above for types and amounts.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Participation in out-of-school hours learning activity agreed between the teacher and the headteacher can be awarded as an (occasional) additional payment. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award a payment and its level. If a TLR is awarded, the payment is regular (see above).

Allowances related to special tasks: Activities relating to the provision of initial teacher training as part of the ordinary conduct of the school' can be awarded as an (occasional) additional payment. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award a payment and its level.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award a TLR for participating in mentoring programmes and supporting new teachers and its level. See above for types and amounts.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: The framework for pay which is set at central level, allows for payments for residential duties to be made. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award a payment and its level.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: When determining the salary for a post, the relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) has discretion to take into account a range of factors, including the level of qualifications, skills and experience required.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: When determining the salary for a post, the relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) has discretion to take into account a range of factors including the level of qualifications, skills and experience required.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The framework for pay, which is set at central level, determines the minimum and maximum for each pay range and requires that all progression is linked to performance. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines the number and distribution of pay points within each range, and the range and level of evidence used to judge performance.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): The framework for pay allows for teaching pupils with special educational needs to be included in a teacher’s normal duties. A SEN allowance may be awarded to a mainstream classroom teacher:

  • "in any SEN post that requires a mandatory SEN qualification and involves teaching pupils with SEN;

  • "who teaches pupils in one or more designated special classes or units in a school;

  • "in any non-designated setting (including any pupil referral unit) that is analogous to a designated special class or unit, where the post:

    1. 1. involves a substantial element of working directly with children with SEN;

    2. 2. requires the exercise of a teacher’s professional skills and judgement in the teaching of children with SEN; and

    3. 3. has a greater level of involvement in the teaching of children with SEN than is the normal requirement of teachers throughout the school or unit within the school or, in the case of an unattached teacher, the unit or service."

Where the criteria are met, the relevant body must award the allowance. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines the value of the allowance in accordance with its pay policy. The annual value must be no less than GBP 2 149 and no greater than GBP 4 242.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): There are separate geographical pay ranges for teachers employed in different areas: Inner London Area, Outer London Area, the Fringe Area, England and Wales (excluding the London Area). This is to reflect the cost of living in different areas of England.

Other allowances: The framework for pay allows for payments to be made as an incentive for the recruitment of new teachers and the retention in their service of existing teachers. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) determines whether to award a payment and its level.

Estonia:

Notes on interpretation: Teachers wage components (allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities) are not regulated in any regulation; teacher’s wage is an agreement between the head of school and the teacher; if a teacher is working full-time, his/her wage can’t be smaller than the minimum wage stated in regulation (The Regulation of Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Teacher Minimum Salary).

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Form teachers receive a higher base salary or an additional payment.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Teachers with mentoring responsibilities receive a higher base salary or an additional payment.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Teachers may get rewarded at local and school level. At national level, teachers awarded in the event "Aasta õpetaja gala" (The Teacher of The Year) get a financial reward.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Schools get additional resources, but the allocation of funds is within the discretion of the school head.

Finland:

All criteria: For pre-primary education (ISCED 02), data is reported on the majority, i.e. the kindergarten teachers.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: The reduction of statutory teaching time varies from 1-16 weekly lessons depending on the size of school.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: The compensation per extra lesson is calculated based on the statutory salary and statutory teaching time. The teachers’ individual salary is multiplied by 0.83 and then divided this by the statutory teaching time of the individual teacher. The teaching time differs based on type of post- class teacher or subject teacher- as well the subject taught (for subject teachers).

Engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school) or special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.) or class teacher/form teacher: The compensation is calculated based on the statutory salary and statutory teaching time. The statutory minimum for one extra lesson per week is EUR 93.33 per month (x12 months) and EUR 100.26 per month (x12 months) for a secondary teacher.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: The compensation is calculated based on the statutory salary and statutory teaching time. For ISECD 3 definition under local autonomy. The statutory minimum for one extra lesson per week is EUR 93.33 per month (x12 months), EUR 100.26 for a secondary teacher.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The definition of the calculation is under local autonomy. The decision is generally made by the school head that is responsible for the appraisal. Compensation for performance is not widely used.

Allowances related to Teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Two different pay scales. Finland is divided into two “cost areas. The difference amounts to approximately 1% of the statutory base salary.

France:

All criteria: Concerning the data of "Which authority level decides on the entitlement criteria and amounts for allowances" "Central authorities" include decentralised administration. For an overview on the territorial organisation of the Ministry of Education in France, see: http://www.education.gouv.fr/cid3/les-rectorats-services-departementaux-education-nationale.html.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: For particular tasks, the amount vary according to the tasks assigned (to EUR 312 to EUR 3 750).

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Heures Supplémentaires Annuelles (HSA): from EUR 1 143 to EUR 1 257 for professeurs certifiés and from EUR 1 658 to EUR 1 824 for professeurs agrégés.

Allowances related to students counselling: Fixed annual salary bonus named:

  • “ISAE (Indemnité de suivi et d'accompagnement des élèves)” at ISCED 02-1 (EUR 1 200).

  • “ISOE (Indemnité de suivi et d'orientation des élèves)” at ISCED 24-34 (EUR 1 214).

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Pre-primary and primary teachers may be in charge of extracurricular activities which are paid between EUR 22 and EUR 27 per hour (maximum rates).

Allowances related to special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.) or participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Allowance for tutoring, master trainer:

  • ISCED 02-1: EUR 1 250 (professeurs maîtres formateurs).

  • ISCED 24-34: EUR 834 (professeurs formateurs académiques).

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Variable portion of the "ISOE" allowance only given to the class teachers: EUR 906 to EUR 1 426.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Allowance for tutoring, master trainer: EUR 1 250.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: Heures Supplémentaires Effectives (HSE): only punctual hours. Each is paid 1/36th of one HSA with an indemnity equal to a 25% surcharge.

Successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: On the initiative of the competent authority or after its agreement, teaching staff benefits from professional training actions during the periods of vacancy of the classes, for 5 days per year maximum. Decree n° 2019-935 from 6 September 2019: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000039061144.

Outstanding performance in teaching: Teachers benefit from 3 career advancement meetings (Rendez-vous de carrière) that allow them to progress to a better position on the salary scale. These meetings consist of an evaluation in a professional situation and an interview with an inspector (and with the school head for teachers of secondary schools).

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): ISCED 02-1: EUR 2 500 for teachers in charge of children with special needs. All ISCED levels: from EUR 844 to EUR 2 609 for specialised teacher.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: Allowance for teachers teaching in disadvantaged area (REP and REP+ allowance): REP = EUR 1 734; REP+ = EUR 4 646 (Decree of July 23th, 2019 - NOR: MENH1919173A).

Allowances related to residence allowance (not dependent on a particular location): It is the "Indemnité de résidence" paid each month. The amount depends on the area. https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/vosdroits/F32511.

Allowances related to family status (e.g. married, number of children): It is the "SFT" (family supplement) paid each month. The amount depends on the number of children. https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/vosdroits/F32513.

Other allowances: A one-off bonus for entering the teaching profession: EUR 1 500 (paid in two instalments).

Attractiveness bonus (prime d'attractivité): from EUR 1 400 for a school head in step 2 to EUR 500 in step 7. This bonus decreases from the 2nd to the 7th step. https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000043246480.

Computer equipment bonus (Prime d’équipement informatique): EUR 176 per year. https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000042614334https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/texte_jo/JORFTEXT000042614360.

Territorial incentive (prime de fidélisation territoriale) for teachers working in département of Seine-Saint-Denis (territorial authority and administrative district): a one-off payment of EUR 10 000 at the end of a 5-year work period there (Decree n° 2020-1299 of 24 October 2020: NOR: TFPF2025397A).

Germany:

Allowances related to family status (e.g. married, number of children): The family allowance varies according to the salary group and the family circumstances of the civil servant. Level 1 relates to the family situation of the civil servant, while levels 2 and above relate to the number of children he or she has. The family allowance also varies across the Länder.

Other allowances: General post allowance for Studienräte in salary group A13. A fixed amount that varies between the Länder. The general post allowance may not exceed 75% of the difference between the final base salary of the salary group the public servant is in and the final base salary of the next higher salary group.

Greece:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: It is teachers' duty to participate in the school's teachers' board, that has a wide range of responsibilities in school administration (e.g. programming educational activities, school evaluation, safeguarding student health and safety, spotting needs for further teacher training and proposing to school counsellors topics of training programmes for serving teachers). Teachers must also perform administrative tasks related to the functioning of the school, which are not compensated economically.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: There is overtime compensation when a teacher teaches more hours than required in normal situations. The compensation depends on the number of extra hours s/he teaches per week. It is EUR 10 gross per extra teaching hour, and it must not be for more than 20 hours per month.

Allowances related to students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance, and delinquency prevention): These tasks are performed by teachers but no allowance is granted.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Teachers in Greece who take on the responsibilities of a class teacher, are required to do this by law and do not receive an allowance for performing these responsibilities.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: It is a teacher's responsibility to co-operate with students training to be teachers and teachers participating in in-service training programmes in order to conduct teaching sessions in his/her classroom that will be viewed for training purposes or to arrange teaching sessions in his/her classroom for the participants of training programmes to teach.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: It is teachers' duty to participate in the school's teachers' board, that has a wide range of responsibilities in school administration (e.g. programming educational activities, school evaluation, safeguarding student health and safety, spotting needs for further teacher training and proposing to school counsellors topics of training programmes for serving teachers). Teachers must also perform administrative tasks related to the functioning of the school, which are not compensated economically.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): The initial educational qualification is a Bachelor's degree, the possession of a relevant Master's or PhD degree is considered as additional years of experience as a teacher. The recognised additional years of service result in a higher salary grade.

Allowances related to Successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: Professional development is a teacher's responsibility but the legislation does not include provisions for monitoring teachers' successful completion and participation in professional development activities, and teachers do not receive an allowance.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Teachers in Greece may teach students with mild special educational needs (e.g. dyslexia, autism) in mainstream classes following the decisions and instructions of KEDDY (Centre of Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Support of persons with special educational needs) or they may teach students with more severe educational needs without the support of a special needs education teacher because of financial constraints. No allowance is granted for performing these tasks.

Other allowances (teaching): An allowance for the evaluation of students’ papers in the Panhellenic exams is only given to some teachers of upper secondary who assume this role, whereas the allowance for the supervision of students on the exam day can be given to teachers from both lower and uppers secondary. Depending on the number of candidates and therefore the need for supervisors, teachers from both levels of secondary education can assume this role.

Allowances related to Teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): The allowance for serving in a disadvantaged or borderline region is EUR 100 gross per month.

Allowances related to family status (e.g. married, number of children): The family allowance received by all civil servants including teachers is EUR 50 gross per month for one dependent child, EUR 70 gross per month for two dependent children, EUR 120 gross per month for three dependent children, EUR 170 gross per month for four dependent children and for more than four children EUR 70 for each child above the four children (e.g. EUR 240 gross per month for five dependent children).

Hungary:

According to qualification a certain percentage of the base salary linked to the qualification is paid as allowance (for a bachelor's degree it is HUF 182 700 per month and for a master's degree it is HUF 203 000 a month). The percentages vary according to the task/responsibility. Therefore, the monetary value of the salary is dependent on the qualification of the actual teacher. In summary, the base salary differs depending on the qualification of the teacher. The percentages of the allowances are legally regulated, and they are presented in the form given below (ranges of percentages). The calculated salary includes the sector specific motivation allowance as it is paid to all teachers. Therefore, this table excludes this allowance.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: According to qualification a certain percentage of the base salary linked to the qualification is paid as allowance (for a bachelor's degree it is HUF 182 700 and for a master's degree it is HUF 203 000 a month). The percentages vary according to the task/ responsibility:

  • Deputy school head/s: 20-40%.

  • Team leaders of working groups of teachers: 5-10%.

  • School/kindergarten division head/s: 20-40%.

  • Deputy head/s of school/kindergarten division/s: 20%.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): Regulation stipulates a framework number of lessons, if the maximum is exceeded, extra payment is given. Amount is up to the maintainer of individual schools.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school): It is included in the base salary if it is in the compulsory teaching time (22-26 lessons a week [45 minutes]). If it is above, the teacher receives overtime compensation.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: According to qualification a certain percentage of the base salary linked to the qualification is paid as allowance This percentage varies from 10% to 30%.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: No extra payment. The school head may decide on it as part of the compulsory non-teaching time at school (up to 32 hours).

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: Allowance for teaching ethnic minority classes in an ethnic minority language: varying from 10% to 40% of the base salary of the degree of the teacher.

Outstanding performance in teaching: Local authorities may raise the base salary of teachers for their outstanding performance.

Other allowances related to teachers' qualifications, training and performance: The yearly amount/reward may not exceed the 15% of the yearly salary payment.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): 5-10% of the base salary.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): 10-30% of the base salary.

Other allowances: Allowance for former school heads (for 10 years or more) that continue teaching at the same school: 25% of his/her former school head allowance.

Iceland:

All criteria: All answers refer to public schools. Different answers may apply to private schools. However, they are also dependent on payment from local authorities and government so the same answers apply in most cases.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Base salary increased by 5.6% for ISCED 02-24.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contractor engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school): ISCED 3: overtime is calculated as 1.2 hours of a specific salary level. ISCED 0, 1, 2 overtime is calculated as 1.0385% of the employee’s monthly salary.

Allowances related to students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance, and delinquency prevention): Schools are required to hire student counsellors with specialist training and qualifications. Student counsellors are placed in a specific step in the pay scale. Student counselling is not part of classroom teachers' responsibilities.

Allowances related to special tasks: Teachers at ISCED 02, 1 and 24 who serve as “Leiðsagnarkennari” get an ad hoc salary increase of 5.6% (2 salary steps) for the school year.

Class teacher/form teacher: ISCED 1-2: Two steps higher on the pay scale, which amounts to 5.6% pay rise.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Reduction in teaching time, 40 minutes each week.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: continuing professional development (CPD) is already a part of teachers total annual working time. However specialised CPD may contribute to further pay rises.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): ISCED 02-24: Two steps on the pay scale, which amounts to 5.6% pay rise.

Ireland:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties (e.g. serving as head of department or co-ordinator of teachers): At ISCED 1, deputy principals of schools with up to 23 teachers have a full complement of teaching duties (i.e. responsibility for a mainstream class setting or a cohort of pupils with special educational needs). The allowance for deputy principals at ISCED 1 with teaching duties ranges from EUR 3 967 to EUR 13 738 in accordance with the number of teachers in the school. Schools at ISCED 1 with 24 mainstream teachers or more (i.e. 637 pupils or more) have administrative deputy principals who are not required to have teaching duties. The allowance for deputy principals at ISCED 1 without teaching duties ranges from EUR 13 738 to EUR 19 964. At ISCED 24 and ISCED 34, deputy principals in schools with 1-400 students have teaching duties which vary in accordance with student enrolment. The allowance for Deputy Principal Teachers with teaching duties at ISCED 24 and 34 ranges from EUR 3 967 to EUR 16 710 in accordance with the teacher Whole Time Equivalents in the school based on student enrolment. For example, deputy principals in schools with 300-400 students may have up to 25% of their time allocated to teaching duties. Deputy Principals in schools of more than 400 students (21 teacher Whole Time Equivalents or more) typically do not have teaching duties. The allowance for such Deputy Principals ranges from EUR 17 987 to EUR 28 649 in accordance with the teacher Whole Time Equivalents based on student enrolment. There is a set allowance of EUR 8 968 and EUR 3 967 respectively for assistant principals at ISCED 1, ISCED 24 and ISCED 34 who have a full complement of teaching duties.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: Teachers may be employed in July provision which is a scheme available to children with autistic spectrum disorders and severe to profound learning disabilities during the month of July when schools are closed for the summer. The scheme operates in two ways, home based provision and school-based provision. At ISCED 1, there are two payment options available to permanent qualified primary teachers who are a) Registered in the primary sector and b) Teaching in the primary sector during the July Programme.

  • Option 1: Additional salary to include allowances where payable, and calculated on the basis of each day worked.

  • Option 2: The qualified primary hourly rate for each standard full school day (5 hours and forty minutes) of the programme, Monday to Friday only. At ISCED 1, the hourly rate for qualified teachers who work in the July provision is EUR 39.09.

At ISCED 24 and ISCED 34, there are two payment options available to permanent qualified post primary teachers who are: a) Registered in the post primary sector and b) Teaching in the post primary sector during the July Programme.

  • Option 1: Additional salary to include allowances where payable and calculated on the basis of each day worked.

  • Option 2: The qualified post primary hourly rate for each standard full school day of the programme, Monday to Friday only.

At ISCED 24 & 34, the hourly rate for qualified teachers who work in the July provision is EUR 47.01. The Department of Education has set up an implementation group to consider reforms to the July Provision scheme. A part of that work involves consulting a number of other government departments and State agencies on the current operation of the scheme.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Teachers currently in the teaching profession that entered the system prior to 2011 (at ISCED 1; at ISCED 24 & 34) get specific qualification allowances. For primary degree (Honours), EUR 5 177; at secondary level, additional EUR 622 or a Post Graduate Diploma in Education (Pass). Teachers at the top of the salary scale after 10 years also receive a long service allowance of EUR 2 446. These allowances are not included in the salaries of teachers who commenced teaching from or on 1 January 2012.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Teachers currently in the teaching profession that entered the system prior to 2011 (at ISCED 1; at ISCED 24 & 34) get specific qualification allowances. For primary degree (Honours), EUR 4 918; at secondary level, additional EUR 591 for a Post Graduate Diploma in Education (Pass). Teachers at the top of the salary scale after 10 years also receive a long service allowance of EUR 2 324. These allowances are not included in the salaries of teachers who started teaching from or on 1 January 2011.

Other: Teaching on an island; For teachers at ISCED 1, ISCED 24 and ISCED 34 who started teaching prior to January 2011, the annual allowance for teaching in an island school is EUR 1 939, the allowance for teaching in an Irish speaking area (Gaeltacht) is EUR 3 224, and the allowance for teaching through Irish in an Irish-medium school outside of the Gaeltacht is EUR 1 666. These allowances are not included in the salaries of teachers who commenced teaching from or on 1 January 2012.

Israel:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Vice-principals receiving additional fees for administration hours. (Does not affect on the working hours of full-time. They must teach too). At the upper secondary education, the maximum payment refers to the max vice-principal management remuneration (depending on the size of the school).

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Subject to the allocation of hours for the school and to the principal's decision (the obligation for the teacher is to one FTE), with the teacher's consent.

Allowances related to students counselling: MA is the minimal condition for the consultant role, and have to be consultant in his formation. The teacher receives remuneration for consulting and besides that he is committed to teach third of FTE. In the pre-primary education, most of the counselling is for the parents.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: In the last years a summer school for the pupils in the primary education take place in the summer vacation. With authorization of the Ministry of Education, a teacher can participate, according to his choice, in activities for young pupils in the summer vacation or in the afternoon after school (in this case for pupils in the first two grades only). The teacher will be paid as additional work by the local authority and not by the Ministry of Education.

Allowances related to special tasks: 1. Ministry of Education authorizes teachers to guide qualified teachers. 2. The principal chooses trainers for training and mentoring student teachers, it is voluntary. For special tasks, like level coordinator, professional coordinator or training for teaching students, a teacher receives a percentage reward. In kindergartens, the head teacher can guide the kindergarten assisting staff and other substitute teachers as part of her ongoing work.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: 11.5% for the first grade and 10% for the others. Teachers receive preschool management fees ranging from 17% to 21% of salary (except for a minority of teachers who work as part of a garden cluster).

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Percentage monthly payment, 12 months a year, 2.4% for each supported new teacher, up to 3 per mentor.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: A higher degrees such as MA/PhD changes the base salary (in percentage).

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: Compliance with other conditions (such as the completion of the seminar duty hours, accumulated seniority, and for progress in the highest salary scales, has to be evaluated by the Supervisor). The addition payment will increase the base salary scale.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: In the reform in upper secondary school - an annual bonus and extra percentages (promotion in rank). All other levels of education, compensation exists only for the high levels teachers (The teacher have to get assessment by the principal).

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: The maximum payment for required teachers is very rare and is based on an individual contract.

Allowances related to residence allowance: There is a special grant for teachers in peripheral communities who receive a rent refund. This rent refund is limited.

Allowances related to family status: In the pre-primary education, the teachers have the possibility to receive a payment defined as a percentage of statutory base salary. Supplement in NIS for day care centres, according to the children up to age 5. A teacher aged more than 50 and a mother with children up to age 14 can benefit of a reduction in working time.

Italy:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Annual payment. The head teacher in cooperation with the teachers' assembly decides on the criteria to assign teachers to these roles. The amount is determined in negotiations with the trade unions at school level.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: The National Collective Contract for staff in the education and research sector establish that teachers on a full teaching load may be requested, where necessary, to take on up to 6 extra hours of teaching a week in their subject for the school year. In these cases, they receive a monthly additional payment.

Allowances related to students counselling: The head teacher with the collaboration of the teachers assembly decide as regards the criteria for assigning teachers to these roles, but the criteria regarding the awarding of additional payments are determined through negotiations with T.U. at the school level.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Annual payment. The head teacher in cooperation with the teachers' assembly decides on the criteria to assign teachers to these roles. The amount is determined in negotiations with the trade unions at school level.

Allowances related to special tasks: Annual payment. The head teacher in cooperation with the teachers' assembly decides on the criteria to assign teachers to these roles. The amount is determined in negotiations with the trade unions at school level.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Annual payment. The head teacher in cooperation with the teachers' assembly decides on the criteria to assign teachers to these roles. The amount is determined in negotiations with the trade unions at school level.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The Reward Scheme for teachers was abolished through the 2020 Budget Law, which provides that the resources included in the fund for the improvement of the educational offer, are used by the supplementary bargaining in favour of the entire school staff, without specific restrictions. These resources are used on the basis of the criteria defined in the school's supplementary bargaining for the benefit of both teachers and non-teaching staff.

Allowances related to family status: The allowances about family status are the responsibility of the national social security institute (INPS).

Japan:

Notes on interpretation: National schools are excluded.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: There are no appropriate options to express Japanese circumstance.

Korea:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties (e.g. serving as head of department or co-ordinator of teachers): KRW 70 000 (monthly).

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): Overtime compensation is defined as a percentage of statutory base salary paid to teacher and Incidental/Occasional additional payment. Calculation method: 55% of base salary × 1/209 × 1.5.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Financial compensation applies to ISCED 1 to 3 for teachers who engage in extracurricular activities; the amount of compensation differs depending on the programme.

Allowances related to special tasks: Financial compensation (KRW 400 000 per month) is offered to Master teachers who are in charge of mentoring, providing professional development, and designing curriculum for other teachers.

Class teacher/form teacher: KRW 130 000 (monthly).

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Further formal qualification increment compensation within the salary range after obtaining a higher professional teaching certificate.

Other: Teachers of practical courses (such as mechanics and engineering) are entitled to additional compensation.

Lithuania:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Basic statutory salary increased 1-15%. Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Basic statutory salary increased 1-15%.

Allowances related to students counselling: Basic statutory salary increased 1-15%.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Basic statutory salary increased 1-15%.

Allowances related to special tasks: Basic statutory salary increased 1-15%.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Basic statutory salary increased 1-15%.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Basic statutory salary increased 1-15%.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: The school head can grant allowances for other tasks and responsibilities up to a 20% of the basic salary. In the event of more than one allowance, the total increase cannot be more than 25% of the basic statutory salary.

Teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Basic statutory salary increased 1-20%.

Other allowances: The basic statutory salary may increase from 1 to 15% teaching in International Baccalaureate classes, in multilingual environment and in a national minority language, and teaching ill students at home.

Luxembourg:

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: 1/173 of the monthly salary is paid for every supplementary hour of work.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: When teachers have a higher degree as the minimum required, then they get an additional higher number of p.i. (points indiciaires) as the normal teachers if their higher qualification is recognised. For example, a doctorate is paid 20 p.i. more than a person with normal qualifications.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: In order to advance in their career, teachers have to fulfil a certain number of professional development activities, they are regulated in the law.

Allowances related to residence allowance: Teachers can ask “une indemnité de route” for travels they have to do as well as a reduction of taxes if their workplace is different than the location where they live.

Allowances related to family status: Married Teachers as well as for each child they have, get an allowance.

Mexico:

Allowances related to further formal qualifications:

  • ISCED 1, 2: Holding an initial educational qualification higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession does not affect the base salary or additional payments for the new entrant teachers. With years in service this quality acquires importance.

  • ISCED 3: This criterion is considered by the Evaluation Programme and Assignment of teacher Performance. Named subfactor "Academic grade", maximum score 100.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: ISCED 1, 2: This criterion forms part of the Professional Background, corresponds to the knowledge required by the teacher to perform his/her duties. Amount of the allowance is not available.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: ISCED 1, 2: Academic achievement: Evaluates the learning achievement of the students in the classroom or subject. ISCED 3: This criterion is considered by the Evaluation Programme and Assignment of Teacher Performance. Named subfactor "Instructor Factor Supply Instruction Dedication", 100 maximum score. A high percentage of teachers participate. Amount of the allowance is not available.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: ISCED 1, 2: Teachers that work in low development areas in the country. ISCED 3: This criterion is applied to teachers who carry out their Sabbatical in low development areas in the country; they benefit from a fellowship of "the Commission", fellowship of CONACyT (National Council of Sciences and Technology) or a fellowship of COSNET (Council of the National System of Technological Education). Amount of the allowance is not available.

Netherlands:

Notes on interpretation: The allowances specified in the collective agreement for certain steps in the pay scales are included in the actual salaries. School boards may grant additional allowances, although it is not a widely spread practice.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties (e.g. serving as head of department or co-ordinator of teachers): It is impossible to specify the amount of the allowances. It's the responsibility of the individual school board how this is arranged.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): This depends on an agreement between school heads and teachers and is only possible until a maximum of 1.20 full-time equivalent workload.

Students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance, and delinquency prevention): Other tasks than teaching are determined by the school head and the teachers. It's up to the school (leader) to decide if this teacher can get an allowance (or higher salary scale).

Engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school): Other tasks than teaching are determined by the school heads and the teachers. Summer schools are not the responsibility of the school (not applicable).

Special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers): Other tasks than teaching are determined by the school heads and the teachers.

Class teacher/form teacher: Other tasks than teaching are determined by the school head and the teachers. It is up to the school heads to decide whether a teacher can get an allowance (or higher salary scale).

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Other tasks than teaching are determined by the school heads and the teachers. School heads decide whether a teacher can get an allowance (or higher salary scale).

Explanatory notes: The promotion criteria for a higher salary scale are established in consultation with the teacher’s representatives of the school (board). As a consequence, there are (small) differences in criteria between boards. However, the social partners have made some recommendations.

Allowances related to teachers’ qualifications, training and performance: It's up to the school (leader) to decide whether a teacher can get an allowance (or higher salary scale)

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): It's up to the school (leader) to decide if this teacher can get an allowance (or higher salary scale).

Teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Schools with special high SES students get more money. It's up to the school how this will be spent.

Residence allowance: No difference in payment.

New Zealand:

Although there do exist allowances for teachers, these are complex and we have not yet had the time to work through supplying these.

Norway:

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: 50% overtime premium.

Allowances related to students counselling: An annual compensation of minimum NOK 12 000.

Allowances related to special tasks: Training student teachers is rewarded with an occasional additional payment. Performing other special tasks may entitle to regular additional payments.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: An annual compensation of minimum NOK 12 000.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: This is based on five different types of qualifications that are linked to the educational level, which again determines the statutory salary level of teachers.

  • Bachelor's Degree (180 ECTS)

  • Bachelor's Degree (240 ECTS)

  • Bachelor's Degree (300 ECTS)

  • Master's Degree (300 ECTS)

  • Master's Degree (360 ECTS or more).

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: It is not very common, but it is possible for local authorities to give additional regular payments for teachers based on performance. Criteria are decided locally.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): It is not very common, but it is possible for local authorities to give additional regular payments for teachers teaching students with special needs. Criteria are decided locally.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: Local authorities can give additional regular payments for teachers teaching in remote areas where it is difficult to get qualified teachers.

Poland:

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation) or participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Entitlement is decided at the central level, but the amount of additional payments are specified in the regulations adopted by the local authorities.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Entitlement is decided at the central level, but the amount is decided by local authorities. The minimum amount of the allowance (PLN 300) for ISCED 1-3 is decided at the central level. For ISCED 0 level, the amount of allowance is decided by local authorities.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Teachers’ performance is evaluated by a school head on the basis of observations carried out during the teacher’s classes and results achieved by his/her pupils. The school head can ask the parents’ council and the pupils’ self-government for an opinion on a given teacher.

Other allowances related to teachers' qualifications, training and performance: Motivation incentive for teaching and pedagogical achievements, introducing effective teaching innovations, involvement in the teaching work, outstanding performance of duties, and implementation of the educational priorities of the school governing body in accordance with local education policy into the school life). The amount is defined at local level and the decision is taken by the school head.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): 10% of the base salary paid to teacher monthly for teaching in rural areas or towns with no more than 5 000 inhabitants.

Other: Service anniversary award: the amount of the service anniversary award depends on the period of teacher's work and is as follows: for 20 years of work - 75% of monthly remuneration; for 25 years of work - 100% of monthly remuneration; for 30 years of work - 150% of monthly remuneration; for 35 years of work - 200% of monthly remuneration; for 40 years of work - 250% of monthly salary.

Portugal:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties (e.g. serving as head of department or co-ordinator of teachers): Deputy heads, heads of curricular departments, class coordinators and teachers with other management responsibilities have their teaching time reduced during the time they hold the position. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): Teachers are paid overtime work for the hours they teach beyond the statutorily established. The cost per hour depends on the position in the teaching career and the number of overtime hours (25% for the first hour and 50% for the second or more hours).

Allowances related to students counselling: Teachers responsible for “specific tutorial support” to students have their teaching time reduced. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Teachers running extra-curricular activities may receive a reduction in teaching time. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Allowances related to special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers): Teacher trainers receive a reduction in teaching time, during the time they hold the task. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Class tutors' coordinators and class tutors have their teaching time reduced during the time they hold the position. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Teachers responsible for mentoring/induction programmes have their teaching time reduced during the time they hold the position. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): All teachers who enter the teaching profession have ISCED 7 qualifications and begin at level 1 (Index 167). Teachers who obtain a masters or a doctoral degree after entering the profession and get an evaluation score of “Good” or higher are rewarded with a bonus corresponding to 1 year or 2 years, respectively, in career progression.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: In order to progress in the career, teachers have to complete a certain amount of CPD. Salary progression occurs every four years and 50 hours of CPD is a requirement for that, except progression from level 5 to level 6 which requires just 2 years and 25 CPD hours (Decree-law 41/2012, 21 February). In case of non-successful completion, the teacher will not progress in the teaching career.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Teachers that are appraised with Excellent (Excelente) or Very Good (Muito Bom) may progress faster in their careers.

Allowances related to residence allowance (not dependent on a particular location): It is stressed that this is not a national policy, but a support made available to teachers by some municipalities.

Scotland (United Kingdom):

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: The Remote Schools Allowance from 1 April 2021 is GBP 1 614 per annum for payments in accordance with paragraph 1.3(a) and GBP 3 024 per annum for payments in accordance with paragraph 1.3(b). The Distant Islands Allowance from 1 October 2020 is GBP 2 265 per annum. http://www.snct.org.uk/wiki/index.php?title=Appendix_2.5_Annex_A.

Slovak Republic:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school head, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14- fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school head in school work order, but general criteria is defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards)

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: An hourly salary rate increased by 30% for each additional hour exceeding the full-time contract. If the teacher and the school principal come to an agreement, the school principal can provide teacher with an hour of compensatory leave (for standard hourly rate).

Allowances related to students counselling: Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school head, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14- fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school head in school work order, but general criteria are defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards).

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school head, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14- fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school head in school work order, but general criteria are defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards).

Allowances related to special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.): Up to 50% of regular hourly pay for each delivered hour of training.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: 5% of 1.14- fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for one class, 10% of 1.14- fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for two or more classes.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: 4% of 1.14- fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for supporting one teacher in induction period, 8% of 1.14- fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for supporting two teachers.

Explanatory notes: There is no cap on occasionally paid performance allowance.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Moving up a grade in the pay scale.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: 3%, 6%, 9% or 12% of the assigned statutory pay grade.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school head, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14- fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school head in school work order, but general criteria are defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards).

Other allowances related to teachers' qualifications, training and performance: Allowance for beginning teacher, 6% of the assigned salary grade.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): The criteria are set by central law - for teaching classes with at least 30% with students from socially disadvantaged environment or integrated students with special needs, the cap is set by central law (up to 5% of the pay grade 9, i.e. the highest pay grade), the specific percentage is decided by the school head.

Slovenia:

Notes on interpretation: Allowances are specified by law and collective agreement. The decision to assign a particular allowance to a particular teacher is made at school level.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties (e.g. serving as head of department or co-ordinator of teachers): The head of a smaller kindergarten or branch unit of basic school can get 5- 12% of the basic salary.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): Allowances paid are a 130% of the basic salary hour rate per teaching hour. Payment is extremely rare and in exceptional cases only. According to the Article 144 of the Employment Relationship Act I only happens in exceptional cases upon the head teacher’s request, the teacher is obliged to perform work exceeding full working time – overtime work.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school): (I) Workshops, sports and other extracurricular activities for pupils: ISCED 1 and 2: EUR 11.94 per teaching hour; ISCED 34: school receives EUR 0.24 per student and (4) head teacher decides on the entitlement (II) Outdoor education: 20% of the basic salary for 6 hours per day.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Form teachers are placed one salary grade higher than the teachers without this task.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: There is a mentorship allowance: 20% of the basic salary for 4 teaching hours per week (10 months for teacher in induction or 2 months for teacher beginner).

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): (I) Fixed amounts per month for attained: 1) academic specialization: EUR 23.27; 2) research master’s degree: EUR 36.21; 3) doctor's degree: EUR 59.47. The Public Sector Salary System Act and the collective agreement include an allowance for holding an educational qualification in three or more different subjects of 3 % of the basic salary hour rate for teaching hours (ISCED levels 1, 2 and 3).

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: CPD is a professional duty and right according to the Organisation and Financing of Education Act and the Collective Agreement for Education in Republic of Slovenia.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Work performance from increased workload (additional teaching within full-time contract) - according to the Article 124 of the Organisation and Financing of Education Act, the head teacher may assign a teacher extra weekly teaching time but not for more than five lesson a week (not more than 38 weeks in school year; 100-130% of the basic salary hour rate per teaching hours). Regular work performance allowances (based on appraisal) - according to the Article 22a of the Public Sector Salary System Act, belongs to a teacher who, during the period for which he/she is paid, has achieved above-average work results in the performance of his/her regular work duties. It shall be determined on the basis of the criteria and criteria agreed, according to the Article 27 of the Collective agreement for public sector, which is rewarded with min 2% and no more than 5% of the annual basic salary.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Additional teaching assistance offered to students with special education needs integrated in mainstream class or to migrant students allows to benefit from an allowance of EUR 11.94 per teaching hour.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Reimbursement of transportation cost from home to the school and back can be given to teachers (if the distance is more than 2 km), This includes cost of public transport for days at work.

Other: (I) Bilingual schools or schools with Italian language: Top-level regulations set out an allowance for giving bilingual classes or classes in Italian language of 12-15 % of the basic salary. The Public Sector Salary System Act and the collective agreement include an allowance for teaching at in-hospital classes of 7 % of the basic salary hour rate for teaching hours (ISCED 0, 1 and 2) and an allowance for teaching in multi-grade classes of 7-10 % of the basic salary hour rate salary for teaching hours (ISCED 1 and 2).(II) Risky situations, hazards and special burdens (e.g. war danger, terrorist attacks, natural disaster, epidemics, especially above average at risk for own health or overburdened due to epidemic control): not more than 100% of the basic salary hour rate per hour. The amount of the allowance is determined by the school head. The allowance is determined by the Public Sector Salary System Act and the collective agreement for public sector and additionally with the Act Determining the Intervention Measures to Contain the COVID-19 Epidemic and Mitigate its Consequences for Citizens and the Economy.

Other allowances: Long-service award (jubilejna nagrada) corresponds to payment to teachers for years of employment in public sector (10 years: EUR 288.76; 20 years: EUR 433.13; 30 and 40 years: EUR 577.51), the award is 20 % higher for teachers who are members of trade union.

Spain:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties (e.g. serving as head of department or co-ordinator of teachers): Complementary salary (fixed amounts) for school government ownership responsibilities such as head teacher, deputy head teacher, secretary, head of department and, in some Autonomous Communities, additional responsibilities at school level (e. g. coordination of bilingual programs, bilingual teaching, school library, etc.). Teachers can also receive a productivity complement in their salaries for extraordinary services such as the elaboration of normative proposals, curriculum development, testing and evaluation materials. Responsibilities related to coordinate or manage ICT or bilingual program, or participating in the management of the library can be compensated with teaching time reductions instead of allowances.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): Fixed amounts are given to teachers working extra time (in the evening) for different activities as reinforcement/support classes, health programs, compulsory training courses outside working hours, etc.

Allowances related to students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance and delinquency prevention): Fixed amounts are given to teachers for class tutoring responsibilities and to teachers working extra time for activities aimed at improving school life.

Allowances related to special tasks: Fixed compensations for the supply of extraordinary services in some Autonomous Communities (e.g. training and mentoring for the assessment and accreditation of teaching staff, creation of e-learning materials for the learning management platform, preparation and correction of test to obtain a specific degree, etc.).

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: In 10 over 17 autonomous communities this task has a specific financial compensation. In some communities, class teacher position is only paid to ISCED 2-3 teachers.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Fixed compensation for the supply of extraordinary services in some Autonomous Communities (e.g. training and mentoring for the assessment and accreditation of teaching staff).

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: Fixed amounts for teachers that support in school transport and educational attention to students in the school canteen (e.g. caring children in the school transport and during the school meals).

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development (CPD) activities: Fixed amounts as extra-salary supplement for Continuous Professional Learning (CPL) reward per six-year terms (sexenios, as term used in Spanish). Every teacher needs to certificate at least a minimum number of hours of recognised lifelong learning activities. This supplement varies from period to period (a maximum of five periods) and the Autonomous Community/City. It is expected that a teacher completes about 17 hours per year (100 hours in 6 years), but the real training time average has been calculated to be around 41.2 hours per year.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Fixed amounts. Geographical location refers to the Autonomous Communities of Canarias and Illes Balears and the Cities of Ceuta and Melilla as well as to some remote areas in the whole country. They consist of allowances given to all teachers working in those regions or areas, but not of personal allowances.

Sweden:

Notes on interpretation: Teachers working in the public sector are salaried employees of municipalities. Salaries and workings conditions are stipulated in a collective agreement and interpreted on a local level. Pay and working conditions are governed by collective agreements between the teacher unions and the employers' organisation the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR). These stipulate minimum salaries and general working conditions. The more specific salary and working conditions of individual teachers are determined locally (i.e. at school level) in an individual-based pay system. The types of compensation reported are not exhaustive for Sweden and other types of compensation may apply. However, allowances determined at local level only concern a minority of teachers.

Allowances related participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties, or teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract or students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance and delinquency prevention) or engaging in extracurricular activities: or special tasks or being a class/form teacher or participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: The nature of compensation is determined individually for each teacher.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): A 'lecturer’ (senior subject teacher) should receive a salary increase of at least SEK 10 000 per month if they work at a school belonging to Stake 1 and at least SEK 15 000 per month at a school in Stake 2. Stake 1 is aimed at school organisers with schools who are not deemed to have particularly difficult conditions with regard to the socio-economic background of the pupils. Stake 2 is aimed at school organisers with schools who are deemed to have particularly difficult conditions with regard to the socio-economic background of the pupils.

https://www.skolverket.se/skolutveckling/statsbidrag/statsbidrag-for-karriartjanster-2020-21

Outstanding performance in teaching: A lead teacher (senior master) should receive a salary increase of at least SEK 5 000 per month if they work at a school belonging to Stake 1 and at least SEK 10 000 per month at a school in Stake 2. Stake 1 is aimed at school organisers with schools who are not deemed to have particularly difficult conditions with regard to the socio-economic background of the pupils. Stake 2 is aimed at school organisers with schools who are deemed to have particularly difficult conditions with regard to the socio-economic background of the pupils.

https://www.skolverket.se/skolutveckling/statsbidrag/statsbidrag-for-karriartjanster-2020-21

Allowances related to teachers' qualifications, training and performance: The school organiser can apply for a government grant in order to provide highly qualified teachers or preschool teachers higher salaries (statsbidrag för lärarlönelyftet 2020/21). The monthly salary increase by approx. SEK 2 500-3 500 is only directed to teachers and preschool teachers with a national teaching certificate, issued by the National Agency for Education. It is the school head who decided.

https://www.skolverket.se/skolutveckling/statsbidrag/statsbidrag-for-lararlonelyftet-2020-21

Explanatory notes: The decision to be assigned the position as ‘lecturer’ (senior subject teacher) or ‘lead teacher’ (senior master) is made by teacher’s employer (after certain criteria’s are meet). School organisers no longer need to apply for the state grant for career steps for teachers. Instead, each academic year, all receive a grant framework that the school organiser can request two times per academic year, one for each semester. The grant is paid to the school organiser after that The Swedish National Agency for Education has checked that the teachers in the request for payment comply with the regulations.

Allowances related to teaching conditions: The nature of compensation is determined individually for each teacher.

Switzerland:

The data provided are an estimation of the most common practices in the 26 Cantons.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Reduction in teaching time.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Teachers are usually not paid if they work overtime.

Allowances related to students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance, and delinquency prevention: Part of the tasks.

Allowances related to special tasks: The canton decides on the amount and type of financial compensation Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Reduction in teaching time.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Usually reduction in teaching time.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: Continuing education for the professional development are compulsory.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: Continuing education for the professional development are compulsory and part of the cantonal employment conditions.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Teachers’ performance is typically evaluated by cantonal bodies. In some cantons, teachers are assessed within the context of the evaluation of schools. The method generally involves classroom observation and an interview with the teacher. Practice varies greatly across and within cantons in terms of the frequency, methodology, inspectors’ qualifications and instruments for assessment. Often the school head is directly involved in the feedback that is provided to teachers.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Students or classes receive more resources (additional lessons).

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: The state government (cantonal authorities) can provide additional lessons.

Allowances related to residence allowance: The canton decides on the amounts.

Allowances related to family status: The canton decides on the amounts.

Türkiye:

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): Classroom teachers are to teach 18 hours per week, as part of their contract. Field teachers (English, physics, etc) have to teach 15 hours accordingly. Overtime teaching (up to 30 hours per week) is paid based on the number of extra class hours monthly. Teachers are paid TRY 120.95 for each extra class they teach.

Special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.): Student teachers are sent by the higher education institutions to the Ministry schools under a bachelor course entitled 'Practicum' and 'School Experience'. Mentor teachers receive a certain amount of additional payment as 'extra teaching hours.'.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to enter the teaching profession, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Teachers' salaries are commonly identified in terms of their major (whether the teacher is a classroom teacher or field teacher) and in terms of their year of experience. In this respect, additional education such as master degrees and PHD offers one and three additional years of experience successively.

Outstanding performance in teaching: According to the regulation Certification of Success, Higher Success and Award for the Personnel of the Ministry of National Education", local governors can reward outstanding performance of teachers by granting them a "success certificate". After receiving three "success certificates", a teacher gets a Higher Success Certificate and may be offered a financial compensation, which is calculated by referring to the core salary of the highest ranked state official. The award can be offered up to 200% of the core salary (around TRY 2 800 in 2018).

Other: Teachers are also given an allowance for getting prepared for the school year, such as purchasing stationary and relevant items. (TRY 1 250 for 2021). Knowledge of a foreign language (Amount is between TRY 30 and TRY 140 per month depending on the language proficiency score).

Allowances related to family status (e.g. married, number of children): Based on the 657th Civil Personnel Act, teachers, as civil servants, are provided with an additional monthly allowance depending on the number and age of their siblings. They may receive an additional payment if their wife/husband is unemployed. For one child, the amount is TRY 86.39 if younger than 72 months and TRY 43.20 if older.

United States:

Applicable to all criteria: Teachers’ salaries are decided at the local level and vary across local areas and states. There is no national salary scale in the United States; the USA reports median base salaries instead of statutory salaries. A distinction cannot be made between tasks for which teachers may acquire additional payments beyond their base salary and those tasks which are considered required for their base salary.

Australia:

Structure of the compensation system: Most jurisdictions have an incremental salary scale where teachers progress a salary step on the completion of each year. There are numbers of increments (depending on the jurisdictions) and there is a hard barrier to an additional level which is performance based and requires certification as a Highly Accomplished Teacher or Lead Teacher.

Criteria for salary progression: Salary progression for employees paid in accordance with standards-based remuneration is based on teachers achieving accreditation by the relevant accreditation authority and being employed for a minimum number of years at each band/step. Progression is also subject to satisfactory performance.

Process to establish salaries: The Department of Education in each jurisdiction is subject to the Wages Policy of that jurisdiction's government. Prior to collective bargaining, the Department must have its bargaining parameters approved by the Treasury.

Status of teacher: Most teachers in Australia have a teacher-specific salary scale.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: A minimum of four years of tertiary study that included a teaching qualification in primary, secondary or K-12 teaching.

Austria:

Structure of the compensation system: In line with their qualification and employment, there are five service groups for teachers in public service (L 3, L 2b 1, L 2a 1, L 2a 2, L 1). The specified service groups are divided into salary levels and the pay groups into pay levels, within which the teacher progresses by one level every two years (time advancement). Classification into a specific salary level (pay level) is conducted based on specific aspects when the teacher starts service. For teachers at compulsory schools, it is mainly service group L 2 or pay group l 2, in the upper secondary sector service group is L 1 or pay group l 1.

The new legislation on employment and payment being implemented from September 2015 onwards concerns new entrants to the profession. Beginning with 2019/20, it fully applies to all new teachers (pay group "pd").

Criteria for salary progression: Years in service, general pay rise for public servants (result of collective bargaining)

Process to establish salaries: Result of collective bargaining between public service union and the government.

Status of teacher: Public employees, civil servants (status no longer granted). There are different pay schemes available for these groups.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: In July 2013, the Federal Framework Law concerning the Introduction of a New Teacher Training Scheme created the legal foundations to implement ‘New teacher training’. The new teacher training scheme provides for the following cornerstones. Training is geared towards the pupils’ age brackets (primary level, secondary level). Master’s degree programme, 2-3 semesters, 60 to 90 ETCS points. The master’s degree programmes can be completed on a part-time basis. One-year professional entry phase (induction), supported by experienced pedagogues as mentors. During the induction phase, students can complete the master’s degree programmes.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Structure of the compensation system: The compensation system is based on qualifications and years of service. There are required, sufficient, and other qualifications. The required qualifications differ from the sufficient qualifications in the fact that they have a content specific qualification. The salary however is the same in both cases, the other qualifications don't give access to tenure and a job is only possible for a limited time; in this case the teacher also receives a lower salary. The qualification is linked to a pay scale. There are several steps in the pay scales due to the years of service. These steps are non-linear because the first three steps are annual and differ from the fourth and following steps by the fact that from the fourth step on the steps are two yearly and are higher than for the first three steps. If the index of consumer prices reaches a certain threshold, then the salaries are increased with 2% for the living costs.

Example of the difference between required and sufficient qualifications: a bachelor for education: pre-primary education (required) and a bachelor for education: primary education (sufficient).

For pre-primary, primary and lower secondary: The first, second and third year of the career the teacher receives an additional payment that is equal for these three years. From the fifth year on of the career the teacher receives every 2 years an additional amount. The teacher receives this amount in the 5th year, in the 7th year, and so on. This is done 12 times and since 2021 one extra time at 36 years. This leads to the 36 years to grow from minimum to maximum salary.

For upper secondary: The first, second and third year of the career the teacher receives an additional payment that is equal for these three years. From the fifth year on of the career the teacher receives every 2 years an additional amount. This amount is higher than that of the first, second and third year. The teacher receives this amount in the 5th year, in the 7th year, and so on. This is done 11 times and since 2021 one extra time at 36 years. This leads to the 36 years to grow from minimum to maximum salary.

Criteria for salary progression: The criterion is years in service.

Pre-primary, primary and lower secondary: During the first, second and third year of his career, a teacher receives an additional payment that is equal for these three years. From the fifth year on, the teacher receives every 2 years an additional amount. This amount is higher than that of the first, second and third year. The teacher receives this amount in the 5th year, in the 7th year, etc. this during 12 times. This leads to 27 years to grow from minimum to maximum salary.

Upper secondary: same than above except that it only lasts 11 times, thus it leads to 25 years to grow from minimum to maximum salary.

Process to establish salaries: There is an automatic mechanism of the index and there are collective (bargaining) agreements, but the Flemish Community decides and designs decrees and resolutions wherein the pay scales are regulated.

Status of teacher: The teachers are civil servants but have a specific status, based on their own decrees and resolutions within the group of civil servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Graduates from initial teacher education can start teaching directly. There are no additional requirements to start teaching. It is at the discretion of the schools to choose their teachers (see Education at a Glance 2014, p. 514, Table D6.5c). The compensation system is based on qualifications and years of service. There are required, sufficient, and other qualifications. The required qualifications differ from the sufficient qualifications in the fact that they require a content specific qualification. The salary however is the same in both cases, the other qualifications do not give access to tenure and a job is only possible for a limited time; in this case, the teacher also receives a lower salary.

Other comments: The same remunerations exist for public and government-dependent schools.

Belgium (French Community):

Structure of the compensation system: Linear for the fixed part of the salary. For the holiday benefits and thirteen-month benefits, it’s a fixed part + a percentage of the salary. The salary scales are the same for Government-dependent private schools.

Criteria for salary progression: Years in service + further formal qualifications.

Process to establish salaries: Salaries levels are based on the number of years in service, qualification levels and the cost-of-living adjustments.

Status of teacher: Teachers are civil servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Qualification level.

For pre-primary: Pre-primary Teacher Bachelor degree (ISCED 6). For primary: Primary Teacher Bachelor degree (ISCED 6). For lower secondary: Bachelor degree (ISCED 6) + Lower secondary teaching diploma (AESI = Agrégation de l’enseignement secondaire inférieur). For Upper secondary: Teaching Master degree (ISCED 7) or Master and upper secondary teaching diploma (AESS = Agrégation de l’enseignement secondaire supérieur).

Brazil:

Status of teachers: Most public school teachers are hired with a specific career plan, corresponding to civil servants.

Canada:

Structure of the compensation system: Provinces and territories have different pay scales based on credentials/education level (usually 1 or 3-6 pay scales), and steps within those pay scales based on years of experience (typically 10 steps). Salary is based on a teacher's pay scale and step.

Criteria for salary progression: Salary progression is based on moving through classes (increasing credentials) and/or steps (gaining an additional year of experience).

Process to establish salaries: For the majority of provinces and territories salaries are negotiated through a collective bargaining process between the provincial/territorial government, teachers' associations, and education boards. These agreements are typically valid for a 2–5-year period and are then re-negotiated.

Status of teacher: For 8 of the 11 submitting provinces/territories (AB, MB, NS, ON, PEI, QC, SK, NWT), teachers are members of provincial/territorial teachers' unions/school boards and not members of the civil service. In 3 of the provinces, (BC, NB, NL), teachers are considered public servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: The typical pathway is by obtaining a bachelor's degree in Education. Each province/territory also has other options/pathways.

Colombia:

Structure of the compensation system: Teachers take a merit contest and enter the teaching career with NORMALISTAS a degree program in education or professional with different degrees and pedagogy, with a master's degree or doctorate in an area related to their specialty or performance, or in a training area that is considered fundamental within the teaching-learning process of students. They also need to approve the skills assessment defined for this level.

The teaching career has a legal regime that protects the exercise of the teaching profession in the public sector. It is based on the professional character of the educators; it depends on the suitability in the performance of its management and the demonstrated competences; guarantees the equality in the possibilities of access to the function for all the citizens apt for the effect; and considers merit as the main foundation for income, permanence, promotion in service and promotion in the career ladder.

Criteria for salary progression: The ladder consists of three grades, each of which is composed of four salary levels (A, B, C and D). For level or grade promotion, training requirements and competency evaluations are defined. To move from one level to another you must have 3 years of experience and overcome the promotion contest.

Increases from the lower to the higher remuneration, according to salary level and qualification, have an exponential growth approximately.

It is important to mention that under this scale a teacher can reach the highest salary in 9 years since it depends on the qualification and skills assessments, so the qualification has a great weight to reach the top salary. In some cases, the salary of 10 years is equal to the 15 years.

Process to establish salaries: Collective bargaining and the cost of living.

Status of teachers: Teachers and teaching directors at the service of state education are public servants and have a special status.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Colombia counts with the educational statute Decree 1278 of 2002 which establishes the conditions for entry, exert, stability, promotion and retirement of persons who perform the teaching profession at different levels and modalities that make up the national education system.

It is through a meritocratic competition that a teacher can enter into the state education service. This competition for entering into the state education service is the process by which, through the evaluation of, experience, basic skills, interpersonal relationships and personality of the applicants, their inclusion to the list of eligible aspirants to the teaching career is determined.

The teacher profession is linked to ongoing evaluation. By evaluating the performance of their functions, levels of competence, quality and efficiency it’s possible to justify: permanency, promotion in rank and salary levels relocations.

There are different types of evaluation:

  1. 1. Trial period evaluation.

  2. 2. Periodic ordinary annual performance evaluation.

  3. 3. Skills assessment.

By evaluating the performance of their functions, levels of competence, quality and efficiency it is possible to justify: permanence, promotion in rank and salary level assignment.

Costa Rica:

Structure of the compensation system: Wage categories are dependent on the level of training of the individual, and although there are several categories within a wage class, it is important to keep in mind that an individual can enter directly into the highest wage category, since the only thing you need to complete is an academic requirement.

This means that the salary scale is not a ladder that each teacher must cross to ascend in their teaching profession, but directly can be placed in the highest category of their professional group. The base salary is, so to speak, the minimum amount of money that the Government offers in that particular job. But the system of remuneration in Costa Rica ensures that every civil servant receives, in addition to that base salary, several additional salary bonuses, none based on efficiency or productivity. For example, there is the plus called annuity, which increases the base salary to the individual by about an additional 2% for each year worked, and for this reason a person with 30 years of service would receive about 60% additional salary on the base salary simply for each additional year, since the evaluation system is not optimal: it neither rewards productivity nor punishes incompetence.

Process to establish salaries: The mechanism used to update the levels of teachers’ salaries is the cost-of-living adjustment that was conducted every 6 months. But due to COVID-19 pandemic, no adjustment of teachers'/school heads' salaries to the cost of living was made in 2021.

Status of teacher: The General Directorate of Civil Service divides public servants into different categories called "Titles". All the teaching staffs is within the so-called "Title II".

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: (i) To complete a relevant university career, (ii) Register as a bidder in the General Directorate of Civil Service, (iii) Obtain a score based on your reports, training, years of experience and others, (iv) Wait to be called to fill a position (the higher the score, the more likely to be called), (v) Accept or decline the job offer.

Czech Republic:

Structure of the compensation system: For the education staff, a special salary scale system has been set. The members of education staff are paid according to this scale system with regard to work they perform. The tariff system for education staff consists of 11 salary categories (4th–14th) and 7 salary grades within each category relating to the number of years in service.

For teachers, the salary categories 8th - 13th are designed, 8th–10th for ISCED 02 teachers and 11th–13th for ISCED 1, 24, 34 teachers. Teachers are assigned to the salary categories according to the most demanding work he/she is required to perform within the provisions of their contract of service and the relevant qualification requirements. The salary grades within each category relate to the length of professional experience.

However, the specifications and extent of the professional experience credited for this purpose in up to the decision of the school head, within basic rules set by the Government regulation.

Criteria for salary progression: Teachers´ salary progression is predominantly limited to gradual progress of the pay grades, along with the increasing length of professional experience.

The salary system does not allow pay advancement by gaining further qualifications, with the exception of school counsellor (ISCED 1, 24 and 34) and education management staff. Performing of these positions is conditioned by having completed the prescribed in-service training. Those who fulfil this further qualification are entitled to progression to higher pay category (at ISCED 1 - 3, from the 12th to the 13th pay category). Furthermore, some other additional responsibilities and management activities of teachers are paid by the system of allowances.

Process to establish salaries: The salary scale for education staff is part of the Government regulation on pay terms of employees in public services and administration (No. 341/2017, Coll.) which is updated in irregular intervals. The government approves the amendment of this regulation on the proposal of the ministries. Salary growth is not automatically linked to any other indicator (e.g. inflation rate, average salaries in other sectors); the increase of salaries thus is not regular.

Status of teacher: Teachers are included among education staff. Teachers are persons who perform direct educational and training activities or special educational or educational-psychological activities (in summary educational activity) and provide education and training on the basis of the Education Act. A teacher is an employee of a legal entity which carries out activities of a school or school-facility. Education staff in public schools are employed on a contractual basis. The employment contract is concluded between the teaching candidate and the school and the applicants are recruited via open recruitment procedure. Their statutory salaries are calculated on the basis of salary scales and additional allowances. The conditions of service of teachers are generally similar to those of other employee groups covered by the Labour Code (No. 262/2006 Coll.). The basic service conditions, including the remuneration of all employees, are set in the Labour Code, as well as general salary regulations for public service employees. However, the detailed salary scale system specifically dedicated to education staff as well as the related salary terms are set by the Government Regulation on Pay Terms of Employees in Public Services and Administration (No. 341/2017, Coll.).

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: There are two models of teacher training - the concurrent (academic and pedagogical education is combined) or the consecutive (graduates of the academic fields fulfil their pedagogical qualification in Bachelor's study or in further education).

Pre-primary level: Teachers must have at least a certificate of completion of upper secondary education with maturita examination. Teachers for pre-primary level of education can acquire their qualification at upper secondary schools (ISCED 354), tertiary professional schools (ISCED 655) or at faculties of education of higher education institutions (at least ISCED 645), by studying programmes (fields) aimed specially at pre-primary school teacher training.

Individuals who completed at least Bachelors’ study programme of special education can also teach at pre-primary level.

Graduates of study programme in Teacher Training for Primary Schools (ISCED 100) or Training for Educational Childcare Staff, Training for Teachers of Leisure Activities or the study programme Pedagogy or a field of study for training educational childcare staff at tertiary professional schools can attain the qualification of pre-primary school teacher in lifelong study programme specialised in training pre-primary school teachers.

Primary level: Teachers must have a Master's qualification. The responsibility for the preparatory education of teachers rests solely with the faculties of education. Graduates are qualified to teach all of the subjects at the first stage of a basic school.

Persons who completed a Master's study programme in special pedagogy within which they gained knowledge in methodology of the first stage subjects can also teach at primary level. These programmes are also offered by other than faculties of education.

Graduates of Master's study field of Pedagogy or Bachelor's/Master's study programmes in educational sciences intended for training of pre-primary teachers, educational childcare staff or teachers of leisure activities can attain the qualification for teaching at primary level in lifelong study programme aiming at preparation of primary teachers which is organised at higher education institutions.

Teachers may follow other qualification pathways for teaching-specific subjects (foreign languages, artistic subjects, religion).

Secondary level: Teachers at the lower secondary level must have a Master's qualification.

The most important institutions for the initial training of teachers are the faculties of education. The teachers can also gain their qualification at other faculties, e.g. of art, of natural sciences, mathematics and physics, or at faculties of physical education and sports, in the fields of Teacher Training for secondary schools (this qualification is also valid for the second stage of the basic school).

Teachers may also qualify by studying for a Master's degree in the field of study which corresponds to the subject to be taught (and not focused on teacher training), and by consecutive higher education study in a Bachelor's study programme or in a lifelong learning programme in pedagogical sciences which trains teachers of general subjects for the required school level. A professional qualification for Physical Education can also be obtained by the completion of the Master‘s study programme aimed at physical education and sport.

Teachers of foreign languages, physical education, arts subjects, and religion may gain their qualification in other ways.

Denmark:

Structure of the compensation system: The compensation system is negotiated and decided by collective agreements between, on the one hand, the teachers' unions (e.g. BUPL/LC/akademikerne) and, on the other hand, the national employers' authorities, i.e. Ministry of Finance (Minister of Innovation) and Local Government Denmark (KL). Decisions on pay scales, grades and steps, payment for pension and general allowances are a part of the agreements. It is also a part of the collective agreements that a part of the total salary has to be decided at local level. This part of the salary has been growing over the last 10-20 years.

Criteria for salary progression: The general criteria for salary progression are decided by collective agreements. The criteria for progression on pay scales are the number of years in service. It is also decided by collective agreements that a part of the teacher allowances has to be decided at local level. Typically, there is no general progression in this salary decided at local level. The criteria for this part of the teacher’s salary are most prevalent qualification, function and performance of each single teacher, which are negotiated and decided annually at the local level.

Process to establish salaries: Teachers’ salaries, including general allowances, are negotiated and decided by collective agreements. The negotiations of collective agreements take place every 2 or 3 years. The latest negotiations were in the spring of 2018 when the negotiating partners agreed on percentage adjustments (increases) that are implemented each year in general wage increases until the end of the agreement in 2020.

Status of teacher: Teachers of today are not employed as civil servants. It ended in 1993. However, among the current teachers at primary and lower secondary school level, few still hold positions as civil servants until retirement. In the coming ten years this will stop.

There is no extra job protection included in the teaching profession. The job protection conditions are the same as for every other category of public employees.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: It is a basic requirement for being a teacher at all ISCED levels to complete upper secondary education. Upper secondary education is necessary to enter a tertiary education that grants access to the teaching profession. There are two pathways to access tertiary education:

  • Quota 1: To access higher education it is required to have a general upper secondary examination (ISCED 34). For some programmes and institutions a minimum grade point average and/or certain grades and subject levels are required.

  • Quota 2: Applicants to higher education who has grade point averages too low for quota 1 and applicants with a different access basis than a general upper secondary examination can be admitted after selection criteria set by the individual educational institution.

As a teacher in upper secondary (ISCED 34), in general, you must have completed a master (ISCED 7) in a specific subject e.g. in biology or history.

As a newly appointed teacher in upper secondary general education, the teacher must complete pedagogy (Pædagogikum) over the first year.

England (United Kingdom):

Structure of the compensation system: The same pay framework applies to all school teachers employed to teach all phases of education. Salary progression is implemented by pay increments through the pay ranges. The relevant body (the governing board or local authority) must adopt a policy that sets out the basis on which it determines teachers' pay and the date by which it will determine teachers' annual pay reviews.

Academies (government-dependent private schools) are not required to follow the national pay ranges set out in the STPCD. However, many do, as academy budgets are comparable with those in maintained schools and because staff employed by a maintained school who transfer to an academy if the school converts are entitled to retain their original terms and conditions under the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006.

Criteria for salary progression: The criteria for salary progression through the main and upper pay ranges are based on performance. The relevant body (the school's governing body or local authority) must consider annually whether or not to increase the salary of teachers who have completed a year of employment since the previous annual pay determination and, if so, to what salary within the relevant pay ranges.

The School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD) 2018 outlines the criteria for progression: the relevant body must decide how pay progression will be determined, subject to the following:

  1. 1. The decision whether or not to award pay progression must be related to the teacher's performance, as assessed through the school's appraisal arrangements in accordance with the Education (School Teachers' Appraisal) (England) Regulations 2012;

  2. 2. A recommendation on pay must be made in writing as part of the teacher's appraisal report, and in making its decision the relevant body must have regard to this recommendation;

  3. 3. Pay decisions must be clearly attributable to the performance of the teacher in question;

  4. 4. Continued good performance as defined by an individual school's pay policy should give a classroom or unqualified teacher an expectation of progression to the top of their respective pay range;

The relevant body must set out clearly in the school’s pay policy how pay progression will be determined (p. 23-24).

Teachers paid on the main range may apply to be paid on the upper pay range. Applications are assessed against the following criteria:

  • the teacher is highly competent in all elements of the relevant standards; and

  • the teacher's achievements and contribution to an educational setting or settings are substantial and sustained (p. 21).

The leading practitioner pay range is for teachers employed in posts which have the primary purpose of modelling and leading improvement of teaching skills, although there are no statutory national criteria for appointment to such posts. The relevant body shall determine in accordance with its pay policy an individual pay range within the leading practitioner pay range. The relevant body must ensure that there is appropriate scope within an individual pay range to allow for performance related progress over time (p. 21).

Process to establish salaries: Minimum and maximum values for teachers' pay ranges in maintained schools are determined annually by the Secretary of State for Education, taking into account the recommendations of the School Teachers' Review Body's (STRB) annual report. The salary ranges and guidance on their application are published in the School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD). There are four separate geographical pay ranges for teachers employed in different areas: 'Inner London Area', 'Outer London Area', the 'Fringe Area', 'England and Wales (excluding London Area) area'. This is to reflect the cost of living in different areas of England and Wales.

Status of teacher: Teachers are not civil servants. The same general employment law applies to all teachers.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: There are various pathways to enter the teaching profession. There are higher education institutions (HEI)-led training routes and there are school institution-led training routes. The HEI-led training routes are split into undergraduate (concurrent) programmes and postgraduate (consecutive) programmes. The school institution-led training routes are split into school-centred initial teacher training (SCITT) programmes, School Direct Training Programmes (salaried and non-salaried) and the Teach First (salaried) programme.

A fully-qualified teacher, having achieving Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) via a HEI-led training route or a non-salaried school institution-led training route, is paid on the main pay range. An unqualified teacher employed on an employment-based teacher training scheme following a route to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS), via a salaried school institution-led training route, is paid on the unqualified teacher pay range.

Estonia:

Structure of the compensation system: Only minimum wage is determined.

Pre-primary level: The representatives of local governments and the representatives of teachers from pre-school institutions shall agree on the minimum salaries of teachers at pre-school institutions.

Primary and secondary level: On the conditions and in accordance with the procedure provided for in the Collective Agreements Act, the minimum wage of teachers will be agreed on: 1) as the representatives of employers, by the minister responsible for the field, authorised representatives of national associations of local authorities, authorised representatives of local authorities and authorised representatives of private legal persons that manage private schools, and 2) as the representatives of employees: authorised representatives of registered associations of teachers. (2) On the basis of the agreement specified in subsection (1), the Government of the Republic will establish the minimum wage of teachers by a regulation.

Criteria for salary progression: There are no criteria stated in regulations concerning salary progression in general education schools. It is a decision of a school head. Pre-school child care institutions conduct an evaluation in order to decide on the professional skills and professional competence of teacher and his/her level of qualification. The evaluation conditions and procedure shall be approved by regulation of the minister responsible for the area. There are four qualification levels and the higher the level, the higher the salary as a common practice.

Process to establish salaries: It is a political decision. To increase teacher salary has been one of the top priorities of our recent governments.

Status of teacher: Teachers in Estonia are employees and usually work under employment contract (sometimes teachers work under contracts for provision of services).

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: There are two pathways to become a teacher:

Pre-primary level: (i) by graduating formal teacher training or (ii) acquiring higher education in some other field and has also acquiring pedagogical competences through in-service training.

Primary and secondary level: *(i) by graduating formal teacher training or (ii) if one has acquired a master degree in some other field and also has acquired teacher qualification according to the qualification frame.

Finland:

Structure of the compensation system: The salaries of teachers comprise the following elements: requirements and duties, personal component, work experience and performance (the last one is not widely used). This structure applies for ISCED 0-3.

Criteria for salary progression: As the salary is individualised, it changes with the different roles and duties of the teacher. The most common is of course the compensation that comes with work experience as these have been defined in the collective agreement.

Process to establish salaries: A minimum statutory salary and the "age increments" have been defined in the collective agreement. The rest, the salary based on the roles and duties of the teacher (how demanding the job is) as well as the performance-based part, are negotiated between the teacher and the principal.

Status of teacher: Teachers are mostly municipal civil servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: The most common pathway to teaching is completing a concurrent teacher education with pedagogical studies and practical training done at the same time as the other studies. A consecutive model also exists, providing a pathway for those who want to pursue a teacher career later. In this case the prospective teachers complete so-called separate pedagogical studies of 60 ECTS.

France:

Structure of the compensation system: A new system of career progression for civil servants (fonctionnaires civils) and military workers is being put in place progressively: the ‘Parcours professionnels, carrières et rémunérations, PPCR’. The decree n°2017-789 of May 5th, 2017 and the decree n°2017-1737 of December 21st, 2017 set the new salary scales for teachers and the dates for their application. With the PPCR system, the career progression is based on seniority and is automatic. In addition, three careers' meetings (rendez-vous de carrière) are organised during which the professional value is recognised. The first two meetings can lead to a one-year acceleration of the process. During the last meeting occurring after around 20 years of career, teachers can access another category (grade): the ‘hors-classe’ category.

Criteria for salary progression: As for every civil servant, the teacher’s basic remuneration increases as he climbs the ladder (called échelons) inside his scale; each level of the ladder corresponds to an index which defines the amount of the basic remuneration. With ‘PPCR’ the increases are fixed and regular.

Process to establish salaries: Index point, adjusted each year with prices. Between 2010 and 2016, it was frozen. It has climbed on the 1st July of 2016 (+0.6%) plus on the 1st February of 2017 (+0.6%). It has been frozen since the 1st February 2017.

La Garantie Individuelle du Pouvoir d’Achat (GIPA) introduced by the government with the decree 2008-539 provides for an allowance whose amount equals the difference between the salary of the teacher and inflation based on a determined reference period. In 2017, salary scales were revised (highest remuneration indices). Since 2017, remuneration scales have been revised (highest remuneration indices + premium's transfer in index points).

Status of teacher: Teachers are civil servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Competitive examination + 2-year master's programmes in INSPE.

Professeurs des écoles (ISCED 02-1): see section “Statutory salaries of teachers”.

Professeurs certifiés (ISCED 2-3): see section “Statutory salaries of teachers”.

Germany:

Structure of the compensation system: As civil servants, teachers as a rule are classified depending on their training under the higher or senior service. Following their studies and the Vorbereitungsdienst (preparatory service), teachers are usually placed on scale A 13. The general allocation of salary groups and possibilities of promotion is as follows:

There is no scope for promotion for teachers at primary schools and teachers at Hauptschulen who are allocated to salary group A12 or A13. There is no scope for promotion for teachers at Realschulen and teachers at special schools who are allocated to salary group A13. Teachers at Gymnasien and vocational schools have scope for promotion from Studienrat (salary group A13) to Oberstudienrat (salary group A14) and finally to Studiendirektor (salary group A15).

There are teachers in some Länder who are not trained for a particular type of school but for a certain school level (primary, lower secondary and upper secondary). These teachers are as a rule allocated to the salary groups as follows:

Teachers at lower secondary level may have scope for promotion from salary group A12 to salary group A13. For teachers at upper secondary level there is scope for promotion from Studienrat (salary group A13) to Oberstudienrat (salary group A14) and finally to Studiendirektor (salary group A15).

At pre-primary level, Erzieherinnen and Erzieher (state recognised youth or child-care workers) are generally paid in remuneration group S6 of the Collective Agreement for the Public Sector (Tarifvertrag für den öffentlichen Dienst - TVöD), with the salary levels of this remuneration group being based on professional experience. Erzieherinnen and Erzieher who already have professional experience are allocated to level 2 as a rule.

Criteria for salary progression: Teacher at secondary schools may be promoted to Oberstudienrat or Studiendirektor. As a rule, nobody can be promoted to a higher scale or salary group without a change in his responsibilities or position.

As a rule, among others the following functions are linked to promotion to Oberstudienrat:

  • Co-ordination of subject areas or subjects.

  • Planning and performance of career guidance for pupils.

  • Implementation of the school-specific programme.

  • Participation in the process of producing timetables and replacement plans.

  • Procurement and management of teaching aids.

As a rule, among others the following functions are linked to promotion to Studiendirektor:

  • Co-ordination of subject areas or subjects.

  • Co-ordination of the orientation stage.

  • Co-ordination of the lower secondary level.

  • Co-ordination of the upper secondary level.

  • Administrative functions.

Process to establish salaries: Collective bargaining in irregular intervals.

Status of teacher: For teachers at both general education and vocational schools as well as across ISCED levels the proportion of teachers with civil servant status is 75 per cent and the proportion of teachers with public employee status is 25 per cent. This information does not apply to the pre-primary sector and government-dependent private schools.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Initial teacher education and training. Teacher training is basically divided into two stages, a course of higher education including periods of practical training and practical training in a school setting. The decision as to whether teacher training study programmes are concluded with the state examination or follow the graduated structure of higher education studies lies with the Länder. In Länder which have a consecutive study structure for teacher training, the Master’s degree replaces the First State Examination as a rule. The (Second) State Examination must, however, be taken after the preparatory service. This information does not apply to the pre-primary sector. As a rule, pedagogic staffs in early childhood education and care are trained at Fachschulen for youth and community work that are assigned to the tertiary level. Over recent years, the number of courses of study leading to a first-degree and further courses of study for pedagogic staff has increased. Particularly at the levels of administration, management and counselling in the elementary sector, further courses of study are available to qualified pedagogic staff in co-operation between Fachschulen and Fachhochschulen.

Greece:

Structure of the compensation system: The provisions of articles 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 of law 4354/2015 (Government Gazette 176 A ') apply.1) There are 19 salary scales (M.K.) for teachers, 1 being the first and lowest and 19 the highest, for teachers with 34-36 years of service. The salary classification of the employees is carried out according to their formal qualifications and their time of service.

Criteria for salary progression: Completion of two years of service per salary scale allows a teacher to enter the next salary scale. Holders of postgraduate degrees of a minimum duration of one year of study, for degrees that have been granted after receiving the degree of tertiary education, are promoted by two (2) M.K. (4 years) in the category they belong to, while the holders of a doctoral degree by six (6) M.K. (12 years). The freezing of working experience, applied in 2016-2017 will follow teachers throughout their career in education, unless/until the law changes. All teachers already working before 2018 are granted 2 years of experience less than they actually had because years 2016-2017 do not count in their working experience progression.

Process to establish salaries: Due to fiscal constraints teachers' salaries as well as all civil servants' salaries are determined centrally.

Status of teacher: Teachers serving in public schools with permanent contracts are civil servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: A relevant degree (ISCED 6) from a HEI is the minimum requirement for eligibility in the examination of Supreme Council for Civil Personnel Selection (ASEP) for teachers (Law 3848/2010). Since 2019, when Law 4589/2019 was put into effect, teachers’ vacant positions are covered by candidate teachers after participating in this selective procedure, which no longer includes a written examination. It involves submitting all the documents proving their qualifications, social status (number of children etc.) following which they are ranked. For candidate teachers with degrees whose curriculum does not include theoretical and practical training in pedagogy and teaching, further qualifications in pedagogy and teaching are required (Law 4186/2013).

Hungary:

Structure of the compensation system: There is a wage matrix: 15 items of a time scale -from 0 years to 44 years- and 5 categories of professional development.

Criteria for salary progression: Criteria are the number of years spent in teaching profession and the examination which allows the change in professional categories.

Process to establish salaries: There is no upgrade but every three years the teacher changes his/her payment scale category and the salary increases.

Status of teacher: Teachers are civil servants in public schools and employees in non-public schools. The Act on general education and the government decree 326/2013 define the calculation methods and set the statutory salary of teachers in public schools. The maintainer of the public school can offer slightly higher amounts. To private government-dependent schools and private independent schools, the Act on general education, the government decree 326/2013 and the Labour Code apply. For this reason, the statutory salaries set by the Act and government decree are only the compulsory minimum; the maintainer of these schools is free to set higher amounts.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: There is only one pathway; a teacher must be qualified by a HEI.

Iceland:

Structure of the compensation system: The compensation system is outlined in a document that is part of an agreement between teacher unions and local/central authorities. The pay scale is a table that consists of several grades and steps for each grade. Different types of teachers are assigned a certain grade for basic minimum pay. Progression, i.e. extra grade or step increase in salary, is defined in the agreement.

For pre-primary, primary and lower secondary teachers the pay scale has 30 grades and 9 steps. Each grade is approximately 2.5% increase and each step is a 2% increase. Educational qualifications and experience lead to added grades or steps on the pay scale. Staff are paid according to certain starting pay grade depending on their duties. Every 30 ECTS in further education leads to 2% step increase in salary. 5 years of experience adds two pay grades, 10 years adds two more years, and 15 years adds a further two grades.

The pay scale for upper secondary teachers is a combination of a general pay scale and a compensation system that is decided on an institutional basis. Therefore, there is no single pay scale for all teachers in general programmes. The general pay scale is a basis on which further compensation is added through an institutional agreement. Criteria for compensation and progression may differ depending on institutions. The statutory salary reported is based on a representative agreement of one particular upper secondary school. 18 grades and 8 steps. 5% for each grade 2.5% for each step.

Criteria for salary progression: Criteria for salary progression include further education (represented by ECTS credits), experience (on a 5-year increment), duties and responsibilities within the school.

Process to establish salaries: Teacher salaries and pay scales are decided through collective bargaining between teacher unions and educational authorities (local for ISCED 0 through 2, central for ISCED 3). The period of the collective agreement is decided beforehand and salary increases may occur throughout the period. There is no fixed period for the duration of an agreement, but typically they may last from one to four years.

Status of teachers: Teachers have a specific status defined in legislation. The law states the qualification requirements and terms of employment.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Teachers are required to complete a university education, the equivalent of a master’s degree for all school levels.

Ireland:

Structure of the compensation system: A common base salary scheme operates for all teachers in the state sector at ISCED 1, ISCED 24 and ISCED 34. This provides for the incremental increase in teachers' salary in accordance with years of teaching. As of 1 October 2020, there are two applications of this common base salary scheme in the system. These two applications are:

  1. 1. For teachers who commenced teaching prior to 2011 which constitutes the majority of teachers (i.e. 77.2% at ISCED 1; 77.7% at ISCED 24 and ISCED 34).

  2. 2. For teachers who commenced teaching on or after 1 January 2011 (i.e. 22.8% at ISCED 1; 22.3% at ISCED 24 and ISCED 34).

Up to October 2018, there had been two separate applications of the common base salary scheme for teachers who commenced teaching on or after 1 January 2011. One related to teachers who entered teaching between 1st January 2011 and 31 January 2012. This cohort of teachers received qualification allowances but did not receive other allowances as such teaching on an island allowance and started on a lower point of the salary scale in use for entrants to teaching prior to January 2011. The number of teachers on this salary scale was very small. The second salary scale related to teachers who commenced teaching from February 2012 which constituted over 16% of the teaching population in 2016/2017.

This salary scale incorporated qualification allowances that had previously been included as an additional payment to the base salary in teachers’ statutory salaries. From 1 January 2018, the separate salary scale for teachers appointed between January 2011 and February 2012 has been merged with the salary scale for teachers appointed after February 2012. The salary scale for post February 2012 entrants to teaching incorporates allowances for teacher qualifications that were previously separate to a teacher's base salary and included in the calculation of a teacher's statutory salary. Teachers who entered teaching between January 2011 and February 2012 and who are entitled to a qualification allowance above that accommodated in the new merged salary scale are paid the excess in the form of a qualification allowance on a personal-to holder basis.

This new merged salary scale is that referred to at (ii) above and is outlined in Appendix 1 (b) Department of Education and Skills Circular 0083/2017.For entrants to teaching prior to 2011, the point of commencement on the incremental scale depended on the length of pre-service qualification/training. For example, qualified primary teachers with three years of primary teaching education commenced on Point 2 of the salary scale. Post-primary teachers who had four years of pre-service qualification/training commenced on Point 3 of the scale. Teachers entering teaching prior to 2011 were also awarded allowances, in addition to their base salary, for qualifications and other allowances such as teaching through Irish, teaching in an Irish speaking area and teaching on an island school.

Criteria for salary progression: For teachers appointed before January 2011, progression in the salary of teachers is primarily contingent on the years of satisfactory service and qualification levels. Some additional allowances are also payable on a discrete basis to teachers working in an island school, in a school that teaches through Irish and in a school in an Irish speaking area (Gaeltacht). From 1 January 2011, progression in the salary of teachers is contingent on years of satisfactory service only. An increment is awarded annually at each point of the incremental scale for each year of satisfactory service. All teachers with a post of responsibility or middle management position are paid an allowance.

Process to establish salaries: The main process to establish salaries is collective bargaining as part of National Pay Agreements. Benchmarking has also been used on occasion.

Status of teacher: Teachers at ISCED 1, ISCED 24 and ISCED 34 are public servants. The salary scale of teachers is determined within the National Pay Agreements for public servants generally. At ISCED 02, practitioners are employed in a private capacity by the owners of early years settings. As part of the ECCE scheme, ISCED 02 settings receive grants per eligible child enrolled from the Department of Children and Youth Affairs on condition that the setting meets requirements such as minimum qualification of practitioners teaching in such settings and minimum qualification of the practitioners leading the settings.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: There are two key pathways to entering teaching at ISCED 1, ISCED 24 and ISCED 34 in Ireland. These involve either a concurrent or a consecutive programme of initial teacher education. All initial teacher education programmes must meet the requirements of the Teaching Council and are reviewed for the purpose of recognition at timely intervals by that body.

Primary level: At ISCED 1, the main pathway since the 1970s has been the concurrent programme where student teachers complete a three-year Batchelor of Education (B.Ed) programme. As part of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy published in 2011, this programme has been extended to four years to allow for an additional focus on preparing student teachers to teach literacy and numeracy and to facilitate additional time for student teachers in school placements. In the last 10 years, an increasing number of teachers entering teaching at ISCED 1 have completed a consecutive initial teacher education programme via a postgraduate diploma in education. These student teachers are required to have completed a primary degree normally at honours level to qualify for entry to the consecutive initial teacher education programme. As part of the Literacy and Numeracy Strategy, the duration of these consecutive programmes has been extended from one to two years and they now have the academic status of a Postgraduate Masters in Education.

Secondary level: The same pathways are followed for teachers teaching at ISCED 24 and 34. At these levels, the main pathway traditionally and currently for qualifying as a post-primary teacher is the completion of a consecutive programme of initial teacher education. Candidates entering these programmes are required to have a relevant primary degree, normally at honours level. At ISCED 24 and 34, the completion of concurrent programmes (normally a Batchelor of Education programme) relates to the teaching of certain subjects such as Physical Education, Home Economics and Religion. At ISCED 24 and 34, the duration of both consecutive and concurrent programmes leading to a qualification as a teacher has been extended by one year as part of the 2011 National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. The consecutive programmes have increased from one to two years and now have the status of a Postgraduate Masters in Education. The concurrent programmes have increased from three to four years.

Israel:

Structure of the compensation system: The annual increase in salary is less differentiated over the whole teaching career up to a maximum of 36 years (during the first 7 years, the salary increased by 2% each year and between the 8th and the 36th years, the salary increased by 1% each year). The new wage table is also based on nine promotional levels; each level represents a 7.5% increase in salary. In Oz Letmura Reform in upper secondary education, there were no changes after this reform in the salary scales; therefore, the salary increases are not linear: during the first 7 years, the salary increases by 5% each year; between the 1st and the 25th years, the salary increases by 2% each year; and then, between the 25th and the 36th years, the salary increases by 1% each year.

The teachers’ salaries are depending on wage agreements between the central authorities and the teachers’ organisations in the pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education and between the local government and the teachers' organisations, with the approval of the central authorities, in the upper secondary education. The teachers' salary rises with seniority and with the professional development. In addition, the teacher receives supplements for certain activities, such as out-of-school trips, attending school management, classroom tutoring.

In upper secondary education each new teacher begins to work under the new conditions of the Oz Letmura reform. Today, 86% of the teachers in this education level are working under the reform conditions.

Criteria for salary progression:

  • The annual increase in salary is less differentiated over the whole teaching career up to a maximum of 36 years (during the first 7 years, the salary increased by 2% each year and between the 8th and the 36th years, the salary increased by 1% each year). The new wage table is also based on nine promotional levels; each level represents a 7.5% increase in salary. In Oz Letmura Reform in upper secondary education, there were no changes after this reform in the salary scales; therefore, the salary increases are not linear: during the first 7 years, the salary increases by 5% each year; between the 1st and the 25th years, the salary increases by 2% each year; and then, between the 25th and the 36th years, the salary increases by 1% each year.

  • The teachers' salary rises with seniority and with the professional development. In addition, the teacher receives supplements for certain activities, such as out-of-school trips, attending school management, classroom tutoring.

Process to establish salaries: The teachers’ salaries are depending on wage agreements between the central authorities and the teachers organisations in the pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education and between the local government and the teachers' organisations, with the approval of the central authorities, in the upper secondary education. The teachers' salary rises with seniority and with the professional development. In addition, the teacher receives supplements for certain activities, such as out-of-school trips, attending school management, classroom tutoring.

Status of teachers: A teacher is a civil servant in all levels of education, except upper secondary's teachers.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: BA, teaching certificate and teaching traineeship.

Italy:

Structure of the compensation system: Compensation structure is organised by level. The structure is the same for all ISCED level and is composed of six levels of seniority. In addition to the salary there is a “Professional teacher retribution", the same for all ISCED levels and dependent on the years of service (3 level of seniority).

Criteria for salary progression: Salary progression consider only years in service.

Process to establish salaries: The statutory salaries are defined by the National teachers' Collective Contract. Changes to the level of teachers' salary is possible only by collective bargain. Last update was in 2018. Pending the renewal of the national collective agreement, an allowance for the contractual empty is paid.

Status of teacher: In the public schools, as indicated in the latest Eurydice report "Teachers in Europe", in Italy, teachers have the status of "Non-civil servant public employees" (see Figure 1.3: Employment status of fully qualified teachers in lower secondary education, 2019/20). Indeed, teachers are public employees with a private contract. These contracts are defined by schools under private law on the basis of a national collective labour bargaining.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Currently the law requires all teachers to have ISCED 7 level education.

Japan:

Structure of the compensation system: Salaries for teachers in public schools cannot be dealt with sweepingly, because they are decided by each prefectural ordinance. In the model salary schedule for reference, referred to by the ordinance salary schedules in many prefectures, which is described as the statutory salaries in this research table, the schedule applied for teachers in elementary school and junior high school differs from that applied for high school teachers, and both schedules are divided into 5 stages (lecturer, teacher, chief teacher, head teacher and vice-principal, principal). Starting salaries are decided in consideration of years of teaching experience as of employment, and the salary is raised regularly every year.

Criteria for salary progression: Though the standard for salary raise cannot be dealt with sweepingly because it is decided by each prefectural ordinance, the salary raise will be carried out if work performance has been good for a year in personnel assessment in each prefecture.

Process to establish salaries: Each prefectural personnel committee make recommendations about salaries considering the balance to private enterprise, and based on it, each prefectural assembly decide the salaries on passing through collective bargain.

Status of teacher: Teacher is public servant, and their salary is decided in each prefectural assembly.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Many applicants learn required subjects in university or college, get an educational personnel certificate, and take teaching staff examination in each prefecture.

Korea:

Structure of the compensation system: A teachers' salary is subject to the regulations pursuant to a public servant’s salary specified under the presidential decree, which is on a single pay scale. With respect to salary progression, salary is linearly adjusted based on the number of years in service.

Criteria for salary progression: Number of years in service and achievement of a higher professional teaching certificate.

Process to establish salaries: Once a year, the Ministry of Finance determines the appropriate level of wage increases for public servants based on the official measures of the inflation rate.

Status of teacher: Permanent contract teachers employed at public schools are classified as special civil servants (e.g. public educational officials). Thus, teachers' salaries are subject to the policies specified by the National Public Service Law, the Civil Servant Act, and the Public Officials' Remuneration Regulations.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: In order to enter the teaching profession, it is necessary to obtain a Teacher's Certificate. The Teacher's Certificate is granted after completing required courses for the teaching profession for each ISCED level. Sources: Early Childhood Education Act (Act No. 17661), Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Act No. 16672).

Pre-primary level: To earn a teacher's certificate, a candidate is required to complete the mandatory subject-related and pedagogical courses at one of the following institutions: a 3-year college, a 4-year general university, or a 4-year teacher's college. To become a permanent teacher, candidates must pass a competitive national examination.

Primary level: To earn a teacher's certificate, a candidate is required to complete the mandatory subject area and pedagogical courses at a University of Education (4 years). To become a permanent teacher, candidates must pass a competitive national examination.

Secondary level: A candidate is required to complete the requisite subject area and pedagogical courses at a general university or a teacher's college (4 years) or to complete the requisite subject area and pedagogical courses at a graduate school of education after completing prerequisite courses at an undergraduate university. To become a permanent teacher, candidates must pass a competitive national examination.

Other comments: Candidates are eligible to enter the teaching profession once they have obtained a teaching certificate. However, in order to become a permanent teacher employed at a public school as a civil servant, they must pass a competitive national examination.

Latvia:

Structure of the compensation system: Monthly salary of teacher is paid for working regular hours (including breaks between lessons) according to a workload of the teacher. The Regulation by the Cabinet of Ministers sets the lowest monthly work salary rate. Head of education institution evaluates work intensity and personal contribution of the teacher according to the criteria approved by the school. Based on this evaluation and in the framework of state budget grant, the school head has the right to define the monthly salary rate of teacher up than minimum salary rate defined by the regulation.

Criteria for salary progression: In the school year 2020/21, some teachers with 1st, 2nd and 3rd quality level of professional activity performance evaluation system continued to receive allowances of EUR 45, 114, and 140 respectively for one teaching work rate (the teaching performance quality evaluation system changed since 1st of January 2017 and the 3rd, 4th, and 5th quality levels were changed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels, also since 2017 schools may decide freely on the amount of allowance). In addition, when defining teachers monthly work salary rate the school head may take into account the length of service of the teacher.

Process to establish salaries: Minimum teachers' salary level = was updated in 2016. Average salary of public sector employees in 2015 for similar number of working hours per week was taken as a reference point. Public sector employees work 40 hours per week, but teacher’s workload comprises 30 hours per week as of the 1st of September 2016. Therefore, public sector average salary is reduced for them to 30 work hours (for example: 40 hours = EUR 1 000, 30 hours = EUR 700).

Status of teacher: In Latvia teachers do not have civil servant status. General labour regulation applies to teachers. The employment status of teachers is contractual. According to the Labour law, schools must sign permanent contracts with teachers.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: To access to profession, teachers must have the required education and a teacher qualification in the respective level of education. Starting in 2003/04, only teachers with higher education are entitled to work in schools, thus only teachers with academic degree in pedagogy or higher professional qualifications obtained at levels ISCED 6 or ISCED 7 are employed. Various possibilities are provided for the teachers who in accordance with these provisions, are not entitled to teach. Teacher may acquire the necessary qualification through in-service training, e.g. teachers may work also if they have obtained academic or professional degree in the respective field of science and only a teacher's qualification has to be obtained yet. In that case, they have to start teacher's qualification acquisition within two years after they started to work as teachers. The latter option was introduced in order to enlarge competition as well as to fill vacancies in the teaching of certain subjects due to the ageing of teaching staff. Taking into account the lack of pre-primary school teachers, the recent amendments also prescribe primary school teachers as eligible to teach in pre-primary institutions. In Latvia, more than 40% of teachers are above the age of 50. A nationwide education programme “Mission Possible” has been addressing the relevant issue of young teachers entering school system since 2008. In the framework of this programme, every year around 20 students with a non-pedagogic Bachelor or Master degree become new teachers following the opportunity to study pedagogy along with working at school. “Mission Possible” as part of global network of similar organisations Teach For All, recruit and teach these students and career changers, supervise the process of in-school work in the two first years and support different choices of alumni. Until 2015 only approximately half of Mission Possible alumni continued their work at school: general regulations for acquiring teacher qualification required to complete a study programme in pedagogy. In 2015, the Ministry of Education and Science confirmed that the procedure for granting teacher qualification set out in the “Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers “Regulations on the Necessary Academic and Professional Qualifications of Pedagogues and Professional Competence Development Procedures for Pedagogues” allows alumni of Mission Possible to be automatically awarded with a teacher qualification if they only hold a qualification in an area related to the subject taught. It is expected that the number of these highly motivated teachers staying at school will increase.

Lithuania:

Structure of the compensation system: There are several pay scales: Teachers working in pre-primary programmes:

  • For not-yet-qualified teachers with up to 3 years' service, 3 -10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service and more than 15 years' service.

  • For teachers with qualification level with up to 10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service and more than 15 years' service.

  • For senior teachers with up to 10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service and more than 15 years' service.

  • For teacher supervisors with up 10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service and more than 15 years' service.

  • For teacher experts with up to 10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service and more than 15 years' service; Teachers working in primary, lower secondary, upper secondary programmes: - For not-yet-qualified teachers with up to 2 years' service, 2 -5 years' service, 5 -10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service, 15 -20 years' service, 20 -25 years' service and more than 25 years' service.

  • For teachers with qualification level up to 2 years' service, 2 -5 years' service, 5 -10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service, 15 -20 years' service, 20 -25 years' service and more than 25 years' service.

  • For senior teachers with 2-5 years' service, 5-10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service, 15 -20 years' service, 20-25 years' service and more than 25 years' service.

  • For teacher supervisors with 5-10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service, 15 -20 years' service, 20 -25 years' service and more than 25 years' service.

  • For teacher experts with 5 - 10 years' service, 10 -15 years' service, 15 -20 years' service, 20 -25 years' service and more than 25 years' service;

(Pre-primary) 5-20% for all pre-school teachers due to complexity of activities: pupils with SEN are integrated in mainstream groups; other cases determined by the head of the institution. In case of 2 or more criteria, basic statutory salary could be increased totally up to 25%.

(Primary) 1-15% teaching SEN students in mainstream classes; 1-15% students are teaching in multilingual environment and learning in Lithuanian; 1-15% students are studying in national minority language; 1-15% teaching students at home due to illness; up to 20% other cases determined by the institution's pay system. In case of 2 or more criteria, basic statutory salary could be increased totally up to 25%.

(Lower secondary) 1-15% teaching SEN students in mainstream classes; 1-15% students are teaching in multilingual environment and learning in Lithuanian; 1-15% students are studying in national minority language; 1-15% teaching students at home due to illness; up to 20% other cases determined by the institution's pay system. In case of 2 or more criteria, basic statutory salary could be increased totally up to 25%.

(Upper secondary) 1-15% International Baccalaureate classes; 1-15% teaching SEN students in mainstream classes; 1-15% students are teaching in multilingual environment and learning in Lithuanian; 1-15% students are studying in national minority language; 1-15% teaching students at home due to illness; up to 20% other cases determined by the institution's pay system. In case of 2 or more criteria, basic statutory salary could be increased totally up to 25%.

Process to establish salaries: Salaries changes when the regulation is changed.

Status of teachers: Teachers do not have specific status.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Teacher must have a higher pedagogical education.

Luxembourg:

Structure of the compensation system: There are the same grades for all teachers according to the years of service, as well as a linear increase of the salary.

Criteria for salary progression: Years of service after a successful completion of implemented continuing education.

Process to establish salaries: The salaries are adjusted to the costs of living, when they raise 2.5%, the salaries are adjusted by 2.5%.

Status of teacher: All the teachers concerned by this report are civil servants. They are all being paid by the government and therefore their salaries are regulated the same way.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: A specific bachelor/master degree is needed as well as a successful completion of a probationary period after a competitive examination.

Other comments:

http://www.men.public.lu/fr/fondamental/personnel-ecoles/recrutement-instituteurs/index.html.

http://www.men.public.lu/fr/secondaire/personnel-ecoles/recrutement-enseignant-fonctionnaire/index.html

Mexico:

Structure of the compensation system: The salary scale was based on the Carrier Magisterial Program. All the teachers have to beginning at a traditional level of salary, it is the same for all of them, and the only requirement is to have ISCED 6. To have more qualification does not drive to other salary level at the beginning of the carrier.

Program of Magisterial Career for ISCED 0123, this program has three categories to participate:

  1. 1. It is for Classroom Teachers.

  2. 2. It is for Personnel with directive functions, or supervision functions.

  3. 3. It is for teachers that develop technical or pedagogical activities.

Magisterial Career is a horizontal promotion system for teachers. The Programme consists of six stimuli salary levels: K1A, K1B, K1C, K1D, K1E and K1F. The aim of the program is to improve the quality of education; recognising and stimulates the work of the best teachers. Also, it reinforces the interest in the permanent improvement of teachers; stimulating the natural vocation and the teachers’ permanence in the teaching activity. Finally, it also supports teachers who work in low development areas.

Criteria for salary progression: The new criteria enabling salary progression through the career of teachers is missing at the moment.

Status of teacher: Teachers in public education institutions are public sector employees. Teachers who teach in public schools are considered civil servants. Their salaries are paid by taxpayers, and they serve the public sector by educating children. Teachers receive good benefits due to their unique work schedules and are paid more each five years and can get better salaries looking to the dates for different programs to increase their salary, resting in the same work activity.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: This is done through the "Evaluation for the entrance to the professional service teacher in basic and upper secondary education for the 2020/21 school cycles. www.usicamm.sep.gob.mx.

Netherlands:

Structure of the compensation system: System is the same for every level but salary differences per education level.

Pre-primary and primary level: The salary increases with every step until 15 steps. The increase with each step is not the same: for example, it starts for scale L10 with about EUR 80 and ends with about EUR 130.

Secondary level: The salary increases with every step till 12 steps. The increase with each step is not the same: for example, it starts for scale LB with about EUR 70 and ends with about EUR 220.

Criteria for salary progression: Progression through the steps within a salary scale is usually based on years in service. Progression to a different salary scale is at the discretion of the school. The promotion criteria for a higher salary scale are determined with teacher representatives of the school (board). There are manuals (framework) in the collective labour agreement.

Process to establish salaries: The government determines the budget (arbeidsvoorwaardenruimte) annually. Teacher salaries are determined by the social partners (Respectively the Councils for primary and secondary education (PO-Raad and the VO-raad) and the unions). The councils for primary and secondary education negotiate with the unions about the terms and conditions of employment. There is no regularity in the time period. This changes regularly.

Status of teacher: Until 1 January 2020 about one-third of the teacher population were civil servants, about two-thirds were not. Staff in public-authority schools and institutions were formally public-sector personnel; they were public servants within the meaning of the Central and Local Government Personnel Act. The same did not apply to staff in the private (but publicly funded) sector who sign a contract with the board of the legal person, governed by private law, whose employment they enter. They fall under the provisions of the civil law, insofar as the relevant educational legislation and the regulations based thereon do not differ from these provisions. Private sector staff could be deemed to share the status of public sector personnel in respect of those conditions of service that are determined by the government. Differences between publicly-run and privately-run (publicly funded) education. The salaries in collective labour agreement are the same. There was only a difference in appointment and unemployment arrangements.

As of 1 January 2020, the legal position of teachers in public education has been normalised. This means that they are no longer civil servant and that civil law has become applicable. As far as the legal position of teachers is concerned, there is no longer any difference between teaching staff of public and private institutions. Their legal position has been completely equalised.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: For primary education a bachelor degree is required (pabo-diploma). For lower secondary education the minimum qualification level is a second degree (initial teacher preparation) required this is a bachelor degree. For upper secondary education a first-grade initial preparation level is required. This is mostly comparable with a master degree (but not always).

New Zealand:

Structure of the compensation system: (Primary and secondary) Teachers are placed in a position on a salary band based on the years of experience they have and their qualifications.

Each year a teacher moves through an additional step of the salary band, until they reach the maximum point for their level of qualification.

Criteria for salary progression: (Primary and secondary) Teachers progress to the next step annually provided they meet professional standards.

Process to establish salaries: (Primary and secondary) The Secretary for Education, acting under delegation from the State Service Commissioner as per s23 and s74(5) of the State Sector Act 1988, negotiates collective agreements with the applicable union(s).

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: (Primary and secondary) Teachers must gain a teaching qualification in New Zealand or an approved overseas teaching qualification and be issued with a practising certificate from the New Zealand Teaching Council.

Norway:

Structure of the compensation system: The general collective agreement between The Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS) and the teachers’ unions specifies minimum salaries for teachers. Local authorities are free to set the salaries higher than the minimum salaries in the general collective agreement.

Criteria for salary progression: The minimum salaries depend on level of/years of education and years of experience. The minimum salaries for teachers with a bachelor degree (3, 4 and 5 years of higher education) are considerably lower than the minimum salaries for teachers with a master degree (5 and 6 years of higher education). There is also a considerable increase in the minimum salaries from 10 to 16 years of experience. The minimum salary increases every additional two years of experience up until 10 years of experience

Process to establish salaries: Collective bargaining between The Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS) and the teachers’ unions, which results in an increase of the minimum salaries for all, takes places once a year.

Status of teacher: Teachers are ordinary public employees.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: For primary and Lower Secondary Teacher Education (4 years). In 2017, the teacher education changed from being a 4 year-long education at bachelor level (ISCED 6) to a 5 year-long education at master degree level (ISCED 7). Ordinary university studies in different subjects (bachelor/master degree), and finally 1 year of practical-pedagogical studies.

Poland:

Structure of the compensation system: All teachers fall within one remuneration system. The amount of teacher’s basic salary is set by the regulation by the Minister responsible for education. Remuneration depends on the level of education of the given teacher and his/her position on the professional advancement scale (trainee, contract, appointed or chartered teacher).

Criteria for salary progression: The teacher's salary increases with acquiring a higher level of education and with progress to the following step on the professional advancement scale. Moreover, teachers receive a seniority bonus amounting to 1% of a basic salary for each year in employment (starting with year 4 in employment), a maximum amount of the seniority bonus is set at 20% of basic salary.

Process to establish salaries: The process of establishing teachers' salaries is based on the Government priorities prepared in co-operation with the Teachers' Trade Unions.

Status of teacher: Teaching profession is regulated in a separate legislative act which, among others, defines the remuneration rules. Teachers employed on the basis of The Teachers' Charter regulations, are not the subject of Civil Service Act in Poland. Apart from basic salary, Teachers' Charter regulations provide additional allowances.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Entry to the teaching profession in public institutions: new entrants to the profession (trainee teachers) are fully qualified teachers within the meaning of educational regulations. Teachers are first employed as so-called trainee teachers on the basis of a one-year contract. The internship lasts 9 months. The teacher obtains the next level of promotion (contract teacher) after meeting the qualification requirements, completing an internship ending with a positive assessment of the professional achievements and obtaining approval from the qualification committee after an interview. In order to start a teaching career a person should hold a diploma of completing education in a teacher training college or a foreign language teacher training college at a minimum.

Pre-primary and primary level: Minimum is a teacher training college diploma or foreign language teacher training college diploma (ISCED-A 550).

Lower Secondary level: Minimum is a teacher training college diploma or foreign language teacher training college diploma (ISCED-A 550).

Upper Secondary level: Minimum is a Master's degree with pedagogical training (ISCED-A 760).

Portugal:

Structure of the compensation system: Teachers are paid overtime work for the hours they teach beyond the statutorily established. This situation occurs mostly due to difficulties in matching the individual teaching load and the curriculum hours of the classes assigned to the teacher. The cost per hour depends on the position in the teaching career and the number of overtime hours (25% for the first hour and 50% for the second or more hours).

Criteria for salary progression: The teaching career is based on a unique salary range. It is composed by ten levels, all with the duration of 4 years, except the 5th level with 2 years. The progression is dependent on a set of rules, from participation in professional development activities to the setting of quotas.

In order to progress in the career, teachers have to complete a certain amount of professional development credits, awarded by means of in-service training.

On average, it is required to do 25 hours of in-service training per year.

In case of non-successful completion, the teacher will not progress in the teaching career and the salary will not increase.

In addition to the requirement of a university degree:

  • Teachers who hold a master’s degree and always obtained an evaluation score of "Good" or higher, are rewarded with a bonus corresponding to 1 year in the career progression.

  • Teachers who hold a doctorate and always obtained an evaluation score of "Good" or higher, are rewarded with a bonus corresponding to 2 years in the career progression.

Progress through these conditions is frozen since 31/12/2010 and the progression was retroactively applied since 2018 in a partial way, through two options: by phasing or in full.

Process to establish salaries: Collective bargaining; and financial constraints.

Status of teacher: Teachers are civil servants, under the Teachers' Career Statute.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: All teachers who enter the teaching profession have ISCED 7 qualifications and begin at level 1 (Index 167). They need to have a teacher certification and having successfully been selected in the first phase of the assignment contest.

Scotland (United Kingdom):

Structure of the compensation system: All teachers, other than those in promoted posts or who have an entitlement to a conserved salary or who are on the Chartered Teacher Spine, are placed on the Main Grade Scale, which is structured in 6 levels (incremental points from 0 to 5).

Criteria for salary progression: All teachers, other than those in promoted posts or who have an entitlement to a conserved salary or who are on the Chartered Teacher Spine, are placed on the Main Grade Scale. Teachers during their probationary period are placed on Point 0 of the Main Grade Scale. Following full registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) teachers are moved on to Point 1 of the Main Grade Scale or to a higher point if additional salary points are awarded. Progression along the salary scale is commensurate with qualifying periods of teaching service, which comprises 26 weeks or more of teaching service obtained within a salary year. A salary point is awarded for each qualifying period of teaching service. The process is repeated, as necessary, for any remaining salary years in the teacher’s record of service. The chartered teacher programme has been discontinued and personal pay protection applies to those on that spine.

Process to establish salaries: The salary scales for different levels of teaching staff are agreed nationally and pay scales are set by the Scottish Negotiating Committee for Teachers (SNCT, see http://www.snct.org.uk/wiki/index.php?title=Appendix_2.1). The SNCT is a tripartite body comprising teacher’s representatives, representatives of the Scottish Government and local authority representatives drawn from the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA). The Teachers’ Side of the SNCT has 11 seats which are determined annually by recognised unions and which are based on union membership size. All teacher salaries are set according to the National Scheme of Salaries and Conditions of Service for Teachers and Associated Professionals.

Status of teacher: Teachers are not civil servants. They are employed as teachers by Local Authorities. All teachers, other than those in promoted posts or who have an entitlement to a conserved salary or who are on the Chartered Teacher Spine, are placed on the Main Grade Scale.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: The Standard for Provisional Registration (SPR) specifies what is expected of a student teacher at the end of Initial Teacher Education who is seeking provisional registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS). Having gained the SPR, all provisionally registered teachers continue their professional learning journey by moving towards the attainment of the Standard for Full Registration (SFR). The SFR is the gateway to the profession and the benchmark of teacher competence for all teachers.

Slovak Republic:

Structure of the compensation system: There is one pay scale for all teachers of mainstream schools and a different pay scale for all teachers of special schools. Each pay scale has 6 grades (4 of those grades apply to teachers in primary and secondary schools, 6 grades apply to teachers in pre-primary schools). Next grade is 9%, 10% or 12% higher than the previous grade. In each pay grade, teachers' pay increases linearly with each year of service (i.e. pay increment in %).

Criteria for salary progression: Teachers move up the grades by increasing their qualification (there are four career positions - beginning teacher, independent teacher, teacher with first attestation, teacher with second attestation; in order to move to further career position, teachers must pass specific examination and demonstration of competences; teachers at pre-primary level can also move up the grades by acquiring higher education attainment). Teachers get 0.25% increase for each year of service for the first 8 years of service, then teachers get 0.5% increase for each year of service for the next 32 years.

Process to establish salaries: It is a political decision, preceded by collective bargaining. Collective bargaining takes place each year. In the last 10 years, teacher salaries were increased each year except for 2018 and 2021.

Status of teacher: They are not civil servants. Teachers have status of public employees (employees working in public interest). Law 553/2003 Coll. on the remuneration of certain groups of employees working in public interest (Zákon 553/2003 Z. z. o odmeňovaní niektorých zamestnancov pri výkone práce vo verejnom záujme a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov) - https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2003/553/20200101.html defines the compensation scheme and level of statutory salaries and allowances.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Pre-primary school teacher (ISCED 02): full secondary vocational education (completed with the final leaving examination), if a graduate of other secondary school, must complete Secondary pedagogical school or Pedagogical and social academy; full Secondary pedagogical education (study area/field Kindergarten teaching) or Pedagogical and social. academy- 1st degree Higher Education (Bachelor's degree); if other than required study field, must complete study field Elementary and preschool pedagogy or Pre-primary education- 1st degree Higher Education (Bachelor's degree) with the required study field of Elementary and preschool pedagogy or Pre-primary education- 2nd degree Higher Education (Master's degree); if a non-teaching study field, must complete an Additional pedagogical study, subsequently extension study of Pre-primary pedagogy or the study field of Elementary and preschool pedagogy- 2nd degree Higher Education (Master's degree) - has the required study field of Elementary and pre-school pedagogy or Pre-primary education.

Primary school teacher: 2nd degree Higher Education (Master's degree) with required teaching directions/field of study; if 2nd degree Higher Education (Master's degree) non-teaching field, must complete Additional pedagogical study, subsequently extension study module either for primary education (1st grade of elementary school) or extension study of a certain subject.

Secondary school teacher: they must always have 2nd degree Higher Education (Master's degree)- required teaching directions; if 2nd degree Higher Education (Master's degree) non-teaching field, he must complete Additional pedagogical study, subsequently extension study module of a certain subject (e.g. Biology, Mathematics, etc.); if it is e.g. at vocational high schools – he teaches vocational subjects (e.g. economic subjects) - E.g. if completed university of economics (non-teaching direction), he must complete Additional pedagogical study.

Slovenia:

Structure of the compensation system: In Slovenia teachers’ salaries are determined by the Public Sector Salary System Act and with the Collective Agreement for Public Sector and other regulations based on the Act and Collective Agreement, which specify common salary bases of all employees in the public sector and also allowances and additional payments. There is a common salary scale with 65 salary grades. All posts are classified into salary grades.

Pre-primary level: Until the end of 2018, teachers were classified from 30 to 41 salary grade, from January to October 2019, from 31 to 42 salary grade and since November 2019, from 32 to 43 salary grade, and since September 2020, from 32 to 44 salary grade.

Primary and secondary level: Until the end of 2018, teachers were classified from 30 to 43 salary grade, from January to October 2019, from 31 to 44 salary grade, from November 2019, from 32 to 45 salary grade, and since September 2020, 32 to 46 salary grades.

Criteria for salary progression: Salary progression depends on time spent at a particular grade, but also a positive service performance assessment. Generally public servants may be promoted by one or two salary grades every three years. In addition, according to the Organisation and Financing of Education Act teachers can be promoted to professional titles Mentor, Advisor and Councillor. The rules issued by the Minister of Education determine the conditions of promotion, criteria for evaluation of conditions and procedures. The conditions include a certain number of years of experience, performance at work, in-service training and additional professional work. The Minister, following a proposal by the head teacher, decides on the promotion. Promotion to title results in progression on salary scale as well.

Process to establish salaries: The Public Sector Salary System Act regulates the rules for stipulating, calculating and paying salaries, as well as rules for earmarking the amounts of fund for salaries and stipulates also that collective agreement defines classification of posts and titles into salary scale, salary grades' values and their annual adjustments, annual funds for regular work performance allowances, amounts of allowances (e. g. length of service, mentorship , further formal qualifications, less favourable working conditions, dangers and special burdens, working during less convenient hours). The process of collective bargaining and the responsible authorities are also determined by the Act. The process of collective bargaining is annual; it commences in May and shall finish in time to have its results adopted by budgetary planning. The Act also stipulates that Council for the public sector salary system is established to implement the Act, to monitor the public sector salary system policy. It includes representatives of state and local authorities’ bodies and public sector trade unions.

Status of teacher: In Slovenia, teachers working in public schools and kindergartens (which are public institutions) are civil servants and are directly employed by the school/kindergarten. According to the article 1 of the Civil Servants Act, civil servants are individuals employed in the public sector which includes also public schools and kindergartens.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: The route for entry into teaching is through initial teacher education (ITE), which is organised according to consecutive and/or concurrent models. There are no alternative pathways to teaching profession in Slovenia. Teachers enter the profession in two ways: applying for open recruitment trainee job positions (induction system - pripravništvo) advertised by the Ministry of Education or by applying for open recruitment job positions advertised by schools. To be fully qualified, teachers, after having at least 5 months of teaching experience (as part of induction or independently), have to pass the state professional examination. Induction is not compulsory.

Spain:

Structure of the compensation system: In public educational institutions, teacher salaries are rewarded according to: teacher’s group or subgroup assignment within the specific professional classification body of civil servant to which they belong to; the seniority valued by 3-years periods in service in terms of bonus; category or professional level (additional amount attached to a professional position); performances and responsibilities carried out (as a specific additional remuneration).

Teacher salaries are conditioned by the career civil servant teacher’s classification that determine the group or subgroup (A1 or A2) they belong to and the level or professional category reached by a civil servant within the Spanish administrative career system (levels 21, 24 or 26).

Pre-primary and Primary level: Teachers belong to the subgroup A2. Regarding to professional category, they have the level 21. These levels determine the additional remuneration attached to a post (salary according to the category or professional level reached by a civil servant within the administrative career system).

Secondary level: teachers belong to the subgroup A1. Regarding to the professional category, the have the level 24 or 26 (senior professors’ body). These levels determine the additional remuneration attached to a post (salary according to the category or professional level reached by a civil servant within the administrative career system).

Criteria for salary progression: Salary progression is determined by the following criteria:

  • The category or professional level reached by a civil servant within the administrative career system.

  • Seniority in which the salary increases every three years in service. The amount is established at national level for every Group or Professional classification subgroup according to the career civil servant teacher’s classification.

  • Specific conditions associated with responsibilities or positions performed, such as unipersonal governing bodies (school head, secretary, etc.), singular teaching posts or education inspectorate functions.

  • A teaching function supplement which comprises two components that vary according to each Autonomous Community/City: a general component applicable to all teachers whose amount depends on the body or teacher scale which they belong to, and a singular component linked to the particular conditions of each position.

  • Fixed amounts as extra-salary supplement for Continuous Professional Learning (CPL) reward per six-year terms (sexenios, as term used in Spanish). Every teacher needs to certificate at least a minimum number of hours of recognised lifelong learning activities. This supplement varies from period to period (a maximum of five periods) and the Autonomous Community/City.

Process to establish salaries: Increases in teachers' salaries are established in the General Budget Law adopted by the central government and in the Budget Law of the Autonomous Communities annually. The applied increase is decided in The General Negotiating Table of Public Authorities. It is chaired by the General State Administration and is constituted by representatives of the Autonomous Communities, the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces and the most representative labour organisations. All the issues susceptible to be regulated at State level with a nature of basic regulations are negotiated in this Table and, more specifically, the global increase of the salary of the staff at the service of the corresponding Public Authorities to be included in the Project of the yearly Spanish Budget Act.

Status of teacher: In the case of public school teachers, there are wage differences when the teacher has the status of interim. Interim teachers are those applicants who have completed the competition process but have not been obtained the civil servant teacher’s condition. Interim teachers are candidates that work as temporary teachers.

The general regime of career civil servant teachers is applied to this staff (is regulated by The Basic Statute of the Public Employee), although the contractual relationship with the education authority lasts an academic year as a maximum. Interim teachers receive the same salaries as a general teacher, including the seniority corresponding to the group, subgroup and the professional category in which they have been appointed as interim and the additional remuneration corresponding to the post of work. Nevertheless, Interim civil servants cannot receive salary supplements associated with the progression reached by the official within the administrative career system (because of their status, they cannot opt for further positions and progress in their administrative career).

In addition, public educational schools could have exceptionally hired teaching staff on a contract basis. The remuneration of this teaching staff depends on the status of workers, the collective agreements of the sector and what is stipulated in each work contract.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: Initial teacher training required in public institutions.

The current university Bachelor and Master degrees (in accordance with the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) studies organisation) coexist with the previous study programmes which are practically extinct at university portfolio.

The grade of qualification required to enter to teaching profession differ by the education level:

  • Pre-primary and primary education: Teacher of Pre-Primary and Primary Education that refers to first cycle of university teacher training studies completion or bachelor degree (Grado, as term use in Spanish) on Pre-Primary Education and the bachelor degree in Primary Education (240 ECTS) in accordance with the organisation of university studies adapted to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). At least one degree is required. In order to start teaching as a civil servant, graduates need to take a competitive examination and participate in a merit-based selection.

  • Lower and upper secondary education: Long first-degree university qualification or bachelor degree, plus certificate of pedagogical aptitude (CAP, based on its Spanish acronym) or an official master degree such as Master's Degree in Training for Teachers of Compulsory Secondary Education and Upper Secondary Education (ISCED 7, 60 ECTS + 240 ECTS ISCED 6) in accordance with the organisation of university studies adapted to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). At least two degrees are required, a Bachelor plus a Master to accredited with pedagogical aptitude. In order to start teaching as a civil servant, graduates need to take a competitive examination and participate in a merit-based selection.

In public educational institutions, overcome a selection process to entry in the teaching profession is required:

Candidates participate in a competition established for each civil servant teacher bodies that consist in pass a merit-based selection and a competitive examination. Candidates are expected to overcome the following phases:

  • Competitive examination phase: Specific knowledge of the teaching speciality are evaluated, as well as the pedagogic aptitude and the mastery of the necessary techniques for the teaching exercise.

  • Merit-based selection phase: Candidates’ prior teaching experience, academic education and other merits are evaluated in accordance with the scales established in the different calls to gain access to the body of school teachers (according to Autonomous Community), secondary education teachers (according to Autonomous Community) and technical teachers of vocational training.

  • Traineeship period: It aims at checking the aptitude for teaching of the selected applicants.

Sweden:

Structure of the compensation system: According to the country-wide collective agreement between teacher´s union and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) salaries should be individual and differentiated and reflect achieved goals and results by the individual.

Criteria for salary progression: According to the country-wide collective agreement between teacher´s union and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities salaries should be individual and differentiated and reflect achieved goals and results by the individual.

Process to establish salaries: Collective bargaining.

Status of teacher: To work as a teacher or preschool teacher in Sweden, you require a teaching certification in most cases. Application for the teaching certification is made to the Swedish National Agency of Education. You need to have a diploma of education for teachers or preschool teachers in order to apply for a certification. The data submitted to the survey includes teachers with a pedagogical qualification, in the submitted data both teachers with a certification and teachers with no certification are included.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: The current teacher education programmes in Sweden include four different professional degrees:

  • a degree in preschool education

  • a degree in primary school education

  • a degree in subject education

  • a degree in vocational education.

Switzerland:

Structure of the compensation system: The 26 cantons have different pay systems which differ considerably. These differences concern not only the starting salaries, but also wage progression. There are cantons with a fixed linear increment and others with a flexible salary progression.

Criteria for salary progression: Compensation is related to a very limited number of aspects – essentially, the type of initial teacher education and years of experience. Rewards for extra responsibilities or additional duties are not provided, with a few exceptions (e.g. management roles).

Process to establish salaries: The formal employer of teachers is either the canton or his communes. Accordingly, the determination of salary scales and conditions of employment are made by one of these two authorities.

Status of teacher: Teachers have not a specific status. More information you may find here: https://www.varkeyfoundation.org/teacherindex.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: The education and training of teaching staff for all levels of education is provided by university institutions. The admission requirement of universities of teacher education for the primary and secondary levels (lower and upper) is generally an academic Matura. For pre-school teachers, the requirement is a specialised Matura, a vocational Matura or an academic Matura. The degree programs in teacher education and training provide professional qualifications and include scientific, teaching-specific, educational science and practical training components. The duration of studies depends on the selected degree program. Teacher training courses for the pre-school and primary levels last 3 years and are completed with a Bachelor’s degree. To teach at the lower secondary level, teachers need a Master’s degree. Teaching at the upper secondary level requires not only a degree from a university of teacher education, but also a Master’s degree in the subject(s) that are to be taught. Studies in special needs education are given at the Master’s level. There has been a shortage on teachers. The government (Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education) decided to open the educational track for becoming a teacher on ISCED 02, 1 and 2 to persons who are over thirty years old and have professional experience in other fields ("Quereinsteiger"). The duration of this pathway to become a teacher depends on the previous education and professional experience.

Türkiye:

Structure of the compensation system: In the Turkish educational system, there are a series of dimensions that identify how salary progression is implemented. First, different pay scales are determined based on the several aspects. Second, pay increment is based on the general increase of civil servants each year. The criteria that identify salary progression are given in the next question.

Criteria for salary progression: Salary progression is based on the following criteria: 1) Years of service, 2) Generalist (classroom) teacher or field teacher (Maths, History, etc.), 3) Knowledge of a foreign language (up to three), 4.) Marital Status (in case the spouse is unemployed). These criteria (excluding 2) are valid for all levels of education.

Process to establish salaries: The increase in the salaries, for all educational levels concerned, are identified by the government to be applied to the salaries twice per year, in January and in June. The salaries are identified by a committee in which the representatives of the government and civic organisations carry out certain negotiations and collective bargaining. A referee body is also responsible for the process in case a decision cannot be taken in the negotiations. The salary increases should also be compensated in each term provided that the percentage of increase is exceeded by the annual inflation rates.

Basically, in order to update the levels of teacher salaries, there are certain mechanisms that operate. First, as years of service increase, teachers get more. Second, if they prove that they know a foreign language evidenced by YDS (Foreign Language Examination), their salaries increase. Third, in case the spouse is unemployed and they have children, their salaries increase as well. Finally, in line with the negotiations between the association of civil servants and the relevant ministries, their salaries increase in accordance with the expenses in the country.

Status of teacher: Teachers work as full-time employees and benefit from all legislative rights of the civil servants, including health care, retirement plans, holidays and alike. All teachers working in the ministry of national education are civil servants, and they do not have different status. However, they are not paid the same as any civil servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: There are commonly two major ways to entry: 1) Candidate teachers must be a graduate of faculties of education, and they need to succeed in a high-stakes examination entitled 'Public Personnel Selection Examination', in which a field specific examination is also provided for teachers in line with their field. 2) Graduates of specific programs of faculties of sciences/letters can become a full-time teacher in the Ministry schools provided that they hold a 'Pedagogic Formation Certificate', a short-term general course on education provided by certain faculties of education. Similarly, that group of candidates need to take the Public Personal Selection Examination to be appointed to a post in state schools.

United States:

Structure of the compensation system: Salary decisions are made at the school, district, and/or state level.

Criteria for salary progression: Salary decisions are made at the school, district, and/or state level.

Process to establish salaries: Salary decisions are made at the school, district, and/or state level.

Status of teacher: In the United States, public school teachers are civil servants.

Pathways to enter the teaching profession: In the United States, teachers must meet education and licensing/certification requirements that vary by state. In 2017-18, 90% of U.S. teachers held a regular certification, 8% held another type of certification (probationary; provisional or temporary; or waiver or emergency certification), and 2% held no certification. 20% of U.S. teachers in 2017-18 had entered the teaching profession through an alternative route to certification program, which are programs that are designed to expedite the transition of non-teachers to a teaching career (for example, a state, district, or university alternative route to certification program). The United States cannot provide detailed information on national policies on alternative pathway/routes to the teaching profession, as such policies are set by individual states.

Australia:

The consensus may not reflect practice in some jurisdictions. These data may vary from year to year based on the jurisdictions that provide information. It includes government schools and preschools, while excluding early childhood educational programmes delivered in long day-care centres.

Austria:

ISCED 02: Pre-primary education is largely provided in kindergartens, for which there are no data available. The remaining minority of pre-primary schools are integrated in primary schools. Data on these school heads are the same as for ISCED 1. At ISCED 34, vocational programmes are included.

School heads' allowances are determined by size of school a time of service. Concerning the size of schools there are, depending on the type of school, 5 or 6 ranges. For filling in the salary ranges, the allowance for the smallest schools (Range A) and for large schools (Range B) were used to define the range of salaries paid to school heads. Therefore, the percentage of heads paid exactly that allowance (A or B) cannot be stated. For extraordinary large schools the allowance of Range B is increased up to 25% (more than 60 classes).

Notes on interpretation: The statutory salaries are calculated for heads under the old service act for teachers since there are no heads under the new service act yet. However, in the explanatory notes some information about the new service code is given.

Belgium (Flemish Community)

From the school year 2018/19 only one salary scale (the highest) is used for school heads in elementary education. Before, there were three salary scales. Government-dependent private schools are included.

Statutory salaries include end of year bonus and holiday bonus.

Belgium (French Community)

Additional payments that all school heads receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: 13th month/end-of-the-year bonus= 746.31 EUR + (base salary x 2.5%) + Holiday-pay= base salary x 70% x 86.93%. Government-dependent private schools are included.

Brazil

Brazil has a decentralised system, each one of the 26 states, the federal district and more than 5000 municipalities have their own school heads career plans. Because of that, the salaries can be determined by central government, regional authorities or local authorities, depending of which school network is the teacher working for. Differently from school teachers, school heads do not have a minimum national salary.

Canada

The methodology for calculating the Canada-level response for quantitative indicators uses two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response:

  1. 1. At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide a response, and

  2. 2. Reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

Similar to the quantitative methodology, the qualitative methodology for calculating the Canada-level response is to use two criteria to determine whether or not there is enough consensus to provide this response.

  1. 1. At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide the same response, and

  2. 2. That the reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

Data reported are not necessarily representative of all of Canada, but only of the Canadian provinces and territories that took part in the data collection. Where cells are left blank, there was not enough consensus amongst provinces and territories to develop a pan-Canadian response.

Colombia:

Data on salaries correspond to the regulated by the statute teacher 1278/2002 and not include compensations or additional bonuses.

Data on percentage of teachers are obtained from the Information System SINEB and corresponds to the participation of teachers with respect to the total of the corresponding educational level. The new teachers are those linked within the year to the official sector, but does not imply that they are newly graduates.

The teaching experience is counted from the date of recruitment in the public sector.

For this report we used information regulated in the Statutory Teacher Decree 1278 of 2002 considering that the new entrants in the public sector are governed by this statute Therefore, the percentages are measured in relation to this scale.

It is important to mention that under this scale a teacher can reach the highest salary in 9 years since it depends on the qualification and skills assessments, so the qualification has a great weight to reach the top salary. This means that in all cases the salary of 10 years is equal to that of 15 years.

The salaries do not include social security paid by the employer.

Costa Rica:

Additional payments included in statutory salaries reported 1- Teaching incentive; 2- Extended hours; 3- Double or triple day; 4- Exclusive dedication; 5- One year of annuity; 6- Thirteenth month; 7- School salary (fourteenth month).

Czech Republic:

The annual gross statutory salary is calculated combining two different salary tables from the Government Regulation on Pay Terms of Employees in Public Services and Administration, one valid from September 2020 to December 2020 (4 months in school year 2020/21) and the second from January 2021 to August 2021 (8 months in school year 2021/22). School heads can be assigned to 5 pay categories (9th-11th for pre-primary school heads, 12th-13th for primary and secondary school heads) and 7 pay grades according to the length of their professional experience (0-2 years, 2-6 years, 6-12 years, 12-19 years, 19-27 years, 27-32 years, 32+ years). The reported statutory salaries are estimates combining the salary tables with data on number of school heads in each pay category and pay grade according to the database ISS 2019 and ISS 2020 (reference year 2019/20). The reported salaries do not include the management allowance that all school heads receive, which can amount to between 15% and 60% of the highest grade for each pay category.

A special salary scale system is established for education staff. School heads can be assigned to 5 salary categories (9th-11th for pre-primary school heads, 12th-13th for primary and secondary school heads) and 7 salary grades according to the length of their professional experience (0-2 years, 2-6 years, 6-12 years, 12-19 years, 19-27 years, 27-32 years, 32+ years). Qualification requirements for salary purpose:

  • 9th pay category: tertiary professional education (ISCED 655) or secondary education with a school-leaving examination in a field aimed specially at pre-primary school teacher training (ISCED 354).

  • 10th pay category: Bachelor’s degree (ISCED 645) or tertiary professional education (ISCED 655).

  • 11th – 12th pay category: Master’s degree (ISCED 746, 747) or Bachelor’s degree (ISCED 645).

  • 13th pay category: Master’s degree (ISCED 746, 747).

A school head can only be a person who has obtained experience while performing direct educational activity (teaching), or activities for which the same or similar specialised knowledge is necessary, or while performing management activities, or activities in research and development. The length of practice required for school heads depends on ISCED level:

  • the head of a nursery school (ISCED 02): 3 years.

  • the head of a basic school (ISCED 1, 24): 4 years.

  • the head of an upper secondary school (ISCED 34): 5 years.

There is another qualification requirement for school heads of public schools. The headmaster of a public school may only be a person who, in addition to the qualification requirements referred above, has acquired, within 2 years from the day when he/she started to work as a headmaster, knowledge in the field of school management by completing his/her studies for headmasters within the in-service training of education staff.

The obligation to complete a study programme does not apply to the school heads that have studied school management in an accredited higher education course in School Management, or completed a life-long learning programme on the organisation and management of education run by a higher education institution.

Additional payments included in statutory salaries reported above: In the Czech Republic, all school heads receive an additional allowance for managing the school; however, it is not possible to include additional allowance for managing the school in the annual statutory salaries for school heads. The Labour Code sets only the range, which is very wide (15 to 60% of a teachers' salary according to the level of leadership). The statutory authority decides about the amount of the allowance for managing for individual school head. Moreover, the allowance for managing is usually set as percentage from the pay categories assigned for a school head, which may also differ (9, 10 and 11 for ISCED 02; 12 and 13 pay category for ISCED 1, 24, 34).

Denmark:

At ISCED 02, 1 and 2, the national salary scale and additional national salary regulations are decided by collective agreements between the national unions and the national authorities for public employers, i.e. Local Government Demark (KL) and the Ministry of Finance (Public Sector Innovation). In addition to the reported statutory salaries, in accordance with the general salary scale in the collective agreement, each head will typically be granted personal bonuses that are decided by local authorities or by collective agreements at local level. These personal bonuses are not included in the reported statutory salaries.

At ISCED 34, the new collective agreement stipulated that as from January 2019 school heads shall not receive a statutory salary but negotiate with the school board a total salary, including allowances.

The statutory salaries reported for school heads exclude the part of social security and pension scheme contributions paid by the employers but includes the part paid by the employees. At ISCED 34, we do not have an estimate on the proportion of school heads paid according to this new agreement.

Which authority level determine the statutory salaries: (ISCED 02 and 34) More than one authority level. (ISCED 1 and 24) Collective agreement.

England (United Kingdom):

Pay ranges: The term for school heads in England is 'headteacher'. The statutory salary figures apply to school heads in maintained schools paid on Groups 1-8 of the headteacher pay ranges. Executive headteachers, that is, headteachers who are responsible for more than one school, have been excluded. The governing board for academies, which classify as publicly funded independent schools and make up around three quarters of secondary schools and a third of primary schools, may choose to use these pay ranges or may choose to use their own pay ranges.

The minimum qualifications for heads/teachers do not apply to academy schools, but the vast majority of heads/ teachers will have these minimum requirements. The statutory salary figures reported are weighted averages of the four geographical pay ranges (Inner London Area, Outer London Area, the Fringe Area, England and Wales).

A significant proportion of provision of ISCED 02 (65% of provision for 3-year-olds) is provided in settings other than schools. The salary figures provided for ISCED 02 and ISCED 1 are combined. The figures are only for school heads of pupils in nursery and primary schools and do not apply to other ISCED 02 settings.

School heads of students at ISCED 34 are employed in both schools and further education colleges. The actual salary figures provided for ISCED 24 and 34 are combined. The figures are only for schools heads of pupils in schools and do not apply to further education colleges.

Proportion of school heads paid according to this salary range: The population of headteachers used as the denominator is full-time headteachers paid on Groups 1-8 of the headteacher pay ranges aged between 25 and 64 who are employed in maintained schools and academies.

Range A (the range with the lowest minimum salaries): Range A refers to the statutory salary figures for school heads paid on the Group 1 head teacher pay range. School heads are paid on this pay range when the school has a total unit score of up to 1 000 (calculated in accordance with paragraphs 6.1 to 6.5 of the STPCD, p. 11-12). The minimum salary figure for Range A refers to a weighted average of the minimum salary points on the Group 1 headteacher pay range across all four geographical pay ranges. The maximum salary figure for Range A refers to a weighted average of the maximum salary points on the Group 1 headteacher pay range across all four geographical pay ranges.

Range B (the range with the highest minimum salaries): Range B refers to the statutory salary figures for school heads paid on the Group 8 head teacher pay range. School heads are paid on this pay range when the school has a total unit score of 17 001 and over (calculated in accordance with paragraphs 6.1 to 6.5 of the STPCD 2017, p. 11-12). The minimum salary figure for Range B refers to a weighted average of the minimum salary points on the Group 8 headteacher pay range across all four geographical pay ranges. The maximum salary figure for Range B refers to a weighted average of the maximum salary points on the Group 8 headteacher pay range across all four geographical pay ranges.

Proportion of school heads paid according to this salary range: The population of headteachers used as the denominator is full-time headteachers paid on Groups 1-8 of the headteacher pay ranges aged between 25 and 64 who are employed in maintained schools and academies.

Public schools: The statutory pay ranges apply only to maintained schools, that is, local authority-maintained schools. The governing body for academies, which classify as government-dependent private schools and make up around three-quarters of secondary schools and a quarter of primary schools, may choose to use these pay ranges or may choose to use their own pay ranges.

ISCED 02: A significant proportion of provision of ISCED 02 (63% of provision for 3-year-olds) is provided in settings other than schools. The statutory salary figures provided apply only to school heads of pupils in schools and do not apply to other ISCED 02 settings.

ISCED 34: School heads of students at ISCED 34 are employed in both schools and further education colleges. The statutory salary figures provided apply only to teachers of pupils in schools and do not apply to further education colleges.

Estonia:

The minimum or maximum amounts of school heads' salaries have not been set by statute.

Finland:

The data for pre-primary education is for heads of kindergarten/day-care institutions who are the majority. Statutory salaries include bonus holiday pay. It is 4% for starting teachers, 5% for teachers with 10 years of experience and 6% for teachers with at least 15 years of experience. Bonus holiday pay is temporarily reduced by 30% in 2017-19.

France:

Notes on coverage and methodology: At ISCED 02 and 1 the scope - school heads with teaching responsibilities accounting for 50% or less of the full teaching time - corresponds to school heads in charge of schools with 10 classes or more. Statutory salaries of school head at ISCED 02-1 levels: Gross index salary plus a scale bonus (Bonus Indiciaire + Nouveau Bonus Indiciaire) + residence allowance + allowance for follow-up and tutoring (indemnité de suivi et d’accompagnement des élèves : ISAE) + special head allowance (Indemnité de sujétion spéciale de direction : the reference is the one for schools with 10 classes or more) + computer equipment allowance (EUR 176 per year) + attractivity allowance (applying only to the minimum statutory salary of ISCED 01 and 2 school heads i.e. of those who are in the 7th level of the classe normale scale: EUR 500 per year). Statutory salaries of school head at ISCED 24-34 levels: gross salary plus a scale bonus (Bonus Indiciaire + Nouveau Bonus Indiciaire) + residence allowance + allowance for functions, responsibility and results (indemnité de fonctions, de responsabilité et de résultats: IF2R).

Changes in statutory salaries of school heads: ISCED 02-1 school heads: same as for teachers at ISCED 02 to 3 ISCED levels, plus an "Exceptionnal" management bonus in October 2020: EUR 450 (Since 2021, this amount has been included on a permanent basis in the special school head allowance). ISCED 2-3 school heads: Revalorisation of the allowance for functions, responsibility and results (indemnité de fonctions, de responsabilité et de résultats: IF2R): corresponds to an amount of around EUR 4 366 in 2020/21 (weighted average: EUR 4 310 in 2020 and EUR 5 294 in 2021).

Greece:

Notes on coverage and methodology: The indicated statutory salaries refer to the period from September 2020 to July 2021. As of August 2021, the school head allowance – which is part of the indicated statutory salaries for school heads – has been increased by 10% in conformity with circular 90497/Ε1/23-7-2021 (Gazette 39/T./ΑSEP/23-7-2021 and Gazette 41/ASEP/29-07-21).

Notes on interpretation: For the calculation of the base salary that comprises part of the school heads' annual salary, the freezing of salaries is taken into consideration. A month's salary in 2020 refers to the full salaries provisioned in Law 4325/2015 (G.G. 47/A), or a month's salary in 2020 is the sum of the base salary of the frozen salary scales of 2011 and four quarters (4/4) of the difference between the wages of Law 4354/2015 and Law 4024/2011. From 1 January 2018 salary progression has been activated. Data on gross annual statutory salaries are reported on the basis that school heads complete certain years of work experience on 1 September 2020. Ministry of Education & Religious Affairs, Directorate for Remuneration and Other Allowances Accounting: Unit B. Legislation: Law 4024/2011 (G.G. 226/A), Law 4325/2015 (G.G. 47/A), Law 4354/2015 (G.G. 176/A) Circular of the General Accounting Office with ref. number. 2-31029/DEP/06.05.2016 (ADA: OL9SI-0ΝΜ), Circular of the General Accounting Office with ref. number. 2-78400-0022/14.11.2011 (ΑDΑ: 4577Η-5ΕΤ), Directions for the implementation of Law 4354/2015 ref. number 2/1015 /DEP/5/1/2016, Law 4327/2015 article 17 on selection criteria relating to years of service required for school heads (as amended by Law 4473/2017 (G.G. 78/A), Law 4152/2013 as amended by Circular Letter with ref. number 123948/D2/06-09-2013. Law 4547/2018 (G.G. 102/A/12-06-2018) art. 19 change on school head allowances and art. 49 school heads' teaching sessions per week. Law 4823/2021 art. 28 substituted art. 19 of Law 4547/2018 and involves an increase in the heads’ allowances. Statistical data on the proportion of school heads according to the type of school they serve have been extracted from Myschool (an information system of the Ministry of Education & Religious Affairs), and apart from teachers with permanent contracts, they also include substitute teachers who served as school heads in school year 2020/21.

The additional payments that all school heads receive on top of their base is the school head's allowance, varies depending on the category of school they serve. ISCED 02 and ISCED 1: in schools with 1, 2 or 3 classes the school head allowance was EUR 150 gross per month until July 2021 and has become EUR 165 since August 2021 (in total EUR 1 815 gross for school year 2020/21). ISCED 02 and ISCED 1: in schools with 4 or more classes and less than 120 students the school head allowance was EUR 250 gross per month until July 2021 and has become EUR 275 since August 2021 (in total EUR 3 025 gross for school year 2020/21). ISCED 02 and ISCED 1: in schools with 4 or more classes and 120 or more students, the school head's allowance was EUR 300 gross per month until July 2021 and has become EUR 330 since August 2021 (in total EUR 3 630 gross for school year 2020/21). ISCED 24: In schools with less than 120 students, the school head's allowance is EUR 250 gross per month until July 2021 and has become EUR 275 since August 2021 (in total EUR 3 025 gross for school year 2020/21). In schools with 120 or more students, the school head's allowance is EUR 300 gross per month until July 2021 and has become EUR 330 since August 2021 (EUR 3 630 gross for school year 2020/21). ISCED 34: In schools with less than 120 students, EUR 300 gross per month until July 2021 and has become EUR 330 since August 2021 (in total EUR 3 630 gross for school year 2020/21). In schools with 120 or more students, EUR 350 gross per month until July 2021 and has become EUR 385 since August 2021 (in total EUR 4 230 gross for school year 2020/21). In Greece civil servants including school heads and teachers do not receive a 13th month or a holiday allowance.

Hungary:

At ISCED 02 and 1, the minimum is the salary of a teacher with 4 years of experience and the 40% of the salary base for a bachelor's degree (HUF 182 700) and the maximum is the salary of a "Researcher Teacher" with at least 42 years of experience plus the 80% of the salary base for a bachelor's degree (HUF 182 700). At ISCED 24, the minimum is the salary of a teacher with 4 years of experience and the 40% of the salary base for a bachelor's degree (HUF 182 700) and the maximum is the salary of a "Researcher Teacher" with at least 42 years of experience plus the 80% of the salary base for a master's degree (HUF 203 000). At ISCED 34, the minimum is the salary of a teacher with 4 years of experience and the 40% of the salary base for a master's degree (HUF 203 000) and the maximum is the salary of a "Researcher Teacher" with at least 42 years of experience plus the 80 % of the salary base for a master's degree (HUF 203 000). The calculated salary includes the sector specific motivation allowance as it is paid to all teachers.

Iceland:

Notes on coverage and methodology: At ISCED 34, the data concern around 30 school heads of public upper secondary schools, which are run directly by central government. Each school head negotiates an individual contract with the Icelandic Ministry of Education. The salaries of ISCED 34 school heads are the actual minimum and maximum pay.

Notes on interpretation: Salaries of school heads at ISCED 3 are no longer decided by an independent committee in accordance with statutory guidelines. From 2019 school heads sign a contract with the Icelandic Ministry of Education, according to an arrangement that applies to all heads of government agencies. Previous guidelines do not apply and information on the present guidelines are not available at this time. Information on minimum and maximum salaries have been updated to reflect salaries for the school year 2020/21.

Ireland:

Data have been provided on the salaries of principals in the smallest sized schools, the largest sized schools and schools of average size.

Primary school head statutory salaries in salary range A are determined according to the new common salary scale of teachers appointed after Feb 2012. All the other salaries (including primary school heads in salary ranges B and C, and secondary school head statutory salaries in salary ranges A, B, C) are determined according to the common salary scale for teachers who entered teaching prior to 2011. In calculating the maximum salaries, the Masters allowance has been taken into account.

Italy:

The statutory salary is composed of a fixed part, the same for everyone, plus a variable part that varies between regions. For the calculation of the variable part, we used the weighted average.

The amount of the allowance is variable between regions. The contract provides that the general criteria for allowances and related to the characteristics of schools are established during the negotiation and concern:

  1. 1. Dimension (number of students, number of teachers).

  2. 2. Complexity (presence of different ISCED levels).

  3. 3. Background (areas of particular social/territorial need).

Japan:

Statutory salaries are described based on the model salary schedule for reference referred to by the ordinance salary schedules in many prefectures. National schools are excluded from statutory salary data.

Statutory salaries include the additional payments that all school heads receive on top of their base salaries and that constitute a regular part of the annual base salary: terminal allowance, special allowance for compulsory education staff, administrative allowance.

Korea:

The annual statutory salaries of school heads are calculated based on the law and regulations for the salary of public education officials.

Notes on interpretation: Korea is unable to report the minimum statutory salary of school heads because the primary qualification for becoming a school head is accruing a minimum of three years of educational experience after achieving vice principal certification, which requires either a minimum of six years of educational experience with a second-grade teacher certification or a minimum of three years of educational experience with a first-grade teacher certification. Even if a candidate meets these minimum qualifications, however, there are many great applicants and substantial competition for vice principal positions, so no one can become a vice principal merely by fulfilling the cited minimum number of years of service. There is no stipulated minimum salary for school heads in Korea, and the minimum qualifications for school heads do not correspond to their salaries.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries:

  1. 1. Allowance for management: 7.8% of the main salary

  2. 2. Position subsidy: KRW 400,000

  3. 3. Maintenance allowance: KRW 70 000

  4. 4. Research allowance: KRW 75 000 (ISCED 02, 1), KRW 60 000 (ISCED 2, 3).

Latvia:

Information compiled from the central level regulations: The Regulations only defines the minimum monthly salary rate. There are nine salary groups for heads depending on the size of the school.

Teachers' and school heads salaries have been increased in recent years in accordance with the indicative schedule of salary increases for pedagogues for the period from 1 September 2018 to 31 December 2022. Decision about the increase of minimum salary is taken at central level, not local. A local authority may not pay a salary lower than the minimum rate, and the local authority is free to decide about higher salary.

Explanatory notes on decision making authority: The Regulation by the Cabinet of Ministers sets the lowest monthly work salary rate for school heads, depending on the number of students in the school. However, a founder of the school (local authority or top-level authority) may set a higher monthly work salary rate for the school head.

Additional payments that all teachers receive on top of their base salaries and included in statutory salaries: School heads may receive additional allowances on top of their minimum salary rate. If a school head is involved in teaching lessons too, and have received 1st, 2nd and 3rd quality level of professional activity performance evaluation system, he or she receive allowance proportionally to the teaching work rate.

Lithuania:

Statutory salaries of school heads depend on the number of groups (pre-primary education) or students (primary and secondary education), the qualification level, the managerial experience and the number of years in service.

Luxembourg:

In pre-primary and primary education, there is no school head as such. The president of the school committee is responsible for its management and the relationship with parents and the municipality. The work of school teachers is organised by the respective regional directorate. Salary reported includes 13th month.

Part of social security and pension scheme paid by employers are excluded in this report (-2.8% for social security, -8% for pension scheme compared to previous years).

Mexico:

Statutory salaries include the additional payments that all schools heads receive on top of their base salaries and that constitute a regular part of the annual base salary: Christmas bonus, vacation bonus, extraordinary payment for curricular services, assignment for the organization of the school year, End-of-year compensation, assignment of cultural activities, days of permanence for support in education, Compensation for strengthening temporary and compatible compensation, help transportation, extraordinary annual payment, national single compensation.

Netherlands:

ISCED 01 and 2: With the new collective agreement the additional school head allowance has been made a part of the statutory salary.

Statutory salaries include the additional payments that all school heads receive on top of their base salaries and that constitute a regular part of the annual base salary: 13 month, holiday pay, inkomenstoelage, bindingstoelage, incidentele uitkering.

New Zealand:

The New Zealand Education System does not have a separate explicit ISCED 24 system. The first two years of ISCED 2 (Years 7 and 8) are part of the NZ primary system, and the second two years (Years 9-10) are covered by the NZ secondary system.

Poland:

Starting/minimum statutory salary includes the base salary, the additional annual remuneration, the years in service allowance (6%), the holiday allowance and the post-related allowance (average amount of post-related allowance according to School Education Information System (SIO)).

The maximum statutory salaries of school heads was calculated as the sum of basic salary and bonuses that constitute a regular part of the annual basic salary like seniority allowance, thirteenth month and holiday benefits. The actual data on position allowances for school heads is collected in the administrative database (School Education Information System, SIO).

Due to the educational reform in Poland implemented since the beginning of 2017, 3-year lower secondary school called gimnazjum (ISCED 24) ceased to operate in 2019 after the last cohort of students completed this type of school. The main assumptions of the education reform are the liquidation of lower secondary schools and the return to the eight-year primary school, as well as the modification of vocational education by replacing basic vocational schools with stage I sectoral vocational schools. One of the objectives of the reform is also to extend the cycle of education in general secondary schools from three to four years and in technical secondary schools from four to five years. Since school year 2019/20 ISCED 1 includes 4 years of primary school (grades1-4) and ISCED 2 includes another 4 years of primary school (grades 5-8).

Statutory salaries include the additional payments that all school heads receive on top of their base salaries and that constitute a regular part of the annual base salary: additional yearly salary, holiday allowance, seniority bonus.

Portugal:

In Portugal, a “school head” is a teacher in the position and with the duties of a “principal”, not existing any differences between school heads at different ISCED levels. Principals, deputy principals and principal's assistants receive an increase in salary during the assignment for the position and according to the total number of students in their respective clustered and non-clustered schools.

The school head’s gross salary is made of two main subjects:

  • the sum received as a school teacher, calculated according to the career position (roughly, the number of years’ service); this amount is paid 14 times a year – 12 months, holiday and end of the year payments.

  • the “school head” allowance, calculated according to the number of students enrolled in the school or school cluster, paid monthly 12 times a year; the allowance varies between EUR 200 per month (schools/schools clusters with less than 301 students enrolled) to EUR 750 per month, for schools/school clusters with more than 1 500 students enrolled).

The table illustrates the school heads salaries, in the school year 2019/20.

Scotland (United Kingdom):

In "pre-primary" (Early Learning and Childcare) settings, "school head" is interpreted as manager of day-care services. Statutory salaries of school heads refer to the Headteacher and Deputy Headteacher Spine.

Slovenia:

At ISCED 02 level, data refer to school heads of kindergartens that provide ISCED 01 and 02 levels. At ISCED 1 and 24, data refer to school heads of basic schools that provide both educational levels. At ISCED 34, data refer to school heads (directors (direktorji) and head teachers (ravnatelji)) of schools, school centres and organisational units of schools/centres which provide general educational programme.

School heads may be placed in grades 47 to 53 of the salary scale at ISCED 0, 1 and 2, and 46 to 55 at ISCED 34. Legislation and collective agreements specify common salary bases of all employees in the public sector and also allowances and additional payments. There is a common salary scale with 65 salary grades. All posts are classified into salary grades.

School heads are classified on a salary scale: ISCED 0 and ISCED 1 and 2 - from 47 to 53; ISCED 34 - from 46 to 55.

Statutory salaries include basic salary which is determined by the salary grade into which the school head of a kindergarten/school/centre/organisational unit is classified, length of service bonus (10 years for minimum salary and 40 years for maximum salary; 0.33% of basic salary per year), holiday bonus (EUR 1 050) and reimbursement for meals during work (on average EUR 4.09 per working day - for 10.5 months).

Spain:

School heads receive two extra payments per year. Each extra payment amounts to one month’s basic salary plus the bonus linked to length of service and part of the allowance linked to the level of the civil servant position held.

Sweden:

In Sweden salary levels are not regulated by law and salary tariffs does not exist. Actual teachers' salaries, including bonuses and allowances. Thus, no reference to regulation or official document can be provided. Instead, we use data from the national registers.

“Starting/minimum salaries” has been interpreted as school heads having worked for 1-2 years. The median value of these salaries is reported. Salaries at the top of the range/maximum salaries” has been interpreted as school heads belonging to the 90 percentile, which means that 10 % of them have higher or the same salary as the 90 percentile. Allowances are included.

First, a joint table was created from the Register of teaching personnel 2020 and the Register of personnel in pre-primary 2020. Duplicates were corrected. (If an individual appears both as a teacher and a school head, he/she is considered as principal if the scope of school head service is > 50 %, otherwise he/she will be counted as a teacher. However, if the service scope for the teacher service and the school head service is high (50/50 or 65/65), the individual was counted as a teacher. This has historical reasons, before the collection of school head´s salaries in OECD teachers with a teacher service and a school head service of (for example of 50/50 or 65/65) was only counted as teacher.

Second, a match was made to the Register of wage and salary structures and employment in the primary municipalities 2020, to retrieve data on salary, age and gender. Then the groupings were made according to the instruction.

United States:

In the United States, school heads' salary and compensation are decided at the local level and vary by school district and state. There is no national salary scale in the United States. Data for this survey come from a nationally representative sample survey of schools, teachers, and principals (National Teacher and Principal Survey) inflated to 2020-21 constant dollars using the Consumer Price Index (CPI).. Data on statutory salaries are reported for median salaries based on school head's reported base salaries.

For salaries of school heads with minimum qualifications: Minimum salary refers to the most prevalent qualification (master’s degree) with 2 or fewer years of experience and maximum salary refers to the most prevalent qualification (master’s degree) with 15 or more years’ experience. For salaries of school heads with maximum qualifications: Minimum salary refers to the most prevalent qualification (master’s degree) with 2 or fewer years of experience and maximum salary refers to the highest qualification (education specialist or doctoral degree) with 15 or more years’ experience.

Australia:

Notes on interpretation: The consensus may not reflect practice in some jurisdictions. These data may vary from year to year based on the jurisdictions that provide information. It includes government schools and preschools, while excluding early childhood educational programmes delivered in long day-care centres.

Schools with students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Taken into account in Principal classification outcome

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area (location allowance): Taken into account in Principal classification outcome.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Allowances for general director ('algemeen directeur'), coordinating director ('coördinerend directeur') or director coordinator ('directeur coördinatie') in school clusters/groups of schools: min EUR 707.33 per month and max EUR 990.26 per month.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: Different fixed amounts according to different qualifications: min EUR 45.82 per month; max EUR 137.49 per month.

School heads that got the qualification after 1 September 2010 do not get the allowances anymore. If they got it before 1 September 2010, the allowance can still be granted.

Colombia:

Notes on interpretation: For this report we used information regulated in the Statutory Teacher Compensation 1278 of 2002 considering that the new entrants in the public sector is governed by this statute Therefore, the percentages are measured in relation to this scale.

Allowances related to special tasks: It is voluntary at the discretion of individual teachers o head teachers. No additional payment

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: The entrance to the teaching career is carried out through a merit contest and salary range is in accordance with the school head's qualification. A school head enters at a specific salary range, and when he/she finishes a postgraduate program, must hand in formally the corresponding documents, to receive an increase in their salary, according to the increment established by the salary law.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: Having analysed the definition of "professional development activities" in the manual, it became clear that there is no direct salary increase or allowance for having participated in these activities. These are offered by the national and local governments, and may give points during promotion merit contests, so this is not considered an allowance.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The teaching director who complies with the management indicator, both in the student retention component, and in the quality component, and reports on time the information in the defined system, receives an additional recognition equivalent to his last basic monthly salary at the end of the school year.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: The salary law establishes an increase in the base salary as a set percentage for teachers who work in areas that are difficult to access (for geographical or violence-based reasons).

Allowances related to residence allowance: Transportation and food aid is paid to teachers who earn up to a certain salary level.

Costa Rica:

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: There is no additional payment for extra duties. Participation in other duties is asked from regional or national offices.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: It depends on the work load and the duties of the position.

Allowances related to students counselling: It is part of the position duties according to the students’ needs and school context.

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Extracurricular activities do not include an additional payment. They are defined by regional or national offices.

Allowances related to special tasks: It is part of the duties of the position and by collaboration.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: It is only for multigrade schools or for schools DEGB 1 which have around 100 student population each.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: These duties come with the position.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The evaluation shall be taken into account in any “Personnel Action” that benefits the server and as a factor that will be considered for transfers, increases in salaries, licenses and, in general, for the other purposes stated in this law and other applicable laws and regulations.

The evaluation and qualification of services shall be given to officials, regular or interim that during the school year perform work in the same institution, provincial, official or department, for at least four months, continuously or alternatively. The result of the qualification will be given in order of merit according to the following concepts: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Insufficient and Unacceptable.

It is estimated that more than 95% of public servants get Excellent or Very Good scores.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): There are teachers exclusively trained for this purpose, so they receive a base salary for attending this student population.

Czech Republic:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Participation in other management in addition to school head duties: Leadership of other employees set in a percentage of the highest salary steps in the given category: 5-60 % according to the level of leadership.

Working overtime: Overtime pay for work above the statutory weekly working hours is at least 25% of the hourly average earnings.

Students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance, and delinquency prevention): For school prevention specialist, further qualifications are required. CZK 1 000-2 000 monthly (further qualification required). School head decides on exact amount. School counsellor performing specialised methodical and complex counselling activities provided that he/she has fulfilled the further qualification defined by law is entitled to progression to higher salary category (see below).

Engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school) or special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.) or Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Individual allowances can be paid for performing additional tasks such as administration of a school library, checking school materials, organising school competitions, mentoring and support for other teachers. The individual allowance can amount to 50% (in some cases up to 100%) of the pay rate of the highest pay grade of the pay category.

Class teacher/form teacher: Allowance for a 'class teacher': CZK 500-1 300 monthly.

Other: Remuneration for the successful completion of an extraordinary or exceptionally important work task.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: Performance of specialised activities which requires further qualifications (co-ordination in the area of ICT, developing and co-ordination of School Framework Programmes, prevention of socially pathologic phenomena and activities related to the environmental education and to the spatial orientation of visually disabled children and pupils): CZK 1 000-2 000 monthly. The weekly direct teaching activity of a teacher who works as an ICT methodologist is reduced by 1 to 5 lessons.

Outstanding performance: Individual allowance, up to 50 % (in exceptional cases up to 100 %) of the highest salary steps in the given range. Individual allowance may be granted as appreciation of long-term achievement of very good work results or fulfilment of a larger range of work tasks than other employees. Performance is evaluated by school head.

Other: Specialised methodological activity in pedagogy and psychology which requires further qualification - study for school counsellors. The position allows to progress from 12 to 13 salary range. The extent of weekly direct teaching activity of school heads that perform the function of a school counsellor is reduced by 1-5 lessons a week, depending on the school size.

Family status (e.g. married, number of children): There are no school heads allowances related to the family status. According to general legislation, however, he or she as every citizen can apply for child benefits - the criteria are based on family income.

Denmark:

Notes on interpretation: ISCED 34 General: In Denmark, all public ISCED 34 general institutions are self-governing. Therefore, the authority level is typically the school-board. The school-board is the employer of the school head and all wage negotiations for school heads employed in accordance with the new collective agreement (Modst. nr. 045-19) are therefore carried out between the school-board and the school head. However, at the time of the employment, the Danish Ministry for Education has to approve the negotiated salary for a school head. All subsequent allowances (bonuses and non-regular allowances etc.) do not have to be approved by the Ministry of Education.

We have provided responses that seem fitting for ISCED 02, 1 and 2. The reason for this choice is that the authority level differs between these ISCED levels and ISCED34. In the cases, where there are differences to ISCED34, we have reported ISCED34 as the exception to the rule with an explanation below. Often the only difference will be that the local authority level is different.

Allowances related to participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: At ISCED 02, 1 and 2, the allowance is usually rewarded with a one-off payment although a regular payment is also possible. At ISCED34, it is at the discretion of the school board.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: At ISCED 02, 1 and 2, local authorities may compensate school heads for overtime with an incidental additional payment. At ISCED34, it is to the discretion of the school board.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: At ISCED 02, 1 and 2, local authorities may compensate school heads for further formal qualifications with a regular additional payment. At ISCED34, it is to the discretion of the school board (not the local authority).

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: At ISCED 02, 1 and 2, local authorities may compensate school heads for the successful completion of CPD activities with an incidental additional payment. At ISCED34, it is to the discretion of the school board (not the local authority).

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: Primary and lower secondary schools must deliver every second year to the municipality's school department a comprehensive description of the quality of the school. Accordingly, a development contract with areas of action to be taken or continued at the school is concluded (typically for 2 years) as well as a performance contract for the school leader. An annual assessment of the results may entitle the school head to get an annual allowance.

At ISCED 34, the decision is taken by the school board. Usually, results-based-contracts are negotiated for the school head at the start of the school year. The contract typically states that if the school head fulfils a goal set up by the school board, then the school head will be rewarded with a bonus.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): ISCED 02: In ECEC facilities, all children are enrolled no matter their special needs.

ISCED 1 and 2: It is very normal for schools to have students with special educational needs enrolled in mainstream classes, but no extra allowance is granted to the school head for this reason.

ISCED 34: Typically, all students at ISCED 34 general programmes have the basic proficiencies/skills to start on the education because there are academic requirements that need to be met in order to be enrolled.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: In order to attract school heads to areas where it is difficult to attract school heads, a higher salary is sometimes paid.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on interpretation: The structure of the salary framework for school heads, which consist of ranges for eight headteacher groups, is designed to enable the governing board to take account of the responsibilities of the role, any challenges that are specific to the role, and all other relevant considerations. There are no separate allowances or additional payments other than separate geographical pay ranges for headteachers employed in different areas: Inner London Area; Outer London Area; the Fringe Area; England and Wales (excluding the London Area). This is to reflect the cost of living in different areas of England.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: There are separate geographical pay ranges for teachers employed in different areas: Inner London Area, Outer London Area, the Fringe Area, England and Wales (excluding the London Area). This is to reflect the cost of living in different areas of England.

Estonia:

These allowances are not stated in any regulation: which authority level decides on the entitlement to the following allowances are based on common practice.

Finland:

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Outstanding performance: Payable as a lump sum amount. Negotiated with the school head's employer, the local authorities. Appraisal is also done by the representative of the local authority, most commonly head of local education department.

Allowances related to working conditions

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Percentage of base salary: Two different pay scales - Finland is divided into two “cost areas. The difference amounts to 1% of the statutory base salary.

France:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Allowances related to participation in other management in addition to school head duties: For ISCED 02 and 1 school heads: allowance for particular tasks. The amount varies according to the tasks assigned from EUR 312 to EUR 3 750.

Students counselling: Fixed annual salary bonus: EUR 1 200 (ISAE).

Engaging in extracurricular activities: School head may be in charge of extracurricular activities which are paid between EUR 22 and EUR 27 per hour (maximum rates).

Allowances related to special tasks: At ISCED 02 and 1: allowance for tutoring, master trainer. The allowance is EUR 1 250 for professeurs maîtres formateurs. Although it is possible in theory, in practice, it seems difficult to conciliate the responsibilities of a school head with those of a master trainer.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Allowance for tutoring, master trainer: EUR 1 250.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: Responsibility allowance for school heads in ISCED 02-1: EUR 450 exceptionally paid for the beginning of the 2020-2021 school year (Decree n° 2020-1252 of 14 October 20201.4. 'Exceptionnal' management bonus in ISCED 02-1 in October 2020: EUR 450 (Since 2021, this amount has been included on a permanent basis in the special school head allowance). See: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000042423911); https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/arrete/2021/2/18/MENH2103190A/jo/texte.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: On the initiative of the competent authority or with its agreement, ISCED 02 and 1 school heads benefit from professional training actions during the periods of holidays for pupils for 5 days per year maximum.

Decree n° 2019-935 from 6 September 2019: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000039061144.

Order of 6/09/2019 - J.O. of 8/09/2019: https://www.education.gouv.fr/bo/19/Hebdo36/MENH1831656A.htm.

Outstanding performance: ISCED 02-1: School head benefit from 3 career advancement meetings (Rendez-vous de carrière) that allow them to progress to a better position on the salary scale. These meetings consist of an evaluation in a professional situation and an interview with an inspector. ISCED 24 and 34: Part of the indemnité de fonctions, de responsabilités et de résultats takes into account the results of the professional interview. It is determined every year by applying a coefficient of 0 to 3 to the annual reference amount of EUR 667. Order of 24 December 2020: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000042741997.

Allowances related to working conditions

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance)

All ISCED levels: allowance for working in disadvantaged area (REP and REP+ allowance): REP = EUR 1 734; REP+ = EUR 4 646 (Decree of 23 July 2019 - NOR: MENH1919173A).

ISCED 02-1: the special head allowance (ISS: indemnité de sujétion spéciale de direction) is higher when working in disadvantage schools: REP: 20% increase in the ISS; REP+: 50% increase in the ISS.

Other allowances: Territorial incentive (prime de fidélisation territoriale) for school heads working in département de Seine-Saint-Denis (territorial authority and administrative district): a one-off payment of EUR 10 000 at the end of a 5-year work period there (Decree n° 2020-1299 of 24 October 2020: NOR: TFPF2025397A).

Residence allowance (not dependent on a particular location): Same as for teachers (see section “Criteria and decision level for various types of salary payments”).

Family status (e.g. married, number of children): Same as for teachers see section “Criteria and decision level for various types of salary payments”).

Other allowances: Attractiveness bonus (prime d'attractivité) for school heads in ISCED 02-1: from EUR 1 400 for a school head in step 2 to EUR 500 in step 7. This bonus is falls from the 2nd to the 7th step. https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000043246480.

Computer equipment bonus (prime d’équipement informatique) for ISCED 02-1 school heads: EUR 176 per year. https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/id/JORFTEXT000042614334https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jorf/texte_jo/JORFTEXT000042614360.

Greece:

Notes on interpretation: Legislation on allowances: Law 4547/2018 (G.G. 102/A/12-06-2018) art. 19 change on school head allowances and art. 49 school heads' teaching sessions per week. Law 4823/2021 art .28, into effect since August 2021. Legislation on teachers' and school heads' duties: Ministerial Decision F.353.1./324/105657/D1/2002 (Government Gazette 1340/Β /16-10-2002) Chapter D on School Heads and Deputy School Heads. Legislation on disciplinary duties: G.G. 1340/Β /16-10-2002 Art. 29, par. 7. Legislation on the duty to support new teachers: G.G. 1340/Β /16-10-2002 Art. 28 par. ia and Art. 29 par. 12, 13. Duties on collaboration with counsellors for the organisation of in-service training: G.G. 1340/Β /16-10-2002 Art. 30 par. 3, par. 1. Duties relating to the school board, school counsellors, the Head of the Education Directorate, the school community, the school committee, the students' parents and guardians, and citizens: G.G. 1340/Β /16-10-2002 Articles 29, 30, 31, and 32.

Allowances related to students counselling: School heads are responsible in collaboration with the teachers for maintaining discipline, but this task is not compensated with an allowance.

Allowances related to special tasks: School heads have the duty to support other teachers including new teachers and substitute teachers, but they do not receive an allowance.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: School heads have the duty to take up initiatives in collaboration with school counsellors for supporting new teachers and organising in-service training seminars for teachers of their school, but they do not receive an allowance.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: School heads have additional duties relating to the school board, the school counsellors, the Head of the Education Directorate, the school community, the school committee, the students' parents and guardians, and citizens, but these duties are not compensated with an allowance.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: The initial educational qualification is a Bachelor's degree; the possession of a relevant Master's or PhD degree is considered as additional years of experience as a teacher. The recognised additional years of service result in a higher salary grade.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: The allowance for serving in a remote or borderline region is EUR 100 gross per month.

Allowances related to family status: The family allowance received by all civil servants including school heads is EUR 50 gross per month for one dependent child, EUR 70 for two dependent children, EUR 120 for three, EUR 170 for four, and EUR 70 for each child above four.

Hungary:

School heads as teachers receive allowances.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The maintainer may grant salary supplements on the basis of legal regulation; their yearly amount cannot exceed the 10% of the school head's one-year salary (including school head allowance).

Other allowances related to teachers' qualifications, training and performance: The maintainer may award excellent school heads. Its yearly amount cannot exceed the 15% of the school head's one-year salary (including school head allowance).

Iceland:

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: ISCED 3: 1.2 hours of a specific salary level. ISCED 0, 1, 2: 1.0385 % of the employee's monthly salary.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: Local authorities decide on this allowance, except for ISCED3 schools where it is determined by an independent board.

Ireland:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Other: Co-ordinating provision in July for pupils/students with autism. School heads at ISCED 1, 24 and 34 who co-ordinate July provision receive an additional salary that is calculated on the basis of each day worked and at a rate that is linked to their existing salary as principal.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to become a school head, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Similar to teachers, principals who entered the teaching profession prior to 2011 and who prior to 2011, gained additional qualifications other than the minimum qualifications are paid allowances for the additional qualifications.

Other: For principals at ISCED 1, ISCED 24 and ISCED 34 who started teaching prior to 2011, the allowance for teaching in an island school is EUR 1 939, the allowance for teaching in an Irish speaking area (Gaeltacht) is EUR 3 224, and the allowance for teaching through Irish in an all Irish school outside of the Gaeltacht is EUR 1 666.

Israel:

Notes on interpretation: In most cases, kindergartens in Israel include one class. Most of the main teacher's work is not devoted to management.

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Since the complete application of the New Horizon Reform to the school heads in the primary and lower secondary education, the school heads cannot work overtime, by the collective agreements. In the upper secondary education, after the Oz Letmura reform, in big schools, school head can work more than 100% with the approval of the Ministry of Education and the decision of the school's owners. The manager salary will increase respectively (but it's very rare).

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.): A school head can support another school head, and not a teacher, for a supplementary payment. Part of the principal's ongoing work is to support teachers and it is included his basic salary.

Class teacher/form teacher: Only in the upper secondary education a school head can receive main teacher reward and allowance for managing.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to become a school head, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Not relevant in pre-schools in primary and lower secondary schools - a separate salary table with no management compensation. In the primary and lower secondary education, after the New Horizon reform, a school head doesn't receive a supplementary payment for education degree and teaching seniority. In the upper secondary education, a school head receive allowance for MA and PH d, for professional development and teaching seniority.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: Impact on the salaries: in the primary and lower secondary education, after the New Horizon reform, personal management ranks (A-D), and in the upper secondary education, after the Oz Letmura reform, supplement for professional development as a percentage of the base salary.

Outstanding performance: In the upper secondary education, a school head can receive between ILS 3 166 to ILS 8 443 for school performance. The school owners can add a separate grant for successful schools.

Allowances related to teaching students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): In the primary and lower secondary education, impact on the complexity level and on the head school salary table.

Allowances related to working conditions

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): the nature of compensation is percentages and monthly payments as home rent. Incentives for managers - very negligible.

Other criteria

Residence allowance (not dependent on a particular location): Negligible. Rent home for the school heads in Eilat and for some Druze and Bedouin school heads who work in farther areas.

Family status (e.g. married number of children): Additional dormitories having children under 5 years old reduced working hours for having children under age 14.

Italy:

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Outstanding performance (based on high student achievement, annual appraisals, independent assessment of teaching/management skills, etc.): An evaluation system for school heads was set up. Each region shares among school managers 15-85% of the yearly amount available at regional level to compensate school principals for the pursuit of the school improvement objectives set a regional level. An integration of the variable part of result compensation.

Allowances related to family status: The allowances about family status are the responsibility of the national social security institute (INPS).

Latvia:

Notes on interpretation: Information refers to public institutions only (private institutions may have set some other allowances autonomously). Local authorities (municipalities) are employers of school heads for most schools in Latvia.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties).

Participation in other management in addition to school head duties: Depends on local authority.

Working overtime: Depends on local authority.

Students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance, and delinquency prevention): Student counselling is part of his/her duties as a teacher, but these tables are about allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties).

Engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school): If a school head performs also duties of interest-related education teacher (extracurricular activities teacher) he or she receives salary for respective workload. However, these tables are about allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties).

Special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.): Depends on local authority.

Class teacher/form teacher: If a school head performs also duties of class teacher. However, these tables are about allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties).

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Depends on local authority.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: CPD is professional duty of teachers and school heads (all pedagogical staff) and regulation says that it should take place 36 hours in every three years. However, it is not described by regulation that this duty and formation of base salary is linked.

Outstanding performance: As a school head he/she may receive additional allowances from the school founder (local authority). If a school head performs also duties of a teacher, he/she is eligible to participate in performance quality evaluation (voluntarily) and to receive additional allowance related to the teaching quality performance. Teachers with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd quality level (professional activity quality evaluation system) receive allowance of EUR 45, EUR 114, and EUR 140 respectively in relation to one teaching work rate.

Allowances related to working conditions

Schools with students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): 10% of the monthly salary.

Other: Heads of state gymnasiums are eligible to receive 10% allowance.

Lithuania:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Working overtime: Basic salary increase up to 20%.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: Basic salary may increase to 20 % in other cases determined by local authorities. In the event of more than one allowance, the total increase cannot be more than 25 % of the basic statutory salary.

Allowances related to working conditions

Schools with students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Basic salary may increase from 5 to 20 % for leading a school with SEN students or school with a unit with SEN students. 5-10 % for leading a school with 10 and more with SEN students. 10 and more foreigners or citizens of the Republic of Lithuania who have come to live, but do not speak the state language.

Luxembourg:

Allowances related to teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: 1/173 of the monthly salary is paid for every supplementary hour of work.

Mexico:

Allowances related to special tasks: The decision level is between (1) Central/State government and (3) Local authorities the amount of the allowance and/or how this is calculated are not available.

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: The decision level is between (1) Central/State government and (3) Local authorities the amount of the allowance and/or how this is calculated are not available.

Allowances related to participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: The decision level is between (1) Central/State government and (3) Local authorities the amount of the allowance and/or how this is calculated are not available.

Allowances related to further formal qualifications: The decision level is between (1) Central/State government and (3) Local authorities the amount of the allowance and/or how this is calculated are not available.

Allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: The decision level is between (1) Central/State government and (3) Local authorities the amount of the allowance and/or how this is calculated are not available.

Allowances related to outstanding performance in teaching: The decision level is between (1) Central/State government and (3) Local authorities the amount of the allowance and/or how this is calculated are not available.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: The decision level is between (1) Central/State government and (3) Local authorities the amount of the allowance and/or how this is calculated are not available.

Netherlands:

Notes on interpretation: School boards decide on these allowances.

New Zealand:

Notes on interpretation: The New Zealand Education System does not have a separate explicit ISCED 24 system. The first two years of ISCED 2 (Years 7 and 8) are part of the NZ primary system, and the second two years (Years 9-10) are covered by the NZ secondary system.

Although there do exist allowances for school heads, these are complex and we have not yet had the time to work through supplying these.

Norway:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Working overtime: Local authorities decide whether a school head is covered by the overtime regulations or not. When school heads are, they receive a 50% overtime premium.

Students counselling (including student supervising, virtual counselling, career guidance, and delinquency prevention): An annual compensation of minimum NOK 12 000.

Class teacher/form teacher: An annual compensation of minimum NOK 12 000.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Outstanding performance: Salaries are decided locally, normally based on management skills, school size and complexity etc.

Poland:

Allowances related to class teacher/form teacher: Entitlement is decided at the central level, but the amount is decided by local authorities. The minimum amount of the allowance (PLN 300) for ISCED 1-3 is decided at the central level. For ISCED 0 level, the amount of allowance is decided by local authorities. In general, the law does not prohibit a head teacher from being assigned a form teacher position. However, due to, among other things, a heavy workload and a reduced number of teaching hours, this is in our view a rare occurrence.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Outstanding performance: The maximum statutory salaries of school heads do not reflect the actual ones (methodology in compliance with the instructions). In Poland a majority of school heads holds education/qualifications at level 7. Hence their maximum salary is the same as that for school heads in upper secondary education (ISCED 34), namely it amounts up to PLN 86 997. In January-August 2021 average value on position allowance for school heads collected in the administrative data base (School Education Information System, SIO) amounted to PLN 1 515. The annual amount was estimated by multiplying the actual average value for January-August 2021 by 12 months.

Other: The Motivation incentive (management performance appraisal) is specified in central regulations and the amount of the allowance is decided at local level.

Allowances related to working conditions

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): 10% of the base salary (without any additional payments) paid to school head monthly for working in rural areas or towns with no more than 5 000 inhabitants.

Other criteria

Other: Service anniversary award. The amount of the service anniversary award depends on the period of school head's work and is as follows: for 20 years of work - 75% of monthly remuneration; for 25 years of work - 100% of monthly remuneration; for 30 years of work - 150% of monthly remuneration; for 35 years of work - 200% of monthly remuneration; for 40 years of work - 250% of monthly salary.

Portugal:

In Portugal, most schools are organised in school clusters, which contain schools teaching courses in various ISCED levels.

In these cases, the school head may be from any ISCED level taught at any of the schools belonging to that school cluster, and are paid similarly.

Principals, deputy principals and principal's assistants receive an increase in salary during the assignment for the position and according to the total number of students enrolled in their respective clustered and non-clustered schools.

Scotland (United Kingdom):

Allowances related to working conditions

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Where a headteacher or depute headteacher resides at a residential special school, or in such close proximity that they can undertake immediate action in respect of management and supervisory tasks arising outside of teaching hours, and responsibility for such tasks is an accepted part of the duties of the post, the salary for the post will be increased by GBP 20 529 for a headteacher and GBP 16 542 for a deputy headteacher per annum from 1 April 2019.

Allowances related to teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area: The Remote Schools Allowance from 1 April 2019 is GBP 1 614 per annum for payments in accordance with paragraph 1.3(a) and GBP 3 024 per annum for payments in accordance with paragraph 1.3(b).

The Distant Islands Allowance from 1 October 2019 is GBP 2 265 per annum.

Explanatory notes: Where a teacher is employed in a remote school the council will pay, in addition to the teacher’s normal salary, the remote school allowance and/or the Distant Island allowance as stipulated by the SNCT (http://www.snct.org.uk/wiki/index.php?title=Appendix_2.5).

Slovak Republic:

Notes on interpretation: Law on the Remuneration of Employees in the Performance of Work No. 553/2003 http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2003-553. Regulations do not indicate the amount for many allowances.

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Allowances related to participation in other management in addition to school head duties: Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school owner, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14 fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school owner, but general criteria is defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards).

Allowances related to students counselling: Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school owner, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14 fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school owner, but general criteria are defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards).

Allowances related to engaging in extracurricular activities: Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school owner, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14 fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school owner, but general criteria are defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards).

Allowances related to special tasks: Up to 50% of regular hourly pay for each delivered hour of training.

Class teacher/form teacher: 5% of 1.14 fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for one class, 10% of 1.14 fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for two or more classes.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: 4% of 1.14 fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for supporting one teacher in induction period, 8% of 1.14 fold (i.e. 114%) of the assigned statutory pay grade for supporting two teachers.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Outstanding performance (based on high student achievement, annual appraisals, independent assessment of teaching/management skills, etc.): Allowance is paid in form of specific amount of money which is decided by school owner, but there is a cap defined by law (up to the 1.14 fold, i.e. 114% of the assigned statutory pay grade), specific criteria are defined by the school owner, but general criteria is defined by central law (i.e. performing additional tasks, extraordinary capabilities, extraordinary work results, fulfilling professional standards).

Successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities: 3%, 6%, 9% or 12% of the assigned statutory pay grade.

Explanatory notes: There is no cap on performance allowance paid occasionally.

Allowances related to working conditions

Schools with students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): 1-2.5% of salary if in class, there are 30% or more students with special educational needs.

Residence allowance (not dependent on a particular location): Paid only in the first year.

Slovenia:

Notes on interpretation: Allowances are specified by law and collective agreement.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to become a school head, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Fixed amounts per month for attained level: 1) academic specialisation: EUR 23.27; 2 2) (pre-Bologna) Master in Science: EUR 36.21; 3) doctor's degree: EUR 59.47.

Outstanding performance: ISCED 1, 2, 3: (I) Work performance from increased workload (additional teaching within full-time contract- not more than 5 lessons per week) - every additional hour of teaching is paid at 130 % of the basic salary hour rate, namely the basic salary specified for the post of a teacher who holds the same professional title the head teacher holds.

All ISCED levels: (II) Regular work performance allowances (based on appraisal) - according to the Article 22a of the Public Sector Salary System Act and according to the Article 27 of the Collective agreement for public sector, the amount of the salary for the regular work performance of head teacher is determined by the council of the institute for their appointment, on the basis of criteria determined by the Minister of Education, Science and Sport.

Allowances related to working conditions

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Reimbursement of transportation cost from home to the school and back for school heads (if the distance is more than 2 km) – cost of public transport for days at work.

Other: (I) Bilingual schools or schools with Italian language: 6 % of basic salary: (II) Risky situations, hazards and special burdens (e.g. war danger, terrorist attacks, natural disaster, epidemics, especially above average at risk for own health or overburdened due to epidemic control): not more than 100% of the basic salary hour rate per hour. The amount of the allowance is determined by the school head. The allowance is determined by the Public Sector Salary System Act and the collective agreement for public sector and additionally with the Act Determining the Intervention Measures to Contain the COVID-19 Epidemic and Mitigate its Consequences for Citizens and the Economy.

Other criteria

Other: Long-service award: payment to school heads for years of employment in public sector (10 years: EUR 288.76; 20 years: EUR 433.13; 30 and years: EUR 577.51).

Spain:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities of teachers: In some Autonomous Communities, fixed amounts for school heads that support in school transport and educational attention to students in the school canteen (e.g. caring children in the school transport and during the school meals).

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance

Successful completion of (continuing) professional development (CPD) activities: Fixed amounts as extra-salary supplement, every five-six-year periods, for teachers who have done at least a minimum number of hours of recognised lifelong learning activities as Continuous Professional Development (CDP). This supplement varies from period to period (a maximum of five periods) and may be different according to the educational level. To receive this supplement, teacher apply for and accredit the relevant requirements.

Outstanding performance: Fixed amounts. School heads are assessed at the end of their term of office. Those who have a positive assessment, have a personal and professional recognition, and also an economic recognition consisting of part of the school heads' allowance (depending on the number of years they have been school heads) for the rest of their active life. The Autonomous Communities regulate the performance evaluation of the directors of the schools. In general, this evaluation is aimed at analysing the development of the management tasks. This evaluation has as referent the competences and tasks that the legislation attribute for this position.

Allowances related to working conditions

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): Head teachers receive a specific amount depending on the type of school and the number of registered students enrolled each year. Geographical location refers to the Autonomous Communities of Canarias and Illes Balears, the Cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the Spanish schools abroad as well as to some areas with a specific dialect. Fixed amounts (they may be different for each level of education) that consist of allowances given to all teachers working in those regions or areas, but not of personal allowances.

Other criteria

Other: In some Autonomous Communities, fixed amounts for school heads that support in school transport and educational attention to students in the school canteen (e.g. caring children in the school transport and during the school meals).

Sweden:

The nature of compensation is determined individually for each school head.

Switzerland:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Participation in other management in addition to school head duties or engaging in extracurricular activities or students counselling or special tasks (e.g. training student teachers and providing support to other teachers.) or being a class/form teacher or participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Not part of the tasks.

Working overtime: School heads are usually not paid when they work overtime.

Allowances related to qualifications, training and performance: Further formal qualifications (higher than the minimum qualification required to become a school head, educational qualification in multiple subjects, etc.): Continuing education for the professional development are compulsory.

Outstanding performance: Evaluation by cantonal authorities (school superintendent) and school board.

Allowances related to working conditions: Schools with students with special educational needs (in mainstream classes): Students or classes receive more resources (additional lessons).

School in a disadvantaged, remote or high-cost area (location allowance): The state government (cantonal authorities) can provide additional lessons.

Other criteria

Residence allowance (not dependent on a particular location): The canton decides on the amounts.

Family status (e.g. married, number of children): The canton decides on the amounts.

Türkiye:

Allowances related to other tasks and responsibilities as school heads (not to teaching duties)

Working overtime: School heads are paid 20 hours per month for their administrative services.

Other criteria

Family status (e.g. married number of children): Based on the 657th Civil Personnel Act, teachers, as civil servants, are provided with an additional monthly allowance depending on the number and age of their siblings. They may receive an additional payment if their wife/husband is unemployed. For one child, the amount is TRY 86.39 if younger than 72 months and TRY 43.20 if older.

Other allowances: Heads are also given an allowance for getting prepared for the school year, such as purchasing stationary and relevant items (TRY 1 250 for 2021).

The indicator draws on data from the 2021 Joint Eurydice-OECD data collection on salaries of teachers and school heads and refer to the school year 2020/21 (or 2021 for the southern hemisphere). Sources for these data are displayed in Table X3.D3.1 (https://stat.link/vub723).

In editions of Education at a Glance prior to 2018, data on salaries were collected through another survey with a different scope, methodology and definitions than the 2021 Joint Eurydice-OECD data collection on salaries of teachers and school heads. As a result, data on salaries of teachers are not comparable with those published in previous editions of Education at a Glance.

This indicator also draws on data collected by the INES Network on Labour Market, Economic and Social Outcomes of Learning (LSO). The full-time full-year earnings for workers with tertiary education (ISCED levels 5, 6 and 7-8) were collected by LSO. For further details on the sources of these data per country, please see the Annex 3, Chapter C, and Indicator C6.

The indicator presents teaching and working time of full-time teachers and school heads in public institutions as well as activities and tasks requirements for teachers and school heads in these public institutions.

Data refer to statutory teaching and working time of teachers and school heads, as well as actual teaching time of teachers. Teaching time is calculated as the net contact time for instruction, i.e. excluding both time allocated for lunch breaks or short morning or afternoon breaks and days that the school is closed for holidays (both individual public holidays and seasonal school holidays/vacations). To have a comparable measure of teaching time, teaching periods must be transformed into hours of 60-minutes. Statutory working time refers to the annual number of hours that a full-time teacher or school head is expected to work as set by policy.

For definitions of working time at school and total working time of teachers, see Table X3.D4.2 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

For notes on the nature of the reported data on teaching time and working time of teachers for the different countries, see Table X3.D4.3 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

Certain kinds of professional development days and student examination days should be excluded from statutory teaching time of teachers, when the schools are closed for instruction on these days. For notes on the reporting practice related to days of teachers’ professional development and student examination days in teachers’ statutory teaching time data, see Table X3.D4.4 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

Other comments for each country are listed below.

Australia:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes professional development days and time dedicated to student examination days.

Notes on methodology: Quantitative data reported are weighted averages from the jurisdictions that provided data. The weight used is the number of full-time equivalent teachers in each jurisdiction. For the purposes of reporting, one jurisdiction was excluded for the data on vocational programmes due to inconsistency. Qualitative responses are collated from the jurisdictions to be representative of the nation.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: Data may vary from previous years due to variations in which jurisdictions respond to the survey.

Austria:

Data specifications on teaching time: At primary (ISCED 1) level, the number of hours per day a teacher spends supervising pupils have been calculated and are included in the teachers' scheduled teaching time. In pre-primary and primary schools, teachers have to supervise the pupils: (a) during the breaks (except the break between morning and afternoon, which is a part of additional working time), (b) 15 minutes before the beginning of an actual school day; and (c) after the school day while the pupils are leaving the school building. The supervision can be dropped if the pupils have the maturity, which is not the case in pre-primary and primary schools. In these schools, the class teachers supervise their own class during the breaks. The length of the breaks is decided at the school level. Usually breaks last mainly 5 or 10 minutes, making up about 20 to 30 minutes per day. The calculated time a teacher spends supervising pupils during these short breaks include only the supervision during the breaks (see above (a)) and disregard the all-day schools. The amount is dependent on the particular school time per day.

Notes on methodology: Data for pre-primary education (ISCED 02) are marked ‘missing’ because no representative data can be obtained for reporting. In Austria, the large majority of pre-primary education takes place at kindergartens. However, there are no data available for kindergarten teachers. The remaining minority of pre-primary schools are not an independent entity but integrated into the schools at primary level (ISCED 1). There is no difference in any teacher-related matter between these two levels (working time, salaries etc.).

For all the teachers at different ISCED levels, the teaching time is defined in legal documents. Since 2015/16, teachers could be subject to either the old or the new employment law for teachers.

Teaching times are weighted means based on the distribution of the teachers in two different systems in secondary level (ISCED 24 and 34). The legal frameworks for teachers at the compulsory school system and for teachers at the medium and advanced schools are different. In the compulsory school system, the teaching time (and the total working time) is defined on a yearly basis under the old employment law. The teachers in the medium and advanced schools under the old employment law and the teachers under the new employment law are employed based on a weekly-defined teaching time (but there is no total working time defined). Both systems occur at all levels of education.

Working time at school is not defined in neither of the two systems.

Total working time is defined for teachers working in the compulsory school system only under the old employment law. Thus, it is answered ‘not applicable’ at all levels of education. In the previous years, the data referred to the old employment law.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: Since 2019/20, starting teachers are employed compulsorily under the new employment law for teachers, which was optional since 2015/16. At the time of reporting, about 10% of all teachers are employed under the new employment law. The number of teaching hours per week differ from the old employment law, depending on the type of school. As a result, number of statutory teaching hours increased in 2019/20 compared to the previous years.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Notes on methodology: Reported numbers of annual teaching hours at pre-primary and primary levels are the statutory minimum hours of teaching time. Reported numbers of annual teaching hours at secondary level are weighted averages of the statutory minimum hours of teaching time for each level of education, weighted by the number of teachers subject to different statutory teaching time requirements. The teaching hours are set formally. The government defines the minimum and maximum number of teaching periods (of 50 minutes each) per week at each level of education.

For pre-primary education (ISCED 02), teaching time consists of minimum 24 and maximum 26 periods (of 50 minutes) per week. The school assignment consists of a maximum of 26 hours (of 60 minutes) per week.

For primary education (ISCED 1), teaching time consists of a minimum of 24 and a maximum of 27 periods (of 50 minutes) per week. The school assignment (all the duties performed within the school context) consists of a maximum of 26 hours (of 60 minutes) per week.

For lower secondary level (ISCED 24), teaching time consists of a minimum of 22 and a maximum of 23 periods (of 50 minutes) per week.

For general programmes at upper secondary level (ISCED 34), teaching time consists of a minimum of 21 and a maximum of 22 periods (of 50 minutes) per week in the first two years of general upper secondary education (the so-called “second stage”). In the last two years (“third stage”), teaching time consists of a minimum of 20 and a maximum of 21 periods (of 50 minutes) per week. The numbers 21/22 in the second stage become 20/21 when the person involved has at least a half assignment in the third stage.

Vocational programmes at upper secondary level consist of general subjects (algemene vakken), vocational theory subjects (technische vakken) and vocational practice subjects (praktische vakken). The teaching time in vocational programmes at upper secondary level (ISCED 35) incorporates the teaching time of all three types of subjects. The teaching time of the general subjects and vocational theory subjects in vocational programmes is the same as the teaching time of teachers in general programmes. Vocational theory courses provide the theoretical preparation for the profession. For teachers of practice courses in vocational programmes at upper secondary level, the teaching time is minimum 29 and maximum 30 lessons. The vocational practice courses refer to practical preparation of the profession in the school-based part.

Notes on interpretation: Professional development days included in what is called the one-day educational seminar in the Flemish Community. This one-day educational seminar consists of a professional development in the form of a conference.

Additional non-teaching hours in the school are set at the school level. There are no regulations regarding lesson preparation, correction of tests and marking of students’ papers, etc.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: Since 2019/20, reported teaching hours at pre-primary and primary levels are statutory minimum teaching hours. In the previous years, the reported values at these levels represented simple average of statutory minimum and maximum teaching hours.

Since 2019/20, reported teaching hours at lower and upper secondary levels are weighted averages of statutory minimum teaching hours weighted by the number of teachers subject to different statutory teaching hour requirements. In the previous years, the reported values at these levels represented simple average of different statutory teaching hours.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: During the school year 2020/21, due to the pandemic, two weeks have exceptionally deducted from the teaching time by extension of the Autumn holiday (4 days) and Easter holiday (4.5 days). Schools stayed open to welcome pupils/students who could not stay at home, but with no lessons delivered.

Belgium (French Community):

Notes on methodology: In upper secondary education (ISCED 34 and 35), (full-time equivalent) teacher’s weekly teaching periods (of 50-minutes) are defined by the type of subjects they teach and by the grade they teach: for teachers of general subjects, 22 periods if they teach grade 9 and 20 periods if they teach grades 10-12; for teachers of vocational subjects: 28 periods. Reported teaching hours in upper secondary education are weighted averages of types of teachers, weighted by the numbers of full-time teachers of each type.

Notes on interpretation: Teachers are regulated to teach 178 days over 37 weeks. In a usual school curriculum, a school year consists of 182 days of classes spread over 37 weeks. However, the government may define the number of class days between 180 and 184. (set at 181 days for 2019/20) and, of these days, 3 days are devoted to compulsory continuing professional development activities.

There are no regulations on total working time (regarding lesson preparation, correction of tests and marking of students’ papers, etc.) Total working time reported for pre-primary and primary levels only takes into account time on teaching, student monitoring and co-ordination time. The government defines the number of teaching periods (of 50 minutes each) per week at each level of education.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: Since 2019/20, reported teaching time is now a weighted average of different statutory requirements on teaching time by the numbers of full-time teachers of each type. See Notes on methodology for more information. Previously, reported teaching time referred to a simple average of different statutory requirements on teaching time.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: During the school year 2020/21, due to the pandemic, two weeks have exceptionally been deducted from the teaching time by extension of the autumn holiday (4 days) and Easter holiday (5 days). Schools stayed open to welcome pupils/students who could not stay at home, but with no lessons delivered.

Brazil:

Notes on methodology: The National Education Law establishes a minimum annual school year of 800 hours distributed to a minimum of 200 days in a year per shift. There are no national legislation establishing the school week and period length, States and Municipalities have autonomy to decide about this matter.

Notes on interpretation: According to Law No. 13,415, of 2017, related to the reform of upper secondary level of the education in Brazil, the minimum annual workload of upper secondary teachers must be progressively increased to 1,400 hours (within a maximum period of five years from March 2, 2017), with a minimum of 1,000 hours of annual workload. Then, the minimum annual teaching time is 800 hours for the reference year 2021, but from 2022 onwards, the minimum working time of upper secondary teachers required in all schools will be 1000 hours per annum.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: Although the data collected on the measures taken to mitigate the effects of sanitary measures on teaching and learning activities during the pandemic does not include information on the working time of teachers and school directors, it is expected that the working time of teachers and school directors may have been significantly altered. The 2021 school year was impacted by the context of the Covid19 Pandemic, due to the flexibility offered by the central government on the minimum number of school days for all Basic Education teaching networks in the 2020 school year, which allowed the administration of the curricular contents of series in consecutive school years between the 2020 and 2021. The education networks took different measures to resume classes in a face-to-face.

Canada:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes student examination days for primary and general programmes of secondary levels.

Notes on methodology: The methodology for calculating the Canada-level response for quantitative indicators is to use two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response: (1) At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide a response, and; (2) Reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

If the two criteria above are met, the Canada-level average is weighted by the number of full-time student enrolments (from combined elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary levels) for all jurisdictions who submitted figures for the OECD-NESLI data collection on working time of teachers and school heads.

Like the quantitative methodology, the qualitative methodology for calculating the Canada-level response is to use two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response: (1) At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide the same response, and; (2) Reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

Notes on interpretation: Data reported are not necessarily representative of all of Canada, but only of the Canadian provinces and territories that took part in the data collection. For items left unanswered, there was not enough consensus amongst provinces and territories to develop a pan-Canadian response.

Each jurisdiction in Canada specifies the number of instruction days or hours per year in legislation or regulations. The figure given for the number of weeks a teacher teaches is developed from the mandated instructional days. The mandated instructional days already excludes days the school is closed for festivities.

For the pre-primary data in general, it is unfeasible to provide a national portrait because of the diversity of practices across the country.

Colombia:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes time devoted to student examination days.

Notes on interpretation: The school day is the daily time that the educational institution dedicates to its students in the direct provision of the public educational service, in accordance with the norms in force on academic calendar and with the curriculum.

The schedule of the school day should allow students to meet the minimum weekly and annual hour intensity of pedagogical activities related to the compulsory and fundamental areas and to the optional subjects for each of the levels. It will be counted in effective hours of 60 minutes: 800 hours in pre-school, 1 000 hours in primary education and 1 200 hours in basic secondary education.

The total time for the weekly academic assignment of each elementary and secondary education teacher shall be 22 effective hours of 60 minutes, which shall be distributed by the principal during class periods in accordance with the study plan.

Institutional development activities are the time devoted by teachers and directors to the formulation, development, evaluation, revision or adjustment of the institutional educational project, the elaboration, vision or adjustments of the institutional educational project, the development, monitoring and evaluation of the curriculum, research and pedagogical updating, annual institutional evaluation, and other coordination activities with agencies or institutions that have a direct or indirect impact on the provision of the educational service. These activities shall be conducted for five weeks of the academic calendar and shall be different from the 40 academic weeks of academic work with the students, established in the calendar. These 5 working weeks are included in the reported working time. (This was not included in the previous years following the old reporting guidelines).

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: Since 2018 data, days of school closure due to festivities are excluded from teaching time.

Costa Rica:

Data specifications on teaching time: Short breaks of 10 minutes or over are included as part of the daily teaching time data for pre-primary (ISCED 02). At the primary level (ISCED 1), the time spent on supervising pupils is determined by schedules organised by schools.

Data on teachers’ teaching time includes professional development activities for all levels of education and student examination days in primary and secondary levels (ISCED 1 and above).

Notes on interpretation: Costa Rica outperforms other countries in the number of teaching days per year, due to compliance with the Central American Convention on Basic Unification of Education of 1962, compliance required by the Constitutional Chamber in 2003.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: Teaching hours in the years 2020 and 2021 was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. A distance education model was implemented in 2020 and a combined education (blended) model has been implemented in 2021.

Czech Republic:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes time devoted to professional development activities at all levels of education and student examination days at upper secondary level.

Notes on methodology: In upper secondary education (general and vocational programmes), the reported data refer to the statutory teaching time for teachers in theoretical education, where teaching time is set to 21 lessons per week. Data on teachers in practical education is not reported.

Teachers at all levels of education are entitled to 8 weeks of leave (40 days) and excluded from the reported total working time. At pre-primary level (ISCED 02), nursery schools do not have school holidays, but may close or operate on limited hours in July and/or August in response to local conditions, after consultation with the organising body. So entitled leaves for pre-primary teachers should be taken preferably when schools do not operate. At primary and secondary levels (ISCED 1-3), entitled leaves should be taken preferably during students’ school holidays. The work obligation is valid for the remaining days of school holidays.

Notes on interpretation: Lower secondary vocational programmes (ISCED 25) are reported as “not applicable” because it includes only two fields of study designed for a small number of students with medium and serious intellectual disabilities. This programme is organised by upper secondary schools.

School head may declare up to 5 days of school closure for students due to organisational or technical reasons during one school year. These days can also be used for continuing professional development activities for teachers. However, it is at school’s autonomy to use these days off.

Teachers at all levels of education are entitled up to 12 days of paid self-study leave per school year, which also should be taken preferably during students’ school holidays. However, number of days of the study leave that teachers use depends on the decision of the school head who takes into account the operation of the school. Also, there is no obligation for teachers to exhaust all the given days.

Legislation regulates extent of teaching duties in terms of the number of lessons per week. The duration of one lesson in pre-primary education is 60 minutes and teachers teach 31 lessons per week. In primary and secondary education, one lesson lasts 45 minutes. For primary and general lower secondary education, there are 22 lessons per week defined, with the exception of teachers teaching grade 1 (20 to 22 lessons per week).

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, upon a Government decision, four additional days were exceptionally added to the students' school holidays at the primary and secondary levels, reducing the teaching time of teachers at these levels. Nevertheless, these days were considered in the teachers’ total working time.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trend: Before 2016, the teaching time at pre-primary level was reported excluding school holidays, and from 2016, it is calculated for the whole school year (including school holidays), only excluding 8 weeks of leave for teachers (School holidays do not apply to pre-primary level even if the school are closed in July/August in response to local conditions). At the primary level of education, teaching time reported before 2016 was computed in 45-minute lessons and not converted in 60-minute lessons. The conversion has been applied since 2016, Since 2020 data for primary and secondary education, a maximum of 5 days of school closure (used at discretion of individual schools) is no longer excluded from reported teaching (and working) time.

Denmark:

Notes on methodology: Teaching time data of primary and lower secondary teachers is collected by the Ministry of Education. There is also a separate data collection for upper secondary teachers, however data for school year 2020/21 is not available. There is no data collection at pre-primary level.

For primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 1 and 24), the schools reported number of hours scheduled for ordinary classroom/subject teaching (fagopdelt undervisning), which also includes compulsory assisted classroom teaching (understøttende undervisning).

The total working time reported is the number for the labour market in general regulated by agreements with the unions. More specifically, the regulations by the collective agreements state that teachers (and employees in general) should work 37 hours a week for 52 weeks. This implies a gross working time of 1 924 hours a year. Deducting entitled leaves and weekday holidays from the 1 924 hours, the average working time will be around 1 642.8 hours a year in 2020/21.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trend: Since 2015 data, the number of hours registered as teaching hours are not comparable with figures from the years before 2015, due to new regulations of teaching and lessons introduced by a reform on the Danish primary and lower secondary school (Folkeskolen). However, the 2015 data are including hours used by teachers for supervision of pupils during breaks and for individual consultation with pupils, which do not in all details following the definition of teaching hours of this data collection.

Since 2019 (since 2015 for upper secondary level), the calculation methods align more closely with the OECD guidelines. The latest methodology refers teaching time to net teaching time excluding vacations and national holidays. This was not the case in the previous years.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on interpretation: There are vocational programmes at both lower and upper secondary level (ISCED 25 and 35), but statutory guidance does not cover provision in these settings.

The framework for pay and conditions of teachers (STPCD 2020) stipulates on scheduled working time, but has no stipulations on teaching time. The statutory requirements in the STPCD (2020) apply to public schools only.

Working days (STPCD, page 48 paragraph 51.2.): A teacher employed full-time must be available for work for 195 days, of which: (a) 190 days must be days on which the teacher may be required to teach pupils and perform other duties; and (b) 5 days must be days on which the teacher may only be required to perform other duties; and those 195 days must be specified by the employer or, if the employer so directs, by the headteacher.

Specified working hours (STPCD, pages 48-49 paragraph 51.5.): A teacher employed full-time must be available to perform such duties at such times and such places as may be specified by the headteacher (or, where the teacher is not assigned to any one school, by the employer or the headteacher of any school in which the teacher may be required to work) for 1 265 hours, those hours to be allocated reasonably throughout those days in the school year on which the teacher is required to be available for work.

Professional responsibilities (STPCD, pages 46-47): The headteacher/employer has discretion over what duties teachers may/must perform and at what times and what places. The duties a teacher may be required to undertake are as follows: teaching; whole school organisation, strategy and development; health, safety and discipline; management of staff and resources; professional development; communication, and; working with colleagues and other relevant professionals.

Estonia:

Data specifications on teaching time: Days of professional development for all educational levels and student examination days in secondary level are not excluded from teachers’ teaching time.

Notes on interpretation: There are more public holidays in Estonia than the reported number of days per school year the school is closed for festivities. Most of the days off are in the same period as seasonal school holidays, which is why they are not counted here.

According to the Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act, there have to be at least 175 school days in a school year – so the period a teacher teaches in a school is actually half a week or a week longer (the number of weeks a teacher teaches per annum is a bit higher). Vocational Educational Institutions Act states that for pupils an academic year consists of at least 40 weeks of studies and at least eight weeks of holidays. According to Pre-school Child Care Institutions Act, an academic year shall start on 1 September and the duration of an academic year is from the start of study in one calendar year until the start of study in the next calendar year.

Finland:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes time devoted to student examination days in upper secondary general programmes. National matriculation examination involves all teachers in the school. Majority of teachers are involved in preliminary marking. These are a part of teaching load for teachers whose subjects are included in the examination.

Notes on interpretation: Data on teachers’ teaching time for vocational upper secondary programmes (ISCED 35) comprises teachers of vocational studies (the majority) in most fields.

For pre-primary education (ISCED 02), early childhood education and care (ECEC) teachers working in kindergartens have a weekly working time of 38 hours and 45 minutes. A minimum of 8% of that must be reserved for duties other than working with the groups of children. ECEC teachers, who work with so-called pre-primary instruction for 6-year-olds, are also entitled to time for developing the curriculum.

In pre-primary education for 6-year-olds provided in schools, the teachers' minimum teaching time is twenty-three 45-minute lessons per week. These teachers also have the same 114 hour scheduled non-teaching hours as primary and secondary level (ISCED 1-3) teachers. Only 20% of pre-primary education for 6-year-olds is provided in schools.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: In the school year 2017/18, there was an increase in working time at school by 24 hours per annum for all teachers in Finland as a measure to increase the competitiveness of Finland.

France:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes time a teacher spends supervising pupils during short breaks in pre-primary and primary levels (ISCED 02 and 1). These breaks are not less than 10 minutes.

Notes on methodology: In general secondary education (ISCED 24 and 34), there is a difference in the number of net teaching hours for the two categories of secondary school teachers (certifiés and agrégés). Here, only the number related to the most prevalent category (certifiés) at lower and upper secondary general programmes is taken into account. Teachers of the most prevalent category (certifiés) teach 18 statutory hours per week and mandatory overtime of 2 hour per week (heure supplémentaire annualisée; HSA) by all teachers on a regular basis.

Notes on interpretation: The average number of weeks a teacher teaches per annum is the same for all ISCED levels (36 weeks). School holidays have been excluded (16 weeks), but public holidays cannot be excluded, no more than from instruction time. The school must be composed of at least 36 weeks of work; the public holidays included in the current school year are not deducted.

Statutory teaching time for pre-primary and primary teachers consists of 864 hours of net teaching per year for all pupils (24 hours per week) and 36 hours per year for additional pedagogical activities (1 hour per week for activités pédagogiques complémentaires (APC) to limited groups of students identified as needing more hours of teaching). Therefore, reported number of teaching hour is 25 hours per week and 900 hours per year.

Statutory working time at school for pre-primary and primary teachers includes 900 hours of teaching time and 48 hours devoted to work in pedagogical teams, to relations with parents, to the elaboration and follow-up of personalised schooling projects for handicapped students, plus 6 hours of participation in compulsory school councils. The time designated to professional development activities (18 hours) is not included in the working time at school. Also at least half of these 18 hours has to be devoted to professional development activities.

Statutory teaching time for the most prevalent category (certifiés) in secondary education (ISCED 24, 34 and 35) consists of 18 statutory hours per week (648 hours per year over 36 weeks) and additional 2 hours per week worked on a regular basis (heure supplémentaire annualisée; HSA, meaning 72 hours per year on average). Teachers have to teach at least two regular hours exceeding the minimum statutory weekly teaching time. Other types of extra hours are not included in the reported statutory teaching time.

For teachers at ISCED 02 to 3 levels, statutory total working time per year refers to the legal working time of all employees (including civil servants) unless subject to exemptions or a specific collective agreement.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: Regulations on statutory teaching time changed in 2015 for teachers at pre-primary and primary levels and in 2016 and 2019 for teachers at lower and upper secondary levels.

Germany:

Notes on methodology: Data have been calculated in the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Data on teaching time of teachers is calculated based on the teaching hours that are contracted/scheduled with teachers and the number of full-time equivalent teacher will be adjusted for capacity gains or losses through age-related reductions of teaching time, special working time models for teachers, sabbaticals or for other reasons.

Notes on interpretation: At the pre-primary level (ISCED 02), data refers to pre-primary education for children from age 3 to the start of primary education (ISCED 1). Data for Schulkindergärten and Vorklassen are excluded. No comparisons with previous years are possible. The reported teaching time is the time pedagogic staff at ECEC institutions spent on education and care.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: From the school year 2018/19, new methodology is implemented that allows exclusion of professional development days and student examination days from teaching time data. This resulted in decrease on the number of hours a teacher teaches per day (12 to 15%) compared to the previous year.

Greece:

Data specifications on teaching time: Teaching time at pre-primary level (ISCED 02) includes only one break, estimated to be 0.75 hours per day.

In secondary education, hours that involve teacher-student interaction in examination periods of the secondary (explanations given on the tests, oral examinations and student supervision during written examinations) have been included in teaching time, because, according to national legislation, in-school examinations are part of the instruction/teaching year (which is differentiated from the school year). Secondary teachers' work in the Pan-Hellenic examinations for entrance to tertiary education is not included in teaching time.

According to legislation (par. 3 of article 14 of the Presidential Decree 201/1998 and art. 12 of the Presidential Decree 200/1998) school counsellors organise professional development days for teachers before the beginning of the school year (2-10 September). Throughout the school year, school counsellors can also organise workshops or conferences for teachers (G.G. 1340/2002, article 9, par. 2d). According to the regulations, they should try not to disturb the teaching schedule. In some cases, this is not possible but it is estimated that a very limited number of teaching hours are actually spent on activities of personal development.

Notes on methodology: The number of hours a teacher teaches per day (excluding breaks) converted into hours of 60 minutes is based on the typical duration of a teaching session: maximum number of teaching sessions per week divided by 5 working days per week, and then multiplied by the typical duration of a teaching session converted into hours of 60 minutes.

In lower secondary education (ISCED 24), days devoted to remedial teaching for students who failed in one or more subjects (introduced in 2016/17) have been included in the teaching time as maximum time devoted to remedial teaching divided by the number of hours a teacher teaches per day (excluding breaks and converted into hours of 60 minutes).

Even though lesson preparation is required by law, the reported net teaching time and total working time (at school) of teachers in Greece does not include lesson preparation time, as legislation does not specify how much time teachers should spend on lesson preparation and marking. The exclusion of lesson preparation must be taken into consideration for comparisons of teachers' working time between Greece and countries that include lesson preparation in teachers' working time.

Breaks are not included in net teaching time reported for primary, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers.

Primary teachers are required to supervise the class they teach in the routes from the schoolyard to the classroom and from the classroom to schoolyard at the end of the break (new legislation on Primary Education (Presidential Decree 79/2017, G.G. 109/A/2017)). However, this time is not included in number of hours a teacher teaches per day and not considered as short breaks, as it has not been calculated by a competent service.

Notes on interpretation: The annual statutory teaching and working time reported for pre-primary (ISCED 02) refers only to pre-primary schools (for children aged 4-5 years) that are supervised by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.

The in-school examination days are part of the instruction year and of the learning procedure (according to the examination results remedial courses are offered to those students who have not achieved the expected learning outcomes). Moreover, the assessment methods used demand interaction between teacher and students.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: For reference year 2020/21, there have been some changes to the usual schedule as a consequence of the closures of schools (depending on the epidemiological data). Distant learning was implemented during the time schools were closed with an alteration in the school's timetable according to Circular 3882/B/12-09-20 and Circular 5044/B/14-11-20. In addition, the school year was extended in an effort to compensate for any loss in teaching hours due to COVID-19. Therefore, started on the 14th of September and ended on the 25th of June, instead of the 15th, in Primary level, ended on the 11th of June, instead of the last week of May, in Lower Secondary level and ended on the 11th of June in the Upper Secondary (M.D 68756/Δ1/11-06-21 and M.D. 48293/ΓΔ4/27-04-21). Finally, at the request of the Ministry of Education, the Institute of Educational Policy has expressed its opinion for issues of learning assessment according to the following Acts: 53/12-11-2020, 55/26-11-2020 and 3/11-1-2021). The only exams that did take place, face-to-face in the premises/school units of the secondary education and according to the instructions given by the health experts of EODY (National Public Health Organization-NPHO) were the University entry exams referring to the graduates of the secondary education (3rd grade of the upper secondary education).

Hungary:

Notes on interpretation: The legal regulation stipulates annually the number of teaching days without festivities and breaks (between 178 and 179 teaching days depending on the school type for the reference year).

The kindergarten year (stipulated by the Public Education Act) starts on 1 September and ends on 31 August, leading to 43 weeks of teaching. At pre-primary level (ISCED 02), the teacher has to be available 36 hours per week at kindergarten (of which 32 hours is teaching time). The principle decides about 4 hours in addition to the 32 regulated teaching hours (i.e. maximum of 36 hours).

For primary and secondary levels (ISCED 1 to 3), the legislation stipulates the beginning and the ending of the school year: the school year starts on the 1st September and ends on 15th June: 38 weeks, excluding the 3 weeks of holidays (one week each for autumn, winter and spring holiday). A teacher has to teach 22 to 26 classes (of 45 minutes) per week. The maximum working time at school (set by law) is 32 hours (of 60-minutes) that he/she may be asked to be at school and perform tasks (including teaching).

For grade 12 in upper secondary level (ISCED 34 and 35), there are 6 weeks of preparatory time for the upper-secondary school-leaving examination. Teachers are still available and it is teaching time (for the rest of the school). There is no information (missing data) on what the teacher's task is (teaching or non-teaching availability) - as they have to be available (e.g. for substitution).

The working time of teachers is different to that of other civil servants. In addition to the 21 days of holiday for civil servants, teachers have 25 additional days (of which 15 days can be used for school-related activities like in-service training, but this is rarely the case).

Ireland:

Notes on interpretation: The typical length of the school year is 183 days at primary level (ISCED 1) and 167 days for general secondary levels (ISCED 24 and 34).

At secondary level (ISCED 24 and 34), Junior Cycle continuing professional development (CPD) was not mandatory, however two days were discretionary offered to attend the CPD online.

Teachers may take additional professional development days during school time. While such additional professional development events are approved for attendance by teachers during school time, teacher participation is at the discretion of school management. Schools are not permitted to close to facilitate attendance by an individual teacher/teachers at these additional events and school management is required to ensure that alternative arrangements are in place for the pupils whose teachers are attending the event. Individual teachers may, on an optional basis, seek to attend conferences that are relevant to their work during annual working time but may only do so at the discretion of school management.

Full-time teachers involved in the delivery of Junior Cycle (ISCED 24 and 34) are now entitled to 22 hours of professional time over the course of the school year. These hours are also excluded from teaching time in hours.

Teaching time for secondary level (ISCED 24 and 34) does not include fifteen days, set aside for State Examination taken by the final year students of lower and upper secondary general programmes. Schools are closed at this time and teachers can apply to be contracted by the State Examinations Commission to supervise these examinations and correct scripts.

Short breaks at primary level (ISCED 1) are not included in the reporting teaching time data. A teacher spends about 43 hours per annum on supervising pupils during these short breaks.

For more information on breakdown of teachers’ working time, see Table X3.D4.2 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: During the academic year 2020/21 schools were closed by the government for three days immediately following the Christmas holidays, to deal with the pandemic and reduce its circulation within the community, having impacted on the length of the school year (a decrease of 3 days at all levels of education).

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: Since the implementation of a new curriculum at lower secondary level (ISCED 24) under an agreement with unions in 2015, teachers have been assigned professional time to support professional development, assessment, reporting, preparation for and attendance at moderation meetings, and the administration of particular tasks associated with the state examination at this level. This professional time amounts to 22 hours per year. Consequently, teaching time for teachers in lower secondary general programmes (ISCED 24) is now 704 hours per year. This allocation of professional time is mandated in the Circular Letter 0079/2018, and reflected in the teaching time data since the school year 2018/19.

Israel:

Notes on methodology: Number of days per school year when the school is closed for festivities refers to the number of days between the beginning of the school year and the summer holidays during which the school is closed, for either religious festivals or holidays. School holidays for festivities that are at least one week long were added to the holidays and only individual days are reported as festivities: 3.2 single holy days in pre-primary and primary education and 3.1 in secondary education were calculated, based on the count of holy days in the Hebrew and non-Hebrew education. The fact that in big part of primary Hebrew education the schools are open 6 days a week was taken in account.

A teacher working full-time teaches five days a week. In pre-primary (ISCED 02) and primary (ISCED 1) education, a teacher teaches 36.5 weeks, while a teacher in lower secondary education (ISCED 2) and in upper secondary education (ISCED 3) 35.2 weeks. This average is based on year calendar. In secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3), the school year ends 10 days before.

An average class session lasts 47 minutes. Some class sessions last 50 minutes, others 45 minutes.

In 2008, the New Horizon Reform began to be implemented in the pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary (ISCED 1) and lower secondary (ISCED 2) education. This reform changes the structure of teachers' working hours and salaries. This year, the New Horizon reform implementation in all levels of education exceeded about 99%. The data reported on working time in school year 2020/21only refers to the F.T.E teachers concerned by the "New Horizon Reform" data.

After the full implementation of the New Horizon Reform, teachers' working time in primary (ISCED 1) and lower secondary (ISCED 2) schools will include respectively 11 and 14 non-teaching working hours per week. The calculation of teaching hours for teachers in the New Horizon Reform includes group-teaching hours, for groups of 1-5 students.

In 2020/21, the Oz Letmura Reform continues to be implemented in upper secondary education (ISCED 3), concerning about 86% of the full-time equivalent. According to this reform, teachers should work more hours and receive a better salary, which can further increase with professional development. The reform stipulates that teachers should teach more hours and stay more hours at school.

Since the education system in Israel is undergoing a period of transition to the reform Oz Letmura in upper secondary education (ISCED 3), teachers’ working hours in this level of education in 2020/21 are an average of the teachers who are not included in the reform (whose working time includes 15 teaching hours and 5 non-teaching working hours at school) and of the teachers totally included in the reform (whose working time includes 19 teaching hours and 20 non-teaching working hours at school).

Italy:

Data specifications on teaching time: Short breaks (of less than 10 minutes) are included the teaching time data at pre-primary and primary levels (ISCED 02 and 1).

Notes on methodology: The school year, as a rule, is spread over 33.3 weeks (33 weeks by convention), which is obtained by dividing 200 days, the least number of school days for students, by 6 days, the number of days teachers work per week. In fact, the school year lasts about 38 weeks (from September to the middle of June) for primary and secondary schools and about 42 weeks for pre-primary schools (until the end of June).

Notes on interpretation: The number of days of teaching is different from the number of school days for students (200). This happens because each school, according to school autonomy legislation, can plan to open five or six days a week. Even when schools operate on a 6-day week, teachers customarily have one day off. However, this arrangement is not mandated by the National Contract (which stipulates that a teacher's teaching hours must be delivered in "not less than 5 days a week") and in some circumstances, teachers may teach 6 days a week. Therefore, given the number of hours a teacher teaches per week (provided by the National Contract) the fact that the activities are generally spread over 5 working days implies that the overall weekly teaching hours are concentrated on 5 days (in this case, the number of daily working hours is higher than those spread over 6 days).

Up to 80 hours of scheduled non-teaching collegial work at school per annum are dedicated to attività funzionali all'insegnamento (activities related to teaching) and they are compulsory hours as set by the National Contract. Of these 80 hours, up to 40 hours of compulsory work time per year are dedicated to meetings of the Teachers' Assembly, staff planning meetings and meetings with parents to report on student progress. Up to a further compulsory 40 hours (out of the 80) are dedicated to planned class councils that work according to a timetable and criteria set by the teachers' assembly. Other attività funzionali all'insegnamento are related to student and class assessment meetings, the administration of national exams at the end of lower and upper secondary school and to individual activities such as lesson preparation, marking, etc., for which there are no contract work-time specifications. In addition, the primary school will add 66 more hours per annum (2 hours per week for 33 weeks) for planning activities.

Japan:

Notes on methodology: Data on teachers’ teaching time are obtained from a survey on average planned teaching time in each school at the beginning of the school year. Teachers who are temporarily absent are excluded from the total number of teachers to avoid the impact on teaching time per week.

The latest survey shows the estimated number of instruction days per year in public schools. The number of weeks of instruction can be calculated with that number and the number of instruction days per week (calculated based on five instruction days per week).

The same contents and numerical values are provided for general programmes and vocational programmes of upper secondary education (ISCED 3) because data are not available by type of programme at the upper secondary level. For technical reasons, it is not possible to separate data between general and vocational programmes.

At the primary level (ISCED 1) and at the lower secondary level (ISCED 2), the number of annual teaching days for one grade (fifth grade only in ISCED 1 and the first grade only in ISCED 2) is used as the average for all grades.

Notes on interpretation: National schools, College of Technology (course of the first to the third grade) established by regional or local governments and Specialised Training College, Upper Secondary Course are excluded from annual statutory teaching and working time.

Regarding the data on teaching time per teacher, the calculations were made using different data points (all of which are the most recent data but different surveys).

Korea:

Data specifications on teaching time: Teaching time at pre-primary and primary levels (ISCED 02 and 1) includes short breaks. At pre-primary level, the frequency and duration of short breaks are not officially determined and teachers have the flexibility to arrange short breaks during instructional time. At primary level (ISCED 1), there are short breaks of 10 minutes after each class. These breaks are included in teaching time of homeroom teachers who are responsible for their classes during these breaks.

Notes on methodology: Data on teachers’ teaching time refer to the average amount of planned teaching time assigned to teachers in each school at the beginning of each semester. Data on number of teaching hours per week is calculated as follows: total number of classes per week divided by total number of teachers. Here, teachers who were temporarily absent are excluded from the total number of teachers as their teaching time was calculated as 0 hours.

Teaching time data does not include non-school-based examinations, when school attendance is not compulsory for all students (e.g. College Scholastic Aptitude Test, CSAT).

Total working time is estimated by multiplying the daily working time for civil servants (8 hours per day) by the minimum number of school days for a school year stipulated by relevant regulations (180 days at pre-primary level and 190 days at primary and secondary levels).

Notes on interpretation: For pre-primary level, only public kindergarten (governed by the Ministry of Education) is included. Public childcare (governed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare) is not included as there is no data available.

Many teachers do not work at school during school vacations and holidays. Instead, they participate in official and/or self-regulated professional development outside of school. Educational personnel can participate in professional development outside of school during school vacations and holidays. [Educational Officials Act Article 41 (Training in Other Places Than Training Institutions and Offices): Public educational officials may undergo training in facilities or places other than designated training institutions or offices with approval from the heads of their administrative agencies, as long as such training does not interfere with classes.] Since working time at school and/or professional development days during school vacations and holidays differ on an individual basis, these hours are not included in the data.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: Teaching time data for pre-primary education (ISCED 02) after 2018 is not comparable with data on previous years. It is due to change in length of one teaching period used for conversion into hours of 60-minutes, from 40 minutes per period to 60 minutes per period. In addition, short breaks are included since 2018 data.

Latvia:

Notes on methodology: Data on number of teaching hours are actual teaching time data that come from the State Education Information System schools provide information on teachers' age, gender, their workload and salary. All information relates to full-time (starting with 0.9 workload) classroom teachers.

For primary and secondary school teachers (ISCED 1 to 3), teaching time is not defined by relevant regulations. Therefore, reported numbers of teaching hours per annum come from actual teaching time data of the school year 2020/21.

Notes on interpretation: According to the amendment (Aug 14, 2018) of the Regulation on Pedagogues Work Remuneration, workload of a pre-primary teacher (ISCED 02) is 40 hours per week, of which 36 hours is teaching time. Total annual workload for a pre-primary teacher is 1 760 hours per annum. According to the Pre-school Education Guidelines (ISCED 0), teachers provide teaching and learning through play throughout the day for 11 months per year.

For primary and secondary school teachers (ISCED 1 to 3), only total weekly workload is defined (30 hours per week) without regulated teaching time. Total annual workload amounts to 1 320 hours per annum.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: For 2019 data, there were increases in the reported actual teaching time in primary and secondary levels compared to the previous year: 12% at primary level, 24% at lower secondary level and 4% at upper secondary level. These increases are related to the changes of school network: schools were merged to make some schools bigger while some schools closed down. Teachers had the opportunity to work in schools with increased number of students, allowing teachers to work full-time workloads and more. For 2021 the increase of 14.6% of working time in the upper secondary general programmes is related to the ongoing process of changing in the school network.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: For primary and secondary levels (ISCED 1 to 3), regular improvement of the functionality of the State Education Information System allows since 2018 to calculate teaching time of teachers, excluding other pedagogical tasks as individual work with students, consultations, preparation for lessons, etc. This exclusion of other pedagogical tasks was not possible in previous data collections.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: In the school year 2020/21 the regulation was amended to extend student holidays at the primary level, leading to a reduction of ten hours in the actual teaching time in the reference year.

Lithuania:

Notes on methodology: Reported data are solely based on national policy documents.

Notes on interpretation: At pre-primary level (ISCED 02), there is no regulation on how teaching time should be organised because pre-primary programmes are provided in institutions with a very different organisation of their work. The regulation only says that the pre-primary school year consists of not less than 640 hours per year.

For vocational programmes at the secondary level of education (ISCED 25 and 35), there is no regulation in legal documents or agreements on how teaching time should be organised. The regulation only says that the school year in vocational education consists of not less than 1 032 hours per year.

The regulation says that for the general and vocational programme teachers the maximum total working time is 1 512 hours per year.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: Since 2019, teaching hours at primary and secondary level (in both general and vocational programmes) refer to the maximum teaching time requirement, which previously was reported as typical teaching time. It is because net statutory contact time in public institutions has increased since the end of 2018 due to transition to a full-time teacher pay system.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: In the school year 2020/21 the learning setting was changed during the closure of schools for quarantine, but this did not impact on the teaching time of teachers.

Luxembourg:

Notes on interpretation: More information on reduction of teaching time for secondary education can be found in this law (link).

Mexico:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes student examination days at all levels.

Netherlands:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time at pre-primary and primary levels (ISCED 02 and 1) includes short breaks. There is no further information on whether these breaks are less than 10 minutes nor the number of hours per day a teacher spends supervising pupils during these short breaks.

According to the collective labour agreement, 2 hours per week for professional development is allocated to the teachers at pre-primary and primary levels and 87 hours per year are given to teachers at lower secondary level and upper secondary level general programmes. These hours are excluded from the teaching time.

Notes on interpretation: In the Netherlands, primary education refers to group 1-8. Group 3-8 is part of primary education (ISCED 1) and group 1-2 is part of pre-primary education (ISCED 02). Therefore, data provided for pre-primary level (ISCED 02) are only based on teachers in the first two years of primary school (group 1-2 of basisonderwijs); childcare is excluded.

Full-time primary school teachers (ISCED 1) work about 41.5 weeks a year. They can spend about 1.5 week for other activities. Since the school year 2015/16, primary school teachers have a 40-hour working week. Full-time teachers have 428 hours of vacation per year (Christian holidays included). Students in primary schools have 12 weeks of vacation per year.

Teachers in upper secondary vocational programmes (ISCED 35) have a 40-hour working week.

Every year before the summer break, employer (school head) makes agreements with individual teachers about the working days, the number of teaching hours or lesson-related and/or treatment tasks, professional development and other tasks.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: Reported teaching time of teachers in secondary education have decreased compared to previous years. In the new collective labour agreement 2018-2019, it has been agreed that teachers will have 50 hours of "development time" per annum from 1 August 2019. This implies a reduction of teaching time by 30 hours per annum (moreover, preparation time decrease by 20 hours per annum). In practice, this may lead to 1 hour less teaching time per week. Teachers choose themselves in consultation with each other, and their supervisors, how they will spend this "development time".

In 2019/20, a change in regulation resulted in increase of annual teaching hours by 10 hours.

New Zealand:

Notes on methodology: The New Zealand Education System does not have an explicit lower secondary level (ISCED 2) and all secondary level educational programmes are general. Thus, lower secondary level (ISCED 24) is estimated by averaging primary (ISCED 1) and upper secondary levels (ISCED 34). However, it should be noted that this average does not reflect any real situation in New Zealand.

In general, teachers who teach the first two years of lower secondary education (Years 7-8) have the same salary and working time conditions as those who teach primary level, while the teachers’ teaching the last two years of lower secondary education (Years 9-10) have the same salary and working time conditions as those who teach upper secondary level. Thus, the number of days a teacher teaches per annum and the number of scheduled non-teaching hours at school per annum for lower secondary level (ISCED 2) are averaged values of primary (ISCED 1) and upper secondary levels (ISCED 34).

Notes on interpretation: Regarding the working time at school, which refers to the number of hours per year for which full-time teachers are required to be available at school for teaching and non-teaching duties, the given figure for upper secondary education reflects the maximum timetabled hours per year, rather than the maximum hours required to be at work. The collective agreement does not specify the number of hours beyond the timetable hours, just what duties are expected. This also applies for the Years 9-10 component of the average given for lower secondary education.

Norway:

Notes on methodology: The number of hours a teacher teaches per day, per week and per annum for lower and upper secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3) is an average depending on the subject taught. For primary education (ISCED 1), the number of hours a teacher teaches per day is regulated.

Notes on interpretation: Figures refer to the central agreement. In some municipalities, there are variations based on local agreements.

The length of the school year is minimum (190 days and 38 weeks) and maximum (225 days and 45 weeks) with 190 days and 38 weeks being the most typical.

Total working time per annum for pre-primary programmes (ISCED 02) is not applicable because total (net) working time is not specified in legal documents and agreements for pre-primary teachers. Gross working time is 1 950 hours including holidays, etc. Total working time (for primary and secondary school teachers) may include working time outside teaching weeks for some teachers. During the time teachers can work outside of school (the difference between total working time and working time at school), teachers decide for themselves whether they work outside teaching weeks or during teaching weeks.

Poland:

Data specifications on teaching time: Number of hours a teacher teaches only includes short breaks in grades 1-3 of primary education (ISCED 1). At the beginning of primary school (grades 1-3; ISCED 1), one teacher is responsible for both teaching and taking care of children during the breaks, playing the role of the classroom and the form teacher at the same time. The number of hours a teacher spends supervising pupils during these breaks varies by teacher, as it is not regulated.

Notes on methodology: Number of hours a pre-primary teacher teaches per day does not include teachers of the compulsory pre-school education in charge of six-year-old children. The weekly number of hours of the statutory teaching time for pre-school education teachers is 25 hours, except for teachers working with groups of six-year-olds (22 hours).

In accordance with the law, the total working time of teachers is up to 40 hours per week. As teachers cannot work over 40 hours per week, teaching hours above the weekly compulsory number of teaching hours should be covered within the regulated number of total working hours.

Education reform was implemented since the beginning to 2017. The main assumptions of the education reform are the liquidation of lower secondary schools and the return to the eight-year primary school, as well as the modification of vocational education by replacing basic vocational schools with stage I sectoral vocational schools. One of the objectives of the reform is also to extend the cycle of education in general secondary schools from three to four years and in technical secondary schools from four to five years. Therefore, since school year 2019/20 primary education (ISCED 1) includes 4 years of school (grades1-4) and lower secondary education (ISCED 2) includes another 4 years of school (grades 5-8).

Notes on interpretation: The Teachers' Charter states that an overall working time of teacher is up to 40 hours per week. However, only teaching and education activities are registered and controlled. The remaining working time available for performing statutory duties at school or in a different place specified by the school headmaster is not registered (teachers are obliged, for example, to hold meetings with parents at school, participate in teachers’ meetings or prepare and participate in school events planned in Educational School Programme).

Headmaster is entitled to establish additional days off from didactic and educational activities in a given school year. However, the number of these days depends on the type of school. The time off may be established on days of eighth grade exam, matriculation examination and examination confirming qualifications in the profession. The headmaster may also define a day-off for religious holidays that are not statutory holidays or any other day that it is justified by the organisation of the school work or the needs of the local community. As majority of schools use the maximum number of days off (8 days at primary and lower secondary level and 10 days at upper secondary level), these days are not included in the reported number of teaching days.

According to regulations, teachers may be required by the director to perform the following activities during students' school holidays: (1) conducting examinations; (2) work related to the end of the school year and preparation of the new school year; and (3) developing a school set of programs and participating in professional development. These activities may not take more than 7 days in total.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trend: Due to the educational reform implemented since the beginning of 2017, 3-year gimnazjum (lower secondary school; ISCED 24) phased out from September 2017 and ceased to operate in 2019 after the last cohort of students completed this type of school. Since school year 2019/20, primary education (ISCED 1) includes 4 years of primary school (grades 1-4) and lower secondary education (ISCED 24) includes another 4 years of primary school (grades 5-8). Previously, primary education covered grades 1-6. So teaching time in primary education appear to have changed only because it now covers teaching time of grades 1-4 (not grades 1-6 as in previous years), although teachers' scheduled teaching time for teachers in primary school remains unchanged from previous years.

Portugal:

Notes on methodology: The calculation of the number of instruction days is based on the 193 intended days in pre-primary and primary education (ISCED 02 and 1) and 182 days in the lower and upper secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3). As most of teachers teach more than one grade, three exceptions were not considered: 9th, 11th and 12th grades that include 179 instruction days, due to the period of national examinations. In the 'least demanding 15 years programme', it is compulsory that teachers fulfil the statutory amount of time allocated to each subject.

In pre-primary (ISCED 02) and grades 1-4 of primary education (First cycle of ISCED 1; age 6-9), teachers' scheduled teaching time is 25 hours per week, whereas in grades 5-6 of primary (ISCED 1) and secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3) teachers teach 22 hours a week. The pre-primary and primary education have 40 instruction weeks and the secondary education 38 weeks, with exception of the grades 9, 11 and 12 having 37weeks, due to the national examinations conducted in these grades. Reduced teaching workload, due to teachers’ age, years in the profession and for doing extracurricular activities at school (Maths clubs, etc.), are not considered.

Total working hours per annum is calculated is based on 229 working days for pre-primary to upper secondary levels (ISCED 02 to 3).

Notes on interpretation: Supervision of pupils during short breaks between classes in primary and lower secondary schools (ISCED 1 and 2) is performed by personnel for pedagogical support. Short breaks for primary schools range from 15 to 20 minutes.

Secondary school teachers (ISCED 2 and 3) with reduced teaching time (due to age and number of years in the profession, or those who have a managerial role) very often have their teaching schedule distributed through 4 days a week.

The reported working time at school is the maximum number of hours a teacher is required to be at school for teaching and non-teaching duties but is usually lower than that due to the possibility of having working hours' reduction due to their age, years in the profession and for doing extracurricular activities at school (Maths clubs, etc.).

Teaching time for teachers in primary education (ISCED 1) includes time for pedagogical support and curricular enrichment and complement (part of the teaching time). Teaching time for secondary school teachers (ISCED 2 and 3) includes time for pedagogical support (part of the teaching time).

Teachers have their own working time, but only in the sense that is structured differently. Their total working time is the same as general civil servants’ time; the difference is that certain non-teaching time tasks like preparing lessons and reviewing classwork are not required to be done at school. During inaction days, before, during and after the students’ school year, teachers have non-teaching duties. (After the ending of the instruction days of the school year, primary and secondary teachers have to fulfil a number of tasks, such as the preparation of the internal classifications class marks report, verification of the national examinations class scores report, meetings over the internal classifications and national examinations results for their classes, preparing class schedules for the next school year, preparing school recovery plans for students who need them, administrative work, preparing classrooms for national examinations, and ensuring the monitoring of the national examinations. Their allocation to those tasks is done, case by case, by their school. Global data is not available.) Non-teaching hours at school during inaction days may vary greatly according to the specific needs of each school.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: Teachers from all ISCED levels had the same number of instruction weeks in 2019/20, due to a reschedule of the national examination dates (190 days (38 weeks) minus 13 holidays and inaction days during weekdays for the school year 2019/20). Increase in the number of instruction weeks consequently caused increase in the annual number of teaching hours: 5% in pre-primary and primary education and 7% in secondary education.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: The registered change in net teaching time in 2019 at pre-primary education reflects, among other factors, the progressive approximation of the school year calendar of pre-primary - and its theoretical duration - to the school year calendar of primary and secondary education.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: Refer to the Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19.

Scotland (United Kingdom):

Notes on interpretation: The figures shown are approximations based on the assumption that teachers teach close to the maximum number of hours, as specified in the agreement “A Teaching Profession for the 21st Century”.

Slovak Republic:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time may include professional development days at all levels and student examination days in primary and secondary levels.

Data on teachers’ teaching time include short breaks at pre-primary (ISCED 02) and primary levels (ISCED 1). These short breaks are less than 10 minutes. A teacher spends one hour a day on supervising pupils during these short breaks.

Notes on methodology: Total working time of teachers in hours per annum is obtained by multiplying the number of mandatory working hours and the number of net working days (number of working days less the number of leave days).

Slovenia:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes student examination days at primary and general lower secondary education. At the end of grades 6 and 9, pupils’ knowledge in three subjects is evaluated with the mandatory national assessment. Each day only assessment in one subject may take place. The testing of one subject usually takes 45 minutes (it is determined that it should last between 45 to 90 minutes). At that time, other pupils in school have regular lessons and teachers teach or supervise tested pupils. After testing, pupils usually stay in school.

The Matura (and Vocational Matura) at upper secondary levels are excluded from teaching time data. Matura is the national external examination awarding upper secondary educational qualification. It is composed of exams in five subjects: three compulsory and two electives. The exams are taken in written and/or oral form and/or in the form of presenting a seminar paper or practical laboratory work. The form of exam is specified with the subject exam catalogue. Each exam is held on a separate day. Each student sits examinations for 8-10 effective days. The written examinations (5 subjects) take up to 1 050 minutes and oral exams up to 175 minutes. The duration of exams is maximum of 210 minutes for written test and maximum of 35 minutes for oral test. Matura examination is held in spring and autumn examination periods. The spring examination period starts after the instruction at the end of May and ends in the middle of June. The autumn examinations from last week of August to middle of September.

Vocational matura is national examination held at the end of upper secondary technical education. It consists of exams in four subjects: two compulsory (mother tongue and specialisation subjects), elective (mathematics or foreign language) and practical work (seminar, product or service) with oral presentation. Exams may be composed of written, oral and practical parts. Upper secondary vocational education is concluded with school leaving examination of two parts: exam in mother tongue and final assignment (product or service with an oral presentation). The school leaving examination is school designed. In addition to examinations that have a function of awarding educational qualification, students may take other types of exams.

Students in both general and vocational programmes may take the subject exam to advance before schedule (extraordinarily), improve their final grade or to transfer to another education programme. Students who fail to obtain the final grade in a specific subject take remedial exams, and students do retakes if they fail a class. During spring term, students may only take up to two exams, and only one or even partial exam per day. The school calendar for upper secondary education specifies examination periods: spring (after the instruction ends), autumn (from 16 August to 20 October), and winter (from 1 February to 1 March).

Notes on interpretation: The number of weeks teacher teaches per year takes into account average 6 weeks of paid leave. Kindergartens (ISCED 02) work all around the year and do not close for holidays. The number of weeks a teacher teaches per annum at primary and secondary levels includes two days the schools close for festivities. At primary and lower secondary levels (ISCED 1 and 24), the number of weeks a teacher teaches per annum includes compulsory days of activities. In upper secondary education, the number of weeks a teacher teaches per annum includes compulsory elective contents (ISCED 34) and compulsory interest activities (ISCED 35).

The reported data for upper secondary vocational programmes (ISCED 35) pertains to teachers of general and technical subjects (3 hours per day). Teaching obligation for teachers of practical lessons is set at 3.75 hours per day.

Working time of teachers is defined by the Organisation and Financing of Education Act (ZOFVI) and the Collective agreement for the education sector in the Republic of Slovenia. Teachers’ working time per week is 40 hours, of which they can work 10 hours outside the institution. The workload of a teacher includes teaching and other forms of organised work with students, preparation of lessons, assessing and grading of student work, and other work necessary for implementing the education programme. The ZOFVI, as well as Kindergarten Act and other regulations specify tasks mandatory for teachers (if so assigned). Requirements on the amount of time teachers have to spend on all non-teaching activities depend on individual teachers and on the number of annual leave of individual teachers. The Collective agreement refers to working time of teachers as "unevenly" spread across the year though the working time of teachers is theoretically 40 hours per week during the teaching weeks (40 hours per week is the average working time from 1 September to 31 August as stated in the Collective agreement article 44.a). The teachers need to compensate for their longer leave during the holidays by fulfilling more than 40 hours per week in practice during the teaching weeks. Therefore, it would be impossible to calculate since the number would differ on individual basis depending on the length of the teacher's annual leave and how individuals distribute their working time.

According to the Organisation and Financing of Education Act, teachers have a right and obligation to participate in professional development. The Collective Agreement for the Education Sector in the Republic of Slovenia determines that the employer must provide for at least 5 days for professional development per year or 15 days per three years. At primary and lower secondary levels, the Basic School calendar rules specify that for each teacher the school has to plan in the annual work plan two days of compulsory professional development (CPD) activities during autumn or winter holidays and three days of CPD activities during summer holidays or on non-working Saturdays. For pre-primary and upper secondary levels, the regulations do not specify exact terms of CPD activities, but it is customary to organise them outside instruction time.

Spain:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes student examination days at primary level (ISCED 1) and secondary general programmes (ISCED 24 and 34). Diagnostic assessments at grades 3 and 6 and at grade 10 are included in the statutory teaching time. The duration of these assessments varies across regions, and usually ranges from 1 to 4 days. Teachers themselves can administered these examinations. Characteristics and people administering these examinations vary widely across regions. In the school year 2019/20, these non-school-based national examinations were not conducted due to COVID-19.

Notes on methodology: Number of hours a teacher teaches per week at all ISCED levels is a weighted average of the typical number of hours per week according to the regional regulations, weighted by the number of teachers in every single autonomous region. For example, in secondary education (ISCED 2-3), if the minimum is established as 18 hours per week and the maximum 21 hours per week (as an exceptional measure) and it is difficult to estimate the percentage of teachers teaching 21 hours per week, then it is considered that some teachers have some other duties that reduces their number of hours of teaching per week. Thus, the typical number should be closer to 19 hours.

Notes on interpretation: Teachers are expected to work one week in addition to regular class weeks and the same working hour (working time at school of 30 hours per week, total working time of 37.5 hours per week) applies.

Requirement of 100 hours of professional development every six years is not compulsory, but is the minimum requirement for the teachers who want to earn the salary complement. For those teachers who complete these hours, no pattern is established on how many hours are completed per annum.

Notes on interpretation of teaching time trends: The changes from 2018 to 2019 and from 2020 to 2021 is mainly due to a modification in the legislation of the autonomous regions (decrease in the required teaching time).

Sweden:

Data specifications on teaching time: Short breaks are included in teaching time of teachers at pre-primary (ISCED 02) level. These short breaks are less than 10 minutes.

Data specifications on working time: The reported total working time of teachers includes working time during students’ school holiday.

Notes on methodology: The collective agreement is established on the national level, but interpreted on local levels.

Notes on interpretation: Local agreements may differ, especially in the förskoleklassen (pre-school class), which is the last year of pre-primary school. The usual agreement for förskoleklassen is the same as the national agreement for primary schools.

Switzerland:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ (actual) teaching time include professional development days. For teachers in pre-primary and primary education, short breaks are included in teaching time. In general, there are two big breaks of 20-25 minutes (one in the morning and one in the afternoon) and several small breaks of 5 minutes.

Notes on methodology: Number of weeks a teacher teaches per annum is based on the guideline published by the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (EDK). As it varies between 38 and 39 weeks across all Swiss cantons and levels of education, an average of 38.5 weeks is reported for all levels of education.

Data on the number of hours a teacher is scheduled to teach (net teaching time) is taken from the School Staff Statistics. The data refer to weekly lessons for 100% enrolment in compulsory school and sec II. Age reductions in the number of hours, corresponding to a full-time activity, are taken into account. The School Staff Statistics is an annual census based on individual data and gathers information on persons working in schools within the Swiss territory, as well as on the content of the activities they carry out. The survey covers all educational levels: from primary to tertiary (excluding higher education institutions). Data from 26 cantons are harmonised at national level.

Total working time per annum and its specification are based on the Work Volume Statistics (AVOL-statistics). Only full-time teachers with 100% employment, permanent contracts or at least 12 months contract duration are considered. The Work Volume Statistics is an annual summary statistics. The Swiss Labour Force Survey (SLFS) is the main source used to compile work volume. In order to calculate the volume of work according to the domestic concept, information is drawn from other sources such as the Central Information Service on Migration (CISM). Finally, for certain types of absences, information is drawn from other sources, such as statistics from the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) on reduced work schedules and Labour Disputes Survey (KASE).

Notes on interpretation: Teachers' scheduled working time at school is not available. It is generally not specified whether the teachers spend the non-teaching hours at school or outside the school.

In Switzerland, only 1 August at federal level is designated as a public holiday for the entire country. The regulation of all other holidays is solely a matter for the cantons. Due to this fact, there are only three more days besides the national celebration, which are also recognised throughout Switzerland: New Year, Ascension Day and Christmas Day. Good Friday, Easter Monday, Whit Monday and St. Stephen's Day (Christmas Day) are also celebrated in large parts of the country.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: Methodological changes between 2018 and 2019 data are (1) revision in counting the number of days of festivities schools are closed; and (2) adjustments in how to report number of teaching weeks.

Türkiye:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ teaching time includes professional development days and student examination days at all levels of education.

Short breaks are included in teaching time of teachers at pre-primary (ISCED 02) level. The length of these short breaks varies significantly. In pre-primary education, the duration of one class session is 50 minutes and there are no specified short breaks. Based on the flexible programme implemented at this level, rest time is provided to students at the discretion of the teacher.

Notes on methodology: Teaching times are calculated based on the compulsory hours as specified in the related laws and regulations (i.e. 30 class sessions for classroom and 21 class sessions for branch teachers per week).

For the number of hours a teacher teaches at primary level (ISCED 1), only teaching time of classroom teachers is considered.

Total working time is determined by deducting teachers' holidays, festivals and school term breaks from the official working time of civil servants (as indicated in Law No. 657 on Civil Servants).

Notes on interpretation: An orientation training was held on 21-25 September 2020 to help students adapt to their new educational environment in a short time in pre-primary, first grades of primary and lower secondary and upper secondary schools.

Teachers are present at school on national holidays when students attend the ceremonies during the school days.

Notes on methodology of teaching time trends: Since 2019 data, calculation methodology of pre-primary teachers’ teaching time revised to six continuous event hours (of 50-minutes) in a day, which amounts to 5 hours per day. Previously, six continuous event hours a day was reported as 6 hours (of 60-minutes) per day. There was no change in legislation.

United States:

Data specifications on teaching time: Teachers are asked to report on teaching and working time during a “typical full week”. They are not instructed to exclude professional development activities, so days for professional development may be included in the estimates. It is uncertain whether teachers are excluding student examination days from the reported teaching and working time.

Notes on methodology: Data on teaching and working time are based on the National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) which is a nationally representative sample survey of public school teachers in the United States.

The number of teaching hours includes the number of hours teachers deliver instruction during a typical full week (of the hours they are contracted to work). These are self-reported by teachers.

Total working time is no longer reported. Up until the 2019 edition, the reported number of total working hours included hours spent before, after, during the school day and on the weekends. These were teacher self-reported hours spent working and not specified in legal documents. Due to the nature of the survey item, it is considered not comparable to data from other countries.

Notes on interpretation: The United States is a federal country and states and local jurisdictions are responsible for setting the number of required school days. Typically, public schools meet for 180 days a year. However, the number of required school days varies by local jurisdiction and state. At primary and lower and upper secondary levels, school is typically held 5 days a week for full days.

Data from previous edition of Education at a Glance referred to teachers' tasks and responsibilities considered as criteria to define their salary, while data for the 2018 edition only refers to tasks and activities required to teachers, with no mention to their influence on salaries. Since 2019 edition, Tables D4.4 and D4.5 now incorporates existence of teaching time reduction and/or financial compensation for tasks and responsibilities.

For further information on additional allowances and payments to teachers for performing certain responsibilities in the different countries listed in Table D4.5, see comments related to Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Australia:

Notes on interpretation: Information may vary from year to year based on the jurisdictions that provided input.

Primary school teachers are entitled to two hours of relief from face-to-face teaching per week. Secondary school teachers work a maximum of 28 by 40-minute classes per week (or time equivalent), and are on duty for the remainder of the day.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Full-time secondary school teachers can be required to take up to six alternate periods each term to cover the classes of other absent teachers.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Other tasks: Following tasks are mandatory for some teachers at the discretion of individual schools at all ISCED levels: graadcoördinator, voorzitter vakwerkgroep and beleidsondersteuning.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: This task belongs to the limited school-related assignments that a school may request a staff member. If this task is requested from the teacher, this task is integrated in the function description of the teacher.

Special tasks: Refer to the note in Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties.

Participation in professional development activities: Refer to the note in Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties.

Belgium (French Community):

Special tasks: Teachers may receive a financial compensation for training student teachers, but not for supporting other teachers.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Brazil:

Notes on interpretation: The responsibility for provision of formal public education in Brazil is shared by three administrative levels: federal (responsible for tertiary level), states (secondary) and local/municipal (pre-primary, primary and lower secondary). According to the National Education Law, these entities shall set up their educational systems in a collaborative way. Therefore, the fact that the different potential activities of teachers are mandatory or voluntary may vary depending on the organisation level. Each one of the more than 5 000 municipalities has their own autonomy to implement in their own way, but there is a general law giving general recommendation for educational system. This includes the following activities of teachers: teaching, individual planning or preparation of lessons and participation in professional development activities.

Canada:

Notes on methodology: The methodology for deciding on the Canada-level qualitative response uses two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response: (1) At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide the same response, and; (2) Reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

Notes on interpretation: Data reported are not necessarily representative of all of Canada, but only of the Canadian provinces and territories that took part in the data collection. For items left unanswered, there was not enough consensus amongst provinces and territories to develop a pan-Canadian response.

Colombia:

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: All the teaching positions go out to public contest, have defined functions and their salary is determined by national law. There are directive positions called coordinators, but these are not teachers and do not have teaching obligations. Teachers cannot assume management responsibilities.

Participation in professional development activities: Subnational entities establishes the Territorial Training Plan for Teachers and Teaching Directors (PTFD) in service, and the individual schools implement it specifically for their need at all levels of education.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new technologies in induction programmes: By Decree 1567 of 1998, the National Training System and the Stimuli System for public employees are created, where it is established that every public institution must create and implement induction programs. Although, there are no specifications regarding its length, conditions or components. In schools where this is implemented, normally teachers or school heads have a role as mentors. But it is voluntary at the discretion of individual teachers or school heads.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Costa Rica:

Individual planning or preparation of lessons either at school or elsewhere: In secondary level, teaching time is reduced when planning and teaching students with special needs.

Marking/correcting of student work: In secondary level, providing feedback in the classroom reduces teaching time.

General administrative work: In pre-primary and primary level, this task can be mandatory if requested by the school principal (as duties related to the job) and teaching time is reduced to complete documents. There should be a day to complete paper work at the end of each term. The reduced teaching time varies depending on school and teacher, but there is no available data to estimate the extent. For secondary level teachers, they receive financial compensation when they have assigned administrative work like sending parent reports, reporting on advances of committees and commissions, and organising activities.

Communication and co-operation with parents or guardians: In secondary level, sending parent reports and meeting with parents to give grade reports and disciplinary actions for misconduct reduce teaching time. Teaching time can be reduced for four hours in a period of three months (2 lessons per term).

Supervision of students during breaks: In pre-primary and primary level, English teachers do not have classroom and they use the time of recess to move from one room to another, carry many materials, start pasting things and test sound if are using technology to take advantage of time.

Team work and dialogue with colleagues at school or elsewhere: At all levels of education, teaching time is reduced because most of the time they cannot share with colleagues because they are busy when others are working. At secondary level, participating in organizing committees for fairs and festivals reduces teaching time. Time is distributed according to the event teacher participate in (e.g. fairs, sports events and festivals).

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Some teachers are assigned administrative tasks apart from teaching. They are paid for this.

Students counselling: In academic day schools, teaching time is not reduced because lessons for counselling are assigned and teachers are paid. However, in night schools, there are no lessons assigned for this purpose, so teaching time could be reduced. Data on reduced teaching time in night schools is not available.

Special tasks: At all levels of education, teachers are asked to help student teachers and new teachers. Teaching time is reduced depending on the activity in which teachers participate in.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Mentoring is a project to be carried out in 2020. Five mentoring lessons per week will be proposed (3.5 hours per week).

Participation in professional development activities: For pre-primary and primary school teachers, Professional Development Institute (IDP) provide the financial support for hiring experts. This offers teachers, who want to grow as a professional, possibility to enrol in online courses while no teaching time is reduced. There should be a virtual platform with extensive courses where teachers can choose the ones they want to be upgraded. Secondary school teachers get financial compensation every time they finish courses that are organised, certified or recognised by the Ministry of Public Education (MEP). For all levels of education, teaching time is reduced depending on the permanent professional development processes (a training can be 8 hours or 40 hours).

Czech Republic:

Notes on interpretation: For teaching-related activities, the legislation either sets the obligation to all teachers, or assigns the responsibilities to school head. When assigned to the school head, the obligation for teachers is set in other official documents (mainly the Criteria for Evaluation). For other responsibilities (participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties, students counselling, special tasks and participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes), the school head can entrust some teachers with given responsibilities or position, but teachers are not obliged to accept. But class teacher responsibility can be ordered.

Individual planning or preparation of lessons either at school or elsewhere: Planning and preparation of lessons is included among the criteria defined for external school evaluation by the Czech School Inspectorate (see Criteria for Evaluation). The criterion 4.1 states that: "Teachers systematically think about and prepare teaching in accordance with the knowledge, skills and attitude goals defined in the school's curricular documents, and in accordance with the needs of students.".

Marking/correcting of student work: Correcting of student work is included among the criteria defined for external school evaluation by the Czech School Inspectorate (see Criteria for Evaluation). The criterion 4.3 states that: "Teachers systematically monitor the educational progress of each student and regularly provide students with effective feedback on their work."

General administrative work: Schools are obliged to keep documentation required by law. Related records and documentation provided by individual teachers are prerequisite for this duty. General administrative work is also a prerequisite for monitoring and evaluation of students´ learning progress (for example criterion 5.4: "The school effectively evaluates the success of students during and completing their education at all levels of management of the pedagogical process, the school is able to document the processes and results of this evaluation.", see Criteria for Evaluation), and for suitable support measures taking into account the individual students´ characteristics.

Communication and co-operation with parents or guardians: According to the Education Act, teachers are obliged to provide information related to education and training to pupils, students, parents and legal guardians. Communication and cooperation with parents or guardians are also included among the criteria for school evaluation set by the Czech School Inspectorate, for example criterion 3.2: "Teachers consistently apply a friendly, respectful approach when communicating with students, parents and colleagues.".

Supervision of students during breaks: According to the Education Act, the school head is responsible for ensuring the supervision of students. The Work Rules stipulates that teachers perform the supervision during breaks according to the "timetable of supervision". Furthermore, the Act on Educational Staff requires teachers to be present at school during the time set in the timetable.

Team work and dialogue with colleagues at school or elsewhere: According to the Education Act, the school head establishes the Pedagogical Council whose members are all pedagogical staff. Furthermore, the Labour Code states that all employees are obliged to cooperate with colleagues. The teamwork is also one of the criteria for school evaluation set by the Czech School Inspectorate, criterion 3.3: "Teachers actively cooperate and provide mutual support and feedback..." (see Criteria for Evaluation).

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: The school head may entrust the teacher (with his/her consent) to lead other employees. According to the Government Regulation, the teaching time is reduced for deputy school heads depending on the size of a school. It is not reduced for other management staff.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: According to the Act on Education Staff, the school head can order the teachers to teach up to 4 lessons above the stipulated number of teaching hours. With the consent of the teacher, they can arrange even more teaching hours.

Student counselling: The Education Act guarantees parents/students the right to counselling services provided by school. At nursery schools, the positions of school counsellor and/or school prevention specialist are generally not established. The organisation of counselling services is upon the responsibility of the school head. In primary and secondary education, the school head is obliged to ensure guidance and counselling services by teachers with specific training - the school counsellor (výchovný poradce) and school prevention specialist (školní metodik prevence). Their tasks are defined by the Decree on Guidance and Counselling in Education.

In primary and general programmes of secondary education, the extent of weekly direct teaching activity of teachers who perform the function of a school adviser is reduced by 1 to 5 lessons (of 45 minutes) a week, depending on the school size. For the school prevention specialist, the teaching time is not reduced.

Class teacher/form teacher: The position of the class teacher is not defined by the law. Nevertheless, the Government Regulation stipulates special allowance for class teachers. Even if the regulation does not specify the educational levels, the position is generally established only at primary and secondary level.

Participation in professional development activities: Continuing professional development (CPD) is a professional duty of teachers embedded in the Czech legislation. Teachers’ professional development activities are organised in accordance with the CPD plan. Completing the plan of CPD for teachers is within the autonomy of the school/school head. When setting the plan it is necessary to take into account the teachers’ interests, the school’s needs and its budget. The CPD is generally organised during the working time and the teachers thus receive regular salary. They can also take up to 12 days of self-study leave, preferably during the school holidays (school closure), and compensated at the same level as regular salary. Achieving some special qualifications in further education enables a teacher to perform specialised activities where allowances can be provided. See Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3 on allowances related to successful completion of (continuing) professional development activities.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Denmark:

Notes on interpretation: The basic conditions of service for teachers are regulated by collective agreements between the unions and national authorities for employers (the Ministry of Finance (Minister for Public Sector Innovation) and Local Governments Denmark (KL)). The individual school head determines the duties to be handled by the teachers, e.g. to decide on the number of classes to teach, number of hours for teaching, extra duties to take care of etc. Decisions like these are typical taken in dialogue with the teachers, but the competence to decide is at the school head.

The collective agreement does not specifically state that teachers have to teach, but it is an implied expectation in the Danish school system, that the teachers have teaching roles. This also applies to preparation time, where it is expected that the teachers prepare for lessons. There exists some variation between schools, because it is decided on a local level how much each teacher has to teach and how many extra tasks/activities that the teacher has to fulfil. In practice, most teachers at most schools will probably carry out the same tasks. Therefore, the reported data indicates the typical behaviour of teachers.

Teaching: In pre-primary education (ISCED 02), the concept of formal teaching does not apply. However, it is mandatory for all teachers to actively support the development of children aged 3-5. In primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 1 and 24), teachers receive a regular allowance for teaching. The national collective agreement regulates the hourly payment to teacher teaching more than 750 hours per year (835 hours per year for grade 1 (børnehaveklasseleder)).

Individual planning or preparation of lessons either at school or elsewhere: In pre-primary education (ISCED 02), all ECEC facilities develop a pedagogical curriculum based on a national curriculum framework. It is typically required by pedagogues to plan the day for the children, but teaching lessons are not prepared as there is no teaching in an academic sense. Instead, teachers (pedagogues) work to actively support the development and learning of the children. In upper secondary education, the individual principal/director has the right to manage the workforce in accordance with the collective bargaining agreements. This includes the teachers working time and how it is used.

Marking/correcting of student work: Children at pre-primary level (ISCED 02) do not hand in work/assignments for the pedagogues to correct, and likewise, it is not a part of the job for pedagogues to correct student work. As stated earlier, the focus is on development and learning. In primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 1 and 24), it is normal that teachers correct the assignments/work that students hand in, but in grade 0 (children aged 6), it is not typical.

General administrative work: In pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 02, 1 and 24), working as pedagogical staff involves administrative work.

Communication and co-operation with parents or guardians: In pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 02, 1 and 24), the pedagogical curriculum requires to have a close cooperation and communication with parents. In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), teachers only have contact with parents or guardians when there is a specific reason or need for it. It is fairly rare in practice that teachers have regular contact with the students' parents or guardians.

Supervision of students during breaks: In pre-primary education (ISCED 02), there is no concept of lessons as well as breaks. Thus, pedagogues supervise the children for most of the time. In primary and lower secondary schools (ISCED 1 and 24), teachers perform this task at the discretion of individual schools.

Team work and dialogue with colleagues at school or elsewhere: In all levels of education, it is widely practiced and very common for schools in Denmark to organise the work in teams. Communication between colleagues is natural. In pre-primary education (ISCED 02), each municipality has the freedom to organise their ECEC facilities in ways that meet local needs. In primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 1 and 24), there is still a variation at school level in the amount of communication and team work, but a lot of development is being done in this area. In addition, a special compensation can be reached when teachers work in autonomous work teams, typically when teachers plan their own schedules in teams.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), reduction of teaching time depends on local agreements.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Denmark has no regulated teaching time. In primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 1 and 24), nevertheless, the national collective agreement regulates that a teacher teaching more than 750 hours per year (835 hours per year for grade 1 (børnehaveklasseleder)) receives an extra payment of 125.18 DKK per hour.

Students counselling: This is not applicable to the pedagogues in charge of ECEC children of ages 3-5 (ISCED 02), as the role of the pedagogue is to naturally develop the children. In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), reduction of teaching time depends on local agreements.

Engaging in extracurricular activities: This responsibility is not typically carried out by schools. Instead, it is local sports/game/drama-clubs/organisations that organise these events/activities.

Special tasks: In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), reduction of teaching time depends on local agreements.

Class teacher/form teacher: The concept of 'class teachers' is not relevant in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).

Participation in professional development activities: In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), reduction of teaching time depends on local agreements.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on interpretation: The activities reported “mandatory” or “school req.” in task requirement columns indicate that the headteacher/employer has discretion over what duties teachers may/must perform and at what times and what places in a teacher’s 1 265 hours of directed time under either the section on professional responsibilities of a teacher or overarching rights conferred to teachers stipulated in the School Teachers’ Pay and Conditions Document (STPCD).

The activities/responsibilities reported ‘Yes (always)’ for reduction in teaching time are stipulated in the STPCD under the section on overarching rights conferred to teachers. Examples include the activities and responsibilities that are included under Preparation and Assessment (PPA) and training time. For all other activities and responsibilities, it is at the discretion of the headteacher/employer what duties teachers may/must perform and at what times and what places in a teacher’s 1 265 hours of directed time (i.e. how many hours are for teaching and for other duties).

The activities/responsibilities reported ‘Yes (sometimes)’ for financial compensation are stipulated in the STPCD under the section on allowances and other payments for classroom teachers. Also, in England pay is related to performance, but within ranges set out in the STPCD. It is at the discretion of the relevant body in schools to determine whether any of the activities/responsibilities listed are factors schools consider when assessing performance.

More details on the framework for pay and conditions (STPCD 2020) are presented below. The statutory requirements in the STPCD (2019) apply to public schools only.

Teachers - professional responsibilities (STPCD, pages 46-47): The duties a teacher may be required to undertake are as follows:

  • Teaching: Plan and teach lessons to the classes they are assigned to teach within the context of the school’s plans, curriculum and schemes of work; Assess, monitor, record and report on the learning needs, progress and achievements of assigned pupils; Participate in arrangements for preparing pupils for external examinations.

  • Whole school organisation, strategy and development: Contribute to the development, implementation and evaluation of the school’s policies, practices and procedures in such a way as to support the school’s values and vision; Work with others on curriculum and/or pupil development to secure co-ordinated outcomes; Supervise and so far as practicable teach any pupils where the person timetabled to take the class is not available to do so.

  • Health, safety and discipline: Promote the safety and well-being of pupils; Maintain good order and discipline among pupils.

  • Management of staff and resources: Direct and supervise support staff assigned to them and, where appropriate, other teachers; Contribute to the recruitment, selection, appointment and professional development of other teachers and support staff; Deploy resources delegated to them.

  • Professional development: Participate in arrangements for the appraisal and review of their own performance and, where appropriate, that of other teachers and support staff; Participate in arrangements for their own further training and professional development and, where appropriate, that of other teachers and support staff including induction.

  • Communication: Communicate with pupils, parents and carers.

  • Working with colleagues and other relevant professionals: Collaborate and work with colleagues and other relevant professionals within and beyond the school.

The overarching rights conferred to teachers (STPCD, page 50):

  • Guaranteed planning and preparation time: All teachers who participate in the teaching of pupils are entitled to reasonable periods of Planning, Preparation and Assessment (PPA) time as part of their 1 265 specified working hours. PPA time must be provided in units of not less than half an hour during the school’s timetabled teaching week and must amount to not less than 10% of the teacher’s timetabled teaching time. A teacher must not be required to carry out any other duties during the teacher’s PPA time.

  • Management time: A teacher with leadership or management responsibilities is entitled, so far as is reasonably practicable, to a reasonable amount of time during school sessions for the purpose of discharging those responsibilities.

  • Administration and external examinations: A teacher should not be required routinely to participate in any administrative, clerical and organisational tasks which do not call for the exercise of a teacher’s professional skills and judgment, including those associated with the arrangements for preparing pupils for external examinations such as invigilation.

  • Training and development: All teachers in the school should have access to advice, training and developmental opportunities appropriate to their needs, including needs identified in objectives or in appraisal statements or reports.

Allowances and other payments for classroom teachers (STPCD, pages 26-31):

  • Teaching and learning responsibility (TLR) payments: The relevant body may award a TLR payment to a classroom teacher for undertaking a sustained additional responsibility, for the purpose of ensuring the continued delivery of high-quality teaching and learning and for which the teacher is made accountable. TLR 1 (includes line management): the annual value of a TLR1 must be no less than GBP 8 291 and no greater than GBP 14 030; TLR 2: the annual value of a TLR2 must be no less than GBP 2 873 and no greater than GBP 7 017; TLR 3 (fixed term): The annual value of an individual TLR3 must be no less than GBP 571 and no greater than GBP 2 833.

  • Additional payments: The relevant body may make such payments as it sees fit to a teacher, other than a headteacher, in respect of: continuing professional development undertaken outside the school day/activities relating to the provision of initial teacher training as part of the ordinary conduct of the school/participation in out-of-school hours learning activity agreed between the teacher and the headteacher/additional responsibilities and activities due to, or in respect of, the provision of services relating to the raising of educational standards to one or more additional schools.

Pay progression linked to performance (STPCD, page 24): The relevant body must consider annually whether or not to increase the salary of teachers who have completed a year of employment since the previous annual pay determination and, if so, to what salary within the relevant pay ranges set out in paragraphs 13, 14, 16 and 17.

The statutory requirements in the STPCD (2020) apply to public schools only.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Estonia:

Notes on interpretation: Specific circumstances where teaching time is reduced and/or financial compensation is given indicate that such decision is made at school-level.

Marking/correcting of student work: This task is not performed at pre-primary level.

Other tasks: Examples of voluntary tasks of teachers performed at the discretion of individual teachers include supporting students’ individual learning needs and designing learning environment. It applies to all levels of education. There is no reduction in teaching time nor financial compensation.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: For vocational programmes, this includes leading teachers.

Students counselling: This task at pre-primary level refers to developmental conversation with a student, parents and teacher.

Class teacher/form teacher: There are no class teachers in vocational programmes. Instead, there may be teachers guiding some groups of students, usually these are teachers whose working load as vocational education teachers is already smaller and coaching a group enables them to get the full position at school. As a rule, it does not mean that their workload as a subject teacher has been diminished.

Other responsibilities: Teachers are required at the discretion of individual schools to develop digital skills. Teaching time can be reduced for teachers under specific circumstances in vocational programmes at secondary level. Financial compensation applies under specific circumstances at all levels of education.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Finland:

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: The reduction of statutory teaching time varies from 1-16 weekly lessons depending on the size of the school. If the teaching time is not reduced, the corresponding financial compensation is defined in the Collective agreement.

Class teacher/form teacher: For upper secondary level, the definition of the compensation is decided at local/school level.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

France:

Notes on interpretation: The information entered concerns all permanent teaching staff in pre-primary, primary and secondary education in the public sector, all categories combined.

In accordance with Decree No. 2014-940 of 20 August 2014 (on the service obligations and missions of teaching staff working in a public secondary education establishment) and Decree No. 93-55 of 15 January 1993 (instituting a pupil monitoring and guidance allowance for secondary education teaching staff), preparation work and personal research necessary for the teaching hours, help and follow-up of the students' personal work, their evaluation, advice to students in the choice of their orientation project, relations with parents, work within teaching teams are within the scope of the fixed part of ISOE (indemnité de suivi et d'orientation des élèves).

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Teachers can have specific missions within the school or within the académie (regional deconcentrated education authority) such as the coordination of a subject or the coordination of cycle d'enseignement (teaching cycle grouping several grades). At pre-primary and primary levels, teachers who have school management responsibilities (pedagogical steering, school functioning) have their teaching time partially or totally reduced. For the 2019-2020 school year, the reduction in teaching time corresponds to 11 402 full-time equivalents (FTE). Financial compensation (indemnité pour mission particulière) applies for ISCED 02 to 35. However, teachers of ISCED 0 and 1 who receive a bonus for school direction and with at least 50% reduction in teaching time, are considered as "school heads" in this data collection.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: In secondary education (ISCED 24, 34 and 35), the first two overtime hours (heure supplémentaire année; HSA) is "mandatory" (a teacher cannot refuse these hours). The other supplementary overtime hours are at the discretion of individual teachers. At pre-primary and primary levels, only substitute teachers (titulaires sur zone de remplacement (TZR) or enseignants exerçant en service partagé) can, under specific circumstances, teach more than 24 hours during one week but have to teach less hours on another week to balance (article 3-2 du décret n° 2008-775 (link)).

Students counselling: At primary level, all teachers receive a fixed annual salary bonus named ISAE (Indemnité de suivi et d'accompagnement des élèves). At secondary level, teachers guide pupils in their academic and career choice. This responsibility is included in the fixed part of the ISOE allowance (Indemnité de suivi et d'orientation des élèves). Moreover, "professeur principal" (class teacher; provided with the flexible part of the ISOE) could take on this responsibility at their own discretion.

Engaging in extracurricular activities (e.g. homework clubs, sports and drama clubs, summer school): The hours devoted to the school sport clubs (3 hours per week), within the framework of the Union Nationale du Sport Scolaire (UNSS), are taken into account in the obligations of service for physical education teachers. At ISCED 02 and ISCED 1, extracurricular activities managed by teachers are payed between 22 to 27 € / hour (maximum rates).

Special tasks: Teachers who provide training are entirely or partially relieved of their teaching time. At pre-primary and primary levels (ISCED 02 and 1), the reduction of teaching time for the "professeurs des écoles maîtres formateurs" represents 943 FTE. At secondary levels (ISCED 2 and 3), the "professeurs formateurs académiques" have their teaching time reduced from 3 to 6 hours per week; this reduction of teaching time represents 189 FTE.

Class teacher/form teacher: In secondary education, class teachers do not have a reduction of their teaching time. Instead, they receive higher ISOE allowance (indemnité de suivi et d'orientation des élèves) as the flexible part of the ISOE allowance is only given to class teachers (professeur principal).

Participation in professional development activities: Some professional development activities are not mandatory. On the initiative of the competent authority or after its agreement, teaching staff benefits from professional training actions during the periods of vacancy of the classes, for 5 days per year maximum (by Decree n° 2019-935 from 6 September 2019 (link)).

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Germany:

Notes on interpretation: For the performance of the other tasks and responsibilities, the individual teaching obligation can be reduced by so-called credit hours (Anrechnungsstunden). The specific circumstances under which credit hours may be granted are laid down in regulations of the Länder and vary. As a rule, the school principal decides on the allocation of credit hours. The principal may also have only a limited number of credit hours at her/his disposal. It is therefore not possible to provide information on the number of credit hours allocated.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: In some Länder under certain circumstances, allowances may be provided for certain extra responsibilities, such as service on committees or staff bodies. This is mainly relevant for secondary schools with a huge number of students.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Individual Länder have recently introduced financial compensation for teaching more hours than required. In the majority of Länder, however, this is not the case.

Greece:

Notes on interpretation: Tasks with no financial compensation refer to mandatory tasks that are compensated by the base salary of teachers.

Marking/correcting of student work: Pre-primary teachers use portfolios in order to assess their pupils. They do not give marks, and the assessment is based on descriptive comments provided to parents orally or by written reports.

Supervision of students during breaks: Pre-primary and primary teachers are required to supervise the class they teach from schoolyard to classrooms and from classrooms to schoolyard. (Presidential Decree 79/2017 (article 12, par. 9)).

Other teaching-related tasks: Tasks below are not required tasks of pre-primary and primary school teachers, but mandatory for secondary school teachers. No teaching time reduction and financial compensation is granted for these tasks.

  1. 1. Provision of examination material, examination and marking of the students’ written or oral exams at the end of the instruction year or before the beginning of a new instruction year.

  2. 2. Provision of Summer Service: Secondary School teachers are obliged to work as administrative staff in shifts for the one day per week that the school opens during summer holidays. Depending on the size of the school, teachers may provide summer service during their holidays for one, two or more days.

Participation in professional development activities: It is mandatory for professional development activities that are designed/offered by School counsellors, the school or the Directorate of Education or the Ministry of Education. However, there are also calls for professional development programmes that teachers are advised to take but they can apply for them on a voluntary basis, and they can participate in them if they are accepted. Usually there are more teachers' applications than places offered in these programmes.

Other responsibilities: Teachers who do not complete their instruction time are required to participate in the administration of the school by taking part in the school’s teachers’ board and other related committees where applicable. An extensive list of duties of the teachers’ board can be found in Ministerial Decision 353.1/324/105657/Δ1/2002 (G.G. 1340/B/2002), article 39. Teaching time reduction and financial compensation does not exist.

Financial compensation on Table D4.3b: See notes on Table D3.7.

Hungary:

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: For example, reduction of deputy school heads' teaching time varies depending on the size of school and level of education. (Act CXC of 2011 on public education (Annex 5)).

For deputy school heads in kindergartens (ISCED 02), out of the 32 hours of teaching time for classroom teachers, 6 hours are deducted in kindergartens with less than 50 children, 8 hours in kindergartens with 50-199 children, 10 hours in kindergartens with 200-449 children and up to 12 hours in kindergartens with at least 450 children.

In basic schools and upper secondary schools (ISCED 1 to 3), deputy school heads are designated with a smaller number of classes. For deputy school heads, out of 22 to 26 classes (of 45-minutes) for classroom teachers, 10 classes are required in schools with less than 50 students, 8 classes in schools with 50-199 students, 6 classes in schools with 200-449 students and 4 classes in schools with at least 450 students.

Teaching more classes or hours than required: If a teacher takes the extra role of a school inspector expert or pedagogical advisor, the obligatory number of teaching classes (22 to 26 classes) is reduced to no more than 18 classes. For teachers in kindergarten, it is reduced from 32 to no more than 25.

Class teacher/form teacher: Reduction of 2 classes for form teachers.

Participation in professional development activities: The school has to organise the participation of a teacher in continuing professional development activities, which is mostly in working time. There is no stipulated number of teaching classes for reduction. This is school autonomy.

Ireland:

Notes on interpretation: Data is not collected for pre-primary level.

Salary scales of full-time classroom teachers implicitly require teachers to perform the following tasks: teaching; planning and preparation of lessons; assessment and correction of students’ work; administrative work; communication with parents, and; team work, collaborative school planning and discussion.

Supervision of students during breaks: This task is a part of the work of full-time teachers. The conditions relating to supervision for teachers at primary level (ISCED 1) are set out in Department Circular 33/2013 and at secondary level (ISCED 24 and 34) in Department Circular 0006/2014. From the beginning of the 2013/14 school year, each teacher at primary and general lower and upper secondary levels (ISCED 1, 24 and 34) has been required to provide 43 hours supervision per annum to include substitution cover for particular teacher absences (e.g. uncertified sick leave absences). At primary level, the provision of this 43 hours supervision is part of the non-teaching work required of all teachers during school hours. At general secondary education (ISCED 24 and 34), the provision of this 43 hours supervision is the only non-teaching work that is required of all full-time teachers during school hours. At secondary level, there was an opt out arrangement as per Circular 0006/2014 for teachers not to participate in the supervision of students which involved a reduction in their salary.

Team work and dialogue with colleagues at school or elsewhere: Collaborative work in School Self-Evaluation is a requirement for all teachers.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: School management may assign management duties in addition to teaching duties to individual teachers who have been appointed to hold special duties posts. The arrangements for making appointments to posts of responsibility at primary level (ISCED 1) are outlined in Circular 0070/2018 and at secondary level (ISCED 2 and 3) in Circular Letter 0003/2018.

Class teacher/form teacher: At primary level (ISCED 1), it is the norm for school management to assign teachers to assume full responsibility for individual classes as part of their normal teaching duties. At secondary level (ISCED 24 and 34), a school may assign Year Head duties to a teacher who has been assigned additional special duties or management duties.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Droichead (The Integrated Professional Induction Framework) was introduced into all primary and post-primary schools on a phased basis from 2016 to 2020.

During 2019/20, the management of each special education school, mainstream primary schools with administrative principals and 7 teachers or more, and post-primary schools with 200 students or more were required to establish a Professional Support Team (PST) of mentors for newly qualified teachers working in their school. Teachers in other mainstream schools were trained and assigned as mentors to newly qualified teachers on an optional basis and at the discretion of school management as part of the National Induction Programme for Newly Qualified teachers. Mandatory participation in the mentoring of newly qualified teachers has been extended to all schools in 2020/21. As schools are included in the school-based induction programme, it will be at the discretion of senior management in each school to assign individual teachers to the PST in the role of mentors. However, participation by individual teachers in this role is on a voluntary basis. The principal may involve teachers from outside the school if it is not possible to form the team from within the school staff.

Supporting a newly qualified teacher during Droichead is always a collaborative process, although the roles and responsibilities of PST members may vary in different school contexts, and are therefore agreed before the Droichead process commences.

Participation in professional development activities: Apart from continuing professional development (CPD) provided at national level where schools have to close schools to facilitate attendance by staff, CPD is not mandatory. There may be a reduction of teaching time as there are circumstances (e.g. programmes of national CPD) where schools may have to close to facilitate attendance by all staff or a large number of staff at the training.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Israel:

Notes on methodology: The New Horizon Reform and the Oz Letmura Reform resulted in various changes in working hours and non-teaching hours and implemented for majority of teachers. For more information on the Reforms, refer to Notes on methodology on Table D4.1.

Teaching: Teachers in pre-primary education do not teach in front of children, as life-long learning (e.g. playing, music etc.) is considered important.

General administrative work: Primary and secondary teachers perform this duty during working hours at school.

Communication and co-operation with parents or guardians: It includes parents’ meetings, preparation of year-end parties and ceremonies for the holidays (18 hours per semi-annual).

Supervision of students during breaks: Pre-primary teacher must be with the children all day long.

Teamwork and dialogues with colleagues at school or elsewhere: Primary and secondary teachers perform this duty during working hours at school.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Vice-principals must teach and teaching time is not reduced for this task.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: It is subject to the allocation of hours for the school and to the principal’s decision. The obligation for the teacher is up to one full-time equivalent.

Students counselling: Master of Arts is the minimal condition for the consultant role and have to be consultant in his formation. For teachers performing this responsibility, they are committed to teach one-third of full-time equivalent with remuneration. The principal can ask teachers to engage in student counselling, and in this case, teachers will not receive a financial compensation.

Engaging in extracurricular activities: With authorization of the Ministry of Education, a teacher can participate, at his own discretion, in activities for young pupils in the summer vacation (e.g. summer schools) or in the afternoon after school (for pupils in the first two grades only). However, the teacher takes this responsibility separately from his regular role as a classroom teacher. The teacher will be paid for this additional work by the local authority and not by the Ministry of Education.

Special tasks: Ministry of Education authorises teachers to guide qualified teachers. The principal chooses trainers for training and mentoring student teachers, where remuneration is provided.

Class teacher/form teacher: Teacher in lower secondary level can teach 2 hours a week less from the account of teaching hours to small groups of students. In the upper secondary education, the reduction of teaching time is about 3 hours per week, from the teaching time in front of the class.

Participation in professional development activities: There is a high awareness of the importance of professional development, taking considerable part in both reforms, the New Horizon and the Oz Letmura. Though professional development is not mandatory, majority of the teachers participate in the course to increase their salary (move to a higher salary level) by a substantial percentage or maybe move to a higher position.

These two reforms have a different effect on the teacher's professional development. In the New Horizon Reform (from kindergarten to grade 9) a teacher receives a professional promotion and an increase in his salary on the base of the hours of professional development he took part. In the Oz Letmura Reform (grades 10-12), the teacher is learning at school two hours a week as part of his professional activities and of his post. Moreover, the rest of the courses in which he participates is taken in the PISGA centres or in one of the universities. According to the number of hours, he will receive a "unit of courses", one of the maximum 18 “units” that he can receive during his career. A teacher is entitled to receive one "unit" a year.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Italy:

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Japan:

Notes on interpretation: College of Technology (course of the first to third grade) established by regional or local governments and Specialised Training College, Upper Secondary Course are excluded.

Marking/correcting of student work: Although these duties should normally be performed by teachers, promoting the assignment of teacher work to support staff (etc. for auxiliary duties) is used to alleviate the burden of teachers.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: There is no appropriate option to express Japanese circumstance for existence of financial compensation.

Korea:

Notes on interpretation: For pre-primary level, only public kindergarten (governed by the Ministry of Education) is included. Public childcare (governed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare) is not included as there is no data available.

General administrative work: Teachers assigned to the Educational Administration Task Force occasionally receive a reduction in teaching time to allow them to support their schools’ administrative affairs. This reduction in teaching time is at the discretion of individual schools.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Teaching time of managerial teachers may be reduced at the discretion of individual schools, depending on the school’s circumstances.

Students counselling: Teaching time is typically reduced by 10 periods or less per week for teachers in charge of career guidance and college admission counselling. For teachers in charge of preventing school violence and delinquency, teaching time is reduced at the discretion of individual schools.

Special tasks: Master teachers, who are in charge of mentoring, providing professional development and designing curriculum for other teachers, receive a 50% reduction in teaching time compared to general teachers with financial compensation for research expenses.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: See note on Master teachers in Special tasks.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Latvia:

Marking/correcting of student work: At pre-primary level, there is no written marking/correcting of works but a teacher expresses appraisal (appreciation) of children work by words. It is teacher's responsibility according to the pre-school education guidelines. Parents or guardians of a child receive written information from a pre-primary institution on achievements of the child after completion of pre-school education programme.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Methodology work at school, project management and other activities related to the development of school are part of teacher's workload. However, if a teacher performs duties of head of department, he or she receives a salary for this administrative work. Working in full-time administrative position, teacher may have up to 7 additional teaching hours.

Participation in professional development activities: Participation in 36 hours of compulsory professional development activities in three-year period is a teacher’s duty and is a part of statutory salary. However, there may be financial compensation to cover necessary expenses to attend these activities (e.g. travel expenses to the capital (Riga)).

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Lithuania:

Notes on interpretation: “No financial compensation” indicate that the task is included in the statutory description and does not give extra payment.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Mexico:

General administrative work: Financial compensation is applied at pre-primary, primary and lower secondary (general programmes) levels to achieve a better, fixed salary level.

Netherlands:

Notes on interpretation: Every year before the summer break, employer (school head) makes agreements with individual teachers about the working days, the number of teaching hours or lesson-related and/or treatment tasks, professional development and other tasks.

In the vocational programmes of upper secondary education (MBO), education personnel mainly work in teams. The members make mutual agreements about their work.

Data is based on tasks and responsibilities of a classroom teacher, not a teacher in general.

Supervision of students during breaks: At upper secondary vocational programmes, breaks are responsibilities of students. For other level of education, it is at the discretion of individual schools to decide on task requirement.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

New Zealand:

Notes on interpretation: The New Zealand Education System does not have an explicit lower secondary level (ISCED 24) and all secondary level educational programmes are general. So for descriptive responses, both the responses for primary (ISCED 1) and upper secondary (ISCED 34) levels have been provided. Where there are two responses for lower secondary level, Years 7-8 of lower secondary level (ISCED 24) follow primary level (ISCED 1) and Years 9-10 of lower secondary level follow upper secondary level (ISCED 34).

Data on reduction in teaching time and existence of financial compensation cannot be provided at a national level as Ministry of Education (MOE) does not employ teachers. Schools are responsible for employing and deploying teachers and are not required to report to MOE.

Norway:

Communication and co-operation with parents or guardians: It is the task of the class teacher/form teacher. See notes on Class teacher/form teacher.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Depending on the extent of the additional responsibility, teachers may have a reduction in teaching time and an additional compensation at the discretion of the school head.

Students counselling: Teachers who have this task/responsibility, teaches one hour less each week.

Special tasks: Teacher who are responsible of training teacher students, gets a reduction in teaching time and an additional compensation when the student teachers are practice teachers (under supervision).

Class teacher/form teacher: Teachers who have this task, teach one hour less each week.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Depending on the extent of the additional responsibility, teachers may have a reduction in teaching time and an additional compensation at the discretion of the school head.

Participation in professional development activities: Teachers may apply to participate in professional development activities, which result in a reduction of teaching time for one year, and which may result in an increase in the base salary.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Poland:

Notes on interpretation: Due to the educational reform, since the school year 2019/20, primary education (ISCED 1) includes 4 years of primary school (grades 1-4) and lower secondary education (ISCED 24) includes another 4 years of primary school (grades 5-8). For more information on the education reform, refer to Notes on interpretation on Table 4.1.

Supervision of students during breaks: There is no break in the kindergarten activities. The teacher exercises constant supervision over children.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Portugal:

Notes on interpretation: All tasks in the second cycle of ISCED 1 are identical to those of ISCED 2 and 3.

Bonuses are given on a monthly basis and they usually last for the whole school year.

Individual planning or preparation of lessons either at school or elsewhere: Teachers in ISCED 0 who teach children aged 5 years old, coordinate with the teachers of the first grade in ISCED 1.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Deputy heads, heads of curricular departments, class coordinators and teachers with other management responsibilities have their teaching time reduced during the time they hold the position. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract (e.g. overtime compensation): This situation occurs mostly due to difficulties in matching the individual teaching load and the curriculum hours of the classes assigned to the teacher. Teachers are paid overtime work for the hours they teach beyond the statutorily established. The cost per hour depends on the position in the teaching career and the number of overtime hours (25% for the first hour and 50% for the second or more hours).

Students counselling: Teachers who teach primary education or grades 1-4 of primary education are not required to do students counselling. Teachers responsible for "specific tutorial support" to students (grades 5-6 of primary education; lower secondary education) have their teaching time reduced. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Engaging in extracurricular activities: Teachers running extra-curricular activities may receive a reduction in teaching time. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Special tasks: This task is performed at the discretion of individual schools at all levels of education from pre-primary to upper secondary. This task is done with the accordance of the teacher. Teacher trainers receive a reduction in teaching time, during the time they hold the task. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Class teacher/form teacher: Class tutors' coordinators and class tutors have their teaching time reduced during the time they hold the position. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: This task is performed at the discretion of individual schools at all levels of education from pre-primary to upper secondary. This task is done with the accordance of the teacher. Teachers responsible for mentoring/induction programmes have their teaching time reduced during the time they hold the position. The school board defines the criteria to distribute the amount of time statutorily defined among these and other additional tasks and responsibilities.

Participation in professional development activities: It is not compulsory, but in order to progress in the career, teachers have to complete a certain amount of professional development credits, awarded by means of in-service training. On average, it is required to do 25 hours of in-service training per year. In case of non-successful completion, the teacher will not progress in the teaching career and the salary will not increase.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Scotland (United Kingdom):

Communication and co-operation with parents or guardians: Communication with parents does not reduce teaching time, but is built into teachers’ working time agreements. This time is in addition to their pupil contact time, but within their overall contractual hours. Scottish education authorities are placed under a legal requirement to involve parents via the Scottish Schools (Parental Involvement) Act 2006. Communication with parents is one of the aspects of involvement. In practice, head teachers and class teachers may discharge this responsibility on a day-to-day basis but the requirement is not placed directly on class teachers. Liaison with parents is part of a teacher’s terms and conditions as set out in the “National Agreement - A Teaching Profession for the 21st Century” (link).

Slovenia:

Notes on interpretation: Working time of teachers is defined by the Organisation and Financing of Education Act (ZOFVI) and the Collective agreement for the education sector in the Republic of Slovenia. The workload of a teacher includes teaching and other forms of organised work with students, preparation of lessons, assessing and grading of student work, and other work necessary for implementing the education programme. The ZOFVI, as well as Kindergarten Act and other regulations specify mandatory tasks for teachers (if so assigned).

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), the following roles results in reduction of teaching time: secretary of the school committee for matura or leaving examination, coordinator of elective content or interest activities, pedagogical or sport coordinator in sport classes, organiser of school meals. Reduction of teaching time depends on the task and on the number of students/classes (from 0.5 to 16 lessons per week).

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: For primary and secondary levels, (ISCED 1, 2 and 3), the head teacher may assign a teacher extra weekly teaching time (additional teaching within full-time contract) but not for more than five lesson a week (not more than 38 weeks in school year) according to the Article 124 of the Organisation and Financing of Education Act. This is paid as Work performance from increased workload (refer to Indicator D3).

Class teacher/form teacher: For primary and secondary levels (ISCED 1, 24, 34 and 35), there is a reduction of one teaching hour per week in the first and in the final year and by 0.5 hours in all other years of basic and upper secondary education.

Other responsibilities: The Kindergarten Act specifies participation in the organisation of life and activities at a kindergarten that is in detail defined with the with its annual action plan in addition to other tasks for preschool teachers (ISCED 0). These are at the discretion of the individual schools and has no financial compensation.

The Organization and Financing of Education Act (Article 119) specifies among other tasks for teachers also: collecting and processing data related to performing educational and other work; maintaining study rooms, collections, school workshops, sports halls, playgrounds, gardens, etc.; organising cultural, sports and other generally beneficial and humanitarian activities to involve students; other duties and responsibilities specified in the annual work plan. These are mandatory for teachers in primary and secondary education (ISCED 1 to 3) and has no financial compensation nor reduction in teaching hours.

Membership in a subject testing committee for national assessment of knowledge in basic school (ISCED 1 and 24) is performed voluntarily at the discretion of individual teachers. Reduction in teaching time is possible.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Spain:

Notes on interpretation: The information provided is based on the general national and regional regulations to report an average of the different answers collected from education departments of all autonomous communities. Some notes are provided to explain possible differences among communities.

Supervision of students during breaks: At secondary level, it is a task required for some teachers at the discretion of individual schools.

Participation in school or other management in addition to teaching duties: Department Head position results in a reduction of teaching time of 2-3 hours depending on the autonomous community. There are other coordinator positions in schools, in some regions, that can also result in reduction of teaching and/or financial compensation: ICT coordinator, bilingual program coordinator, extracurricular activities coordinator, etc.

Department Head task at secondary level has financial compensation, but co-ordinator task at pre-primary and primary levels do not have financial compensation. There are also other co-ordinator positions in schools varying in the regions that can also result in reduction of teaching time and/or financial compensation (e.g. ICT coordinator, bilingual program coordinator, extracurricular activities coordinator etc.).

Teaching more classes or hours than required by full-time contract: Teaching extra hours in the year schedule has compensation. This compensation is reduction in time in school. There are some special activities (reinforce/support classes, health programs, compulsory training courses outside working hours, etc.) with out-of-contract teaching time and fixed regular additional payments. Teachers volunteer for these tasks.

Special tasks: Fixed compensations for the supply of extraordinary services in some Autonomous Communities (e.g. training and mentoring for the assessment and accreditation of teaching staff, creating of e-learning materials for the learning management platform, preparing and correcting test to obtain a specific degree, etc.).

Class teacher/form teacher: According with regulations, class teacher is a task that is mandatory if it is required for teachers. Time spent on class teacher task is part of the teaching time. In 10 over 17 autonomous communities this task has a specific financial compensation. In some communities, class teacher position is only paid to secondary teachers (ISCED 2 and 3).

Participation in mentoring programmes and/or supporting new teachers in induction programmes: Fixed compensations for the supply of extraordinary services in some Autonomous Communities (e.g. training and mentoring for the assessment and accreditation of teaching staff).

Participation in professional development activities: Teachers can voluntarily complete, at least, 100 hours dedicated to professional development every six years (sexenios) for accessing to the training salary compliment (i.e. about 17 hours per year). Also some regional legislations require teachers to participate in compulsory continuing professional development activities every year. Then it is expected that a teacher completes about 17 hours per year (100 hours in 6 years), but the real training time average has been calculated to be around 36.6 hours per year.

Other tasks and responsibilities: Supporting in school transport and educational attention to students in the school canteens (e.g. caring children in the school transport and during the school meals) is mandatory for some teachers at the discretion of individual schools at all levels of education. There is a fixed amount of financial compensation for this task.

Financial compensation on Table D4.5: See notes in Allowances for teachers of Indicator D3.

Sweden:

Notes on interpretation: Though collective agreement is made on a national level, it is interpreted and decided locally at the school-level. Therefore, it is not possible to determine if a performed task or responsibility leads to a reduction in teaching time or financial compensation.

There may be local agreements that differ from the information reported, especially in förskoleklassen (pre-school class), which is the last of the pre-primary school. The usual agreement for förskoleklassen is the same as the national agreement for the primary school.

Marking/correcting of student work: It does not apply for pre-primary level.

Students counselling: It does not apply for pre-primary level.

Switzerland:

Notes on methodology: The annual statutory working time of school heads is regulated by the states (canton) and may vary by state (similar to teachers). There is no nationally representative data available.

Türkiye:

Individual planning or preparation of lessons either at school or elsewhere: An additional one hour course fee (not exceeding 3 hours per week) for preparation and planning duties is paid to teachers working at every level and formal and non-formal education institutions affiliated to the Ministry, in return for each 10 hours of lessons which they actually teach for salary and additional course fee. (Item 11 of No. 2006/11350 Council of Ministers Decision of Ministry of National Education Administrators' and Teachers’ Lessons and Extra Lesson Hours).

Marking/correcting of student work: Teachers in pre-primary perform this task during teaching time because there is no official break time. In other levels of education, teachers can perform this task during teaching time or during the breaks.

General administrative work: This task is mandatory only for trainee teachers.

Students counselling: There are psychological, counselling and guidance services at every level of education.

Participation in professional development: The professional development activities are mandatory for all teachers at all level of education. Additional course fee is provided when teachers participate in the professional work (school seminars), for no more than two weeks, before and after the school year. However, teachers attend other professional development activities (e.g. in-service training, seminars, conferences, courses etc.) voluntarily without any financial compensation.

United States:

Notes on interpretation: Existence of reduction of teaching time and/or financial compensation is at the discretion of individual schools.

Data on actual average teaching hours, over the school year, in public institutions, are available in Table X3.D4.5 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

Professional development and student examination days should be excluded from actual teaching time of teachers. For notes on the reporting practice related to days of professional development and student examination days in teachers’ actual teaching time, see Table X3.D4.6 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

Other comments for each country are listed below.

Australia:

Notes on methodology: Quantitative data reported are weighted averages from the jurisdictions that provided data.

Notes on interpretation: Responses may vary from previous years due to variations in which jurisdictions respond to the survey.

Colombia:

Notes on methodology: Data are provided by the payroll information system where the overtime is registered by teacher to account for the corresponding overpay. Two types of overtime is taken in account in the average actual teaching time: overtime for teachers who work in schools who have transitioned from morning/afternoon schedules to whole-day/ extended school days; and overtime established by excess of the student-teacher ratio, where that excess is a fraction that does not compensate to hire an additional teacher. The overtime hours for replacement of sick, disability or any other type of leaves, is not considered.

Notes on interpretation: The average actual teaching time for the general lower secondary level applies jointly for the general lower and upper secondary levels and the vocational upper secondary level, given that a teacher assigned to secondary education can teach in any of these levels.

Differences between actual and statutory teaching time mainly result from the fact that statutory time is established (by law) for morning/afternoon schedules; however, the last few governments have been gradually established and implemented policies of transitioning in more schools from these schedules to whole-day/extended school schedules, which leads to a change in working and teaching hours for teachers in these schools. However, the process needed to make a comprehensive change in legislation is still on-going, so statutory working and teaching time is probably sub-reported.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on methodology: The Teacher Workload Survey (TWS, 2019) is an online survey administered in 2019 to a sample of teachers, middle leaders and senior leaders in primary, secondary and special schools across England.

The TWS provides the average teaching hours of full-time teachers and middle leaders during the reference week (TWS, page 37) during the reference week as well as the average total working hours of teachers and middle leaders during the reference week (TWS, page 28). Teachers and middle leaders are both defined as “teachers” under the UOE guidance.

Average annual teaching time is the average teaching hours of full-time teachers and middle leaders reported based on a reference week in March 2019 in the TWS multiplied by 38 teaching weeks (190 days a teacher may be required to teach). In addition, teachers in public schools are required to undertake five in-service training days (INSET).

Figures for pre-primary represent working time for teachers of reception classes in primary schools (for pupils aged 4-5) only, as this forms part of the early years (ISCED 0) phase in England. Working time for teachers of pre-primary programmes in other settings are not available.

The survey uses a probability proportionate to size (PPS) method. More details on survey methodology can be found in the technical report: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/teacher-workload-survey-2019.

Notes on interpretation: There are vocational programmes at both lower and upper secondary level (ISCED 25 and 35), but there is no data, so they are indicated as ‘missing’.

Estonia:

Notes on methodology: The total number of lessons (according to Estonian Education Information System - EHIS) teachers teach in a week is divided with the number of teachers in full-time equivalent separately at all three ISCED levels (general education). The academic lessons are converted into astronomic hours. Since 2013/14, the division of full-time equivalent between different ISCED levels is not available because of the changes in Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act. Since 2014/15, the number of teachers in full-time equivalent at all three ISCED levels is based on the proportion of lessons teachers teach at all three ISCED levels.

Table X3.D4.6 (https://stat.link/9nx08w) shows the total number of hours teachers (the number of lessons was converted into astronomic hours) attended in professional development courses in the academic year 2019/20. Not all teachers who worked in the academic year 2019/20 took part in professional development courses in the same academic year. Teachers temporarily not at work are excluded.

Notes on interpretation: The average actual teacher’s teaching time in hours per annum refer to actual teaching time as of 10 November 2019 (Estonian Education Information System). As teachers of general programmes usually teach at more than one ISCED level, the same number of hours teachers attended in professional development courses is shown at primary and general programmes of secondary levels. For vocational programmes, teachers cannot be differentiated between lower and upper secondary education, therefore how many hours these teachers took part in professional development in academic year 2019/20 is not known.

In Table X3.D4.6 (https://stat.link/9nx08w), the same number of hours for teachers participated in professional development courses is shown at every educational (ISCED) level because teachers in general schools usually teach at more than one educational (ISCED) level.

Japan:

Notes on methodology: Data on teachers’ teaching time refers to average planned teaching time in each school at the beginning of the school year. For more information, see notes on statutory data (Table D4.1).

Notes on interpretation: National schools, College of Technology (course of the first to third grade) established by regional or local governments and Specialised Training College, Upper Secondary Course are excluded.

Latvia:

Notes on methodology: Data are taken from the State Education Information System where schools provide information about teachers - age, gender, their workload and salary. All information relates to full-time (starting with 0.9 workload) classroom teachers. For more information, see notes on statutory data (Table D4.1).

Lithuania:

Notes on interpretation: Student examinations take approximately one day only for teachers teaching language and mathematics. However, a small part of language exam occurs during class hour, which is approximately 2 hours for language teachers only and is understandable as a part of teaching and learning process (included into regulated teaching time).

Difference in the population of teachers covered for statutory teaching time: Actual data includes those who are not full-time teachers. Full-time staff covers only about one-third of all teachers.

New Zealand:

Notes on methodology: Actual teaching time in hours per annum is obtained by multiplying actual teaching time during the reference week in the school year 2017 (TALIS 2018) and 40 weeks.

The New Zealand Education System does not have an explicit lower secondary level (ISCED 2) and all secondary level educational programmes are general. So lower secondary level (ISCED 24) is estimated by averaging primary (ISCED 1) and upper secondary levels (ISCED 34). However, it should be noted that this average does not reflect any real situation in New Zealand.

Difference in the population of teachers covered for statutory teaching time: There may be slight difference between the scope of the statutory data (the OECD-NESLI data collection on teaching and working time of teachers and school heads) and the actual data (TALIS 2018). Data supplied for primary schools (ISCED 1) includes full primary and intermediate schools. Secondary schools (ISCED 34) include composite and secondary schools.

Poland:

Notes on methodology: Data include extra hours that are paid additionally and exclude hours related to the paid temporary substitutions.

Teaching time of teachers of the compulsory pre-school education (covers six-year-old children) are not included in actual teaching time of pre-primary teachers.

Short breaks are included only in grades 1-3 of primary education (ISCED 1). At the beginning of primary school (grades 1-3) one teacher is responsible for both teaching and taking care of the children during the breaks, playing at the same time the role of the classroom and the form teacher.

Notes on interpretation: Due to the educational reform, since the school year 2019/20, primary education (ISCED 1) includes 4 years of primary school (grades 1-4) and lower secondary education (ISCED 24) includes another 4 years of primary school (grades 5-8). For more information on the education reform, see notes on statutory data (Table D4.1).

Portugal:

Notes on methodology: Average annual teaching time in hours is based on the data reported by public schools and on the admitted number of teaching days.

Notes on interpretation: After the ending of the instruction days of the school year, teachers have to fulfil a number of tasks, such as the preparation of the internal classifications class marks report, verification of the national examinations class scores report, meetings over the internal classifications and national examinations results for their classes, preparing class schedules for the next school year, preparing school recovery plans for students who need them, administrative work, preparing classrooms for national examinations, and ensuring the monitoring of the national examinations. Their allocation to those tasks is done, case by case, by their school. Global data is not available.

Difference in the population of teachers covered for statutory teaching time: The calculations include all teachers (full and part-time) who teach at public schools under the tutelage of the Ministry of Education and are not school heads.

Slovenia:

Difference in the population of teachers covered for statutory teaching time: Actual data includes all teachers, even those who are not fully qualified. The same population of teachers is reported in data on primary and lower secondary levels (ISCED 1 and 24) as they are in single structure basic schools.

Switzerland:

Data specifications on teaching time: Data on teachers’ actual teaching time include professional development days. For teachers in pre-primary and primary education, short breaks are included in teaching time.

Notes on methodology: Data on the number of hours a teacher is scheduled to teach (net teaching time) is taken from the School Staff Statistics. The data refer to weekly lessons for 100% enrolment in compulsory school and sec II. Age reductions in the number of hours, which correspond to a full-time activity, are taken into account. For more information on the School Staff Statistics and how this is converted to annual number of hours, see notes on statutory data (Table D4.1).

United States:

Notes on methodology: Data on actual teaching time is based on the National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) which is a nationally representative sample survey of public school teachers in the United States. For more information, see notes on statutory data (Table D4.1).

The number of teaching hours includes the number of hours teachers deliver instruction during a typical full week (of the hours they are contracted to work). These hours are self-reported by teachers.

For definitions of working time of school heads, see Table X3.D4.7 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

For notes on the nature of the reported data on working time for the different countries, see Table X3.D4.8 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

For definition of school heads' teaching time and conditions, see Table X3.D4.9 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

Other comments for each country are listed below.

Australia:

Notes on methodology: Quantitative data reported are weighted averages from the jurisdictions that provided data. Qualitative responses are collated from the jurisdictions to be representative of the nation.

Notes on interpretation: Teaching time is defined as the time spent delivering face-to-face classes.

Responses may vary from previous years due to variations in which jurisdictions provided input.

Austria:

Notes on methodology: No representative data on school heads is available for pre-primary level. A large majority of pre-primary education (ISCED 02) in Austria takes place at kindergartens, but there is no data available for kindergarten school heads. The remaining minority of pre-primary schools are not an independent entity but integrated into primary schools (ISCED 1), where there is no difference in any teacher-related matter between these two levels (working time, salaries etc.).

In contrast to teachers, school heads in lower secondary academic schools are taken into account with school heads in upper secondary academic schools, because lower secondary academic schools are always attached to upper secondary academic schools.

The reported working time relate to the "old employment law" for teachers, which still is applicable for all school heads and will be applicable for the vast majority of school heads for the next couple of years.

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Notes on interpretation: There is no legislation concerning the working time of school heads. The government leaves this issue totally up to the discretion of the school board.

A school head can be the head of lower and upper secondary together, and this could also include both general and vocational programmes. There is no vocational programme at lower secondary level.

Belgium (French Community):

Notes on interpretation: Legal documents do not precisely indicate working time at school of school heads, but a minimum schedule corresponding to the weekly workload.

A school head can be the head of lower and upper secondary school together, and this could also include both general and vocational programmes. There is no vocational programme at lower secondary level.

School heads at secondary level can voluntarily perform teaching at his/her own discretion (e.g. in the cases where teachers are absent due to illness), though this is not explicit in relevant documents.

Brazil:

Notes on methodology: The National Education Law establishes a minimum annual school year of 800 hours distributed to a minimum of 200 days per shift. There are no national legislation establishing the school week and period length, States and Municipalities have autonomy to decide about this matter.

Notes on interpretation: There is no regulation at the national level that specifies the working time of school heads. Only the school year for the students is regulated.

Canada:

Notes on methodology: The methodology for calculating the Canada-level response for quantitative indicators uses two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response: (1) At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide a response, and; (2) Reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

If the two criteria above are met, the Canada-level average is weighted by the number of full-time student enrolments (from combined elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary levels) for all jurisdictions who submitted figures for the OECD-NESLI data collection on working time of teachers and school heads.

Like the quantitative methodology, the qualitative methodology for calculating the Canada-level response is to use two criteria to determine whether there is enough consensus to provide this response: (1) At least seven (50%) provinces and territories provide the same response, and; (2) Reporting provinces and territories represent at least 70% of full-time student enrolments according to the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES).

Notes on interpretation: Data reported are not necessarily representative of all of Canada, but only of the Canadian provinces and territories that took part in the data collection. Where cells are left blank, there was not enough consensus amongst provinces and territories to develop a pan-Canadian response.

Czech Republic:

Notes on methodology: In upper secondary education (general and vocational programmes), the reported teaching time requirement data refer to the statutory teaching time in theoretical education. Data for practical education is not reported.

School heads at all levels of education are entitled to 8 weeks of leave (40 days) and excluded from the reported total working time. At pre-primary level (ISCED 02), nursery schools do not have school holidays, but may close or operate on limited hours in July and/or August in response to local conditions, after consultation with the organising body. So entitled leaves for pre-primary school heads should be taken preferably when schools do not operate. At primary and secondary levels (ISCED 1-3), entitled leaves should be taken preferably during students’ school holidays. The work obligation is valid for the remaining days of school holidays.

Notes on interpretation: Lower secondary vocational programmes (ISCED 25) are reported as “not applicable” because it includes only two fields of study designed for a small number of students with medium and serious intellectual disabilities. This programme is organised by upper secondary schools.

School heads at all levels of education are entitled up to 12 days of paid self-study leave per school year, which also should be taken preferably during students’ school holidays. However, number of days of the study leave that teachers use depends on the decision of the school head who takes into account the operation of the school. Also there is no obligation for teachers to exhaust all the given days.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on interpretation: The framework for pay and conditions (STPCD 2020) has no stipulations on working time for headteachers. The specified working hours and working days for teachers in Table D4.2 do not apply for headteachers: Paragraph 51.4 (STPCD, page 48). The provisions of paragraphs 51.2 to 51.12 do not apply to headteachers, deputy headteachers, assistant headteachers, teachers on the pay range for leading practitioners or teachers in receipt of an acting allowance for carrying out the duties of a headteacher, deputy headteacher or assistant headteacher pursuant to paragraph 23.

Professional responsibilities are listed in the STPCD (pages 44-45): A headteacher may be required to undertake the following duties: Whole school organisation, strategy and development; Teaching; Health, safety and discipline; Management of staff and resources; Professional development; Communication, and; Work with colleagues and other relevant professionals.

The statutory requirements in the STPCD (2020) apply to public schools only.

Estonia:

Notes on interpretation: School heads may teach some lessons. The contract usually states that the school head may teach some lessons.

Finland:

Notes on methodology: The number of weeks and days a school head works per year is calculated by deducting the number of days for holiday allowances from 52 weeks of a calendar year. For school heads of ECEC institutions, deduction of maximum additional 5 days is also reflected in the reported number of working weeks per year.

Notes on interpretation: Data on pre-primary education (ISCED 02) refer to school heads who are under the collective agreement for municipal personnel. Data on vocational upper secondary programmes (ISCED 35) comprise school heads of the biggest vocational fields.

France:

Notes on methodology: In order to be consistent with the scope of school heads' salaries, data reported on school heads at pre-primary and primary levels (ISCED 02 and 1) only refer to the teaching personnel with at least 50% reduction of teaching time (who teach 450 hours per annum or less). The overall minimal reduction of teaching time would be 25% (which means that they teach 675 hours per annum), but only teachers with at least 50 % reduction of teaching time are counted as school heads.

More information on the requirements on teaching time of school heads at pre-primary and primary levels here.

Notes on interpretation: Statutory total working time per year refers to the legal working time of all employees (including civil servants) unless subject to exemptions or a specific collective agreement.

Germany:

Notes on methodology: Data have been calculated in the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Notes on interpretation: At the pre-primary level (ISCED 02), data refers to pre-primary education for children from age 3 to the start of primary education (ISCED 1). Data for Schulkindergärten and Vorklassen are excluded.

Information on total working time of school heads is not defined in most Länder.

Greece:

Notes on methodology: The number of hours a school head teaches per week (excluding breaks and converted into 60-minute periods) is calculated as follows: (Teaching Sessions per Week)*(Typical Duration of Teaching Session in Minutes/ 60 Minutes).

Notes on interpretation: Despite the fact that school heads have duties in and out of school, relevant legislation does not mention the time devoted to the vast majority of these duties but only the teaching sessions that a school head is expected to perform per week.

Ireland:

Data specifications on total working time: Working time of school heads does not include time worked during students’ seasonal school holidays or before or after normal school working hours. Though school heads may work during at least a part of students’ school holidays, this is not stated in the regulations.

Notes on interpretation due to COVID-19: The number of working hours for school heads remained the same for 2019/20. However, all schools at all levels of education were instructed to close from Friday 13 March 2020 until the end of the academic year (June 2020). Teaching and learning moved online during this period of school closure.

Notes on interpretation: Same contractual obligations on working time apply to school heads as to teaching time of teachers (for more information, refer to Notes on interpretation of Table D4.1), although significantly more working time may be undertaken by school heads in reality. For school heads in secondary education (ISCED 24 and 34), most heads are involved in administration and do not teach.

Israel:

Notes on methodology: For methodology on deduction of the number of days when the school is closed for festivities, refer to Notes on methodology of Table D4.1.

An average class session lasts 47 minutes. Some class sessions last 50 minutes, others 45 minutes.

In 2008, the New Horizon Reform began to be implemented in the pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary (ISCED 1) and lower secondary (ISCED 2) education. All the principals in the primary and in the lower secondary education are working under the conditions of the New Horizon reform.

In the school year 2020/21, the Oz Letmura Reform continues to be implemented in upper secondary education (concerning more than 93% of the principals). Since upper secondary education in Israel is undergoing a period of transition to the Reform, principals’ working hours in this level of education are an average in 2020/21 of the principals who are not included in the Reform and of the principals totally included in the Reform.

There is a reduction of working hours for principals who are mothers or are over certain ages. In primary and lower secondary education, a female principal who is a mother works 2 hours a week less and a principal over age 50 works 2 hours a week less. In upper secondary education, a female principal who is a mother works 2.4 hours a week less, a principal over age 50 works 1 hour a week less and a principal over age 55 works 2 hour a week less. Considering these reductions, statutory working hours per week is reported as 39 hours per week (reduction of 1 hour, on average, for mother hours and age hours).

Notes on interpretation: There are no principals in kindergartens. In most cases, kindergartens in Israel include one class. Most of the main teacher's work is not devoted to management.

Officially in all education levels, principals work 8 hours a day for 5 days a week, a total of 40 hours a week. They also work another month during of July and August, in the summer holidays; in total, about 41.1 weeks per year in the primary education and 39.8 weeks per year in the secondary education.

Italy:

Notes on interpretation: Working time is not defined as school heads organise the times and methods of their own activities autonomously. School heads in primary or lower secondary education also administer schools at pre-primary level.

Japan:

Notes on methodology: National schools, College of Technology (course of the first to the third grade) established by regional or local governments and Specialised Training College, Upper Secondary Course are excluded.

Korea:

Notes on methodology: Total working days per annum is estimated by deducting national holidays falling on working days and 21 days of annual leave from the number of weekdays in the calendar year. Working days during the students’ school holidays can be estimated by deducting the minimum number of school days per annum in relevant regulations (180 days at pre-primary level and 190 days at primary and secondary levels) from total working days per annum.

Notes on interpretation: School heads typically work during school vacations, since they are responsible for school administration. Many teachers, in contrast, do not work at school during students’ school vacations.

For pre-primary level, only public kindergarten (governed by the Ministry of Education) is included. Public childcare (governed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare) is not included as there is no data available.

Latvia:

Notes on interpretation: In pre-primary education, there are no school holidays. In primary and general secondary education, school heads are estimated to work 9 weeks (45 days) during students’ seasonal school holidays. It is because the length of school year varies by grade: 34 weeks (grade 1) and 35 weeks (grades 2-6) in primary education; 35 weeks (grades 7-8) and 37 weeks (grade 9) in lower secondary general education; and 35 weeks (grades 10-11) and 38 weeks (grade 12) in upper secondary general education.

Netherlands:

Notes on interpretation: The formal working time of a full-time employee (100%) in primary education is 40 hours per week. It is at the school’s discretion to decide on the exact number of hours for school heads in primary, secondary and vocational education to spend in working, but school heads are paid for a maximum of 1 659 hours though they might occasionally work overtime at their own discretion.

New Zealand:

Notes on methodology: The New Zealand Education System does not have an explicit lower secondary level (ISCED 2) and all secondary level educational programmes are general. So lower secondary level (ISCED 24) is estimated by averaging primary (ISCED 1) and upper secondary levels (ISCED 34). However, it should be noted that this average does not reflect any real situation in New Zealand.

Notes on interpretation: Principals from rural schools usually have teaching responsibilities. However, this is not explicitly stated in the collective agreement for principals.

Principals work same week per year as teachers.

Norway:

Notes on interpretation: Figures refer to the central agreement. In some municipalities, there are variations based on local agreements.

Poland:

Notes on interpretation: Due to the educational reform, since the school year 2019/20, primary education (ISCED 1) includes 4 years of primary school (grades 1-4) and lower secondary education (ISCED 24) includes another 4 years of primary school (grades 5-8). For more information on the education reform, refer to Notes on interpretation on Table 4.1.

Portugal:

Notes on interpretation: School heads theoretically are subject to the civil servants’ working time of 35 hours per week. However, they have an exemption from working fixed hours and in practice work more hours than their nominal weekly working time.

Teaching time corresponds to the length of the time period that each school defines as a teaching unit, in accordance with the weekly workload defined in the curricular matrixes. The definition is the same for both school heads and teachers that are not school heads.

Slovenia:

Notes on interpretation: The number of weeks school heads working per year takes into account average 7 weeks of paid leave. School heads work all around the year, even during the students' school holidays. The number of days school heads working per annum excludes days when the schools are closed for festivities and includes students' holidays.

In Slovenia, no school heads in kindergartens have teaching obligation, as all kindergartens have more than 14 groups. (School heads in kindergartens with 14 or more groups do not have any teaching obligations.) This has been the case for a very long time and it seems that it will stay that way, since the kindergartens have been growing in size due to increased participation of children.

Spain:

Notes on interpretation: School heads, compared to regular teachers, work in school two more weeks at pre-primary and primary levels and four more weeks at secondary level. Depending on the school year calendar, school heads at pre-primary and primary levels work one week before the beginning of the school year and three weeks after the end of the school year. It is estimated that school heads work 10 days more than regular teachers. At secondary level, school heads work one week before the beginning of the school year and four weeks after the end of the school year, estimated to work 20 days more than regular teachers.

Teaching time is hours of teaching with a complete group of students teaching a subject of the curriculum. The head of school needs to be the regular teacher for these group of students of a level.

Sweden:

Notes on interpretation: A general collective agreement on national level applies and it is not specific to the profession.

Local agreements may differ, especially in the förskoleklassen (pre-school class), which is the last year of pre-primary school. School heads that are responsible for educational programmes within ISCED 1 are often also responsible for the last year of the pre-primary school (pre-school class “förskoleklassen”) within ISCED 02.

The entitled annual leave for school heads varies by age. School heads are entitled to 31 days of vacation by the age of 40 and 32 days by the age of 50. The majority of school heads aged 40 or older and are therefore entitled to at least 31 holiday days per year.

Türkiye:

Notes on interpretation: School heads are present at school on national holidays when students attend the ceremonies during the school days.

United States:

Notes on methodology: Data on working time are based on the National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) which is a nationally representative sample survey of public school principals in the United States.

The number of weeks a school head works per year are based on principal self-reports of average days covered per year by their contract. There are no federally available data that can provide a national average of school heads' working time or teaching hours.

Notes on interpretation: The number of days a school head works per year may include days during students’ school vacations depending on principal contracts set at the state or district level.

Teaching duty may be mandatory for some principals at the discretion of individual schools and/or subnational entities.

The indicator draws on data from the annual system-level data collection of the INES NESLI Network on teaching and working time of teachers. Sources for these data are displayed in Table X3.D4.1 (https://stat.link/9nx08w).

This indicator was not included in Education at a Glance 2022.

The data reflect information on initial teacher education for teachers, pathways to becoming teachers and school heads in public institutions in the reference year 2021. If this is not the case, a specific comment is included for each country in “notes on specific countries”.

Information refers to pathways to become teachers in the reference year 2021. This includes the qualification level required to enter initial teacher education and the qualification level obtained at the end of initial teacher education to be recognised as a fully qualified teacher. As initial teacher training programmes may have change over years, teachers may have other qualification level. For information on the proportion of fully qualified teachers, see Table X3.D6.2 (https://stat.link/u3ihbs). For information on interpretation of the data on the proportion of teachers or new teachers with the qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education in 2021, see Table X3.D6.3 (https://stat.link/u3ihbs).

The indicator focusses on pathways to become a lower secondary teacher of general subjects and Figure X3.D6.3 (https://stat.link/u3ihbs) presents the organisation of initial teacher education, duration of programmes, final qualification awarded at the end of the programme, and type of model (concurrent or consecutive) used to combine pedagogical and practical training. Similar information for teachers at other levels of education are available in Figure X3.D6.1 (https://stat.link/u3ihbs) (pre-primary teachers), Figure X3.D6.2 (https://stat.link/u3ihbs) (primary teachers), and Figure X3.D6.4 (https://stat.link/u3ihbs) (upper secondary teachers of general subjects).

Australia:

Notes on coverage: Initial teacher education is only applied for teachers of general subjects, as there are different education systems and requirements for teachers of vocational subjects. The teachers of vocational subjects work in the vocational providers, in partnership with school, to deliver vocational subjects. Most of vocational providers are private sectors, which do not fulfil the requirements of initial teacher education.

Notes on interpretation: All teachers must complete an accredited tertiary/higher education initial teacher education programme to be eligible to teach in an Australian school. The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (the Teacher Standards) provide a nationally agreed quality assurance mechanism against which teachers can be assessed to ensure they have the competencies required to be effective educators. Endorsed by Education Ministers in 2010, the Teacher Standards underpin national approaches to the accreditation of initial teacher education programmes, the registration and certification of teachers.

Pre-primary education settings vary across states and territories in Australia. Only some are school-based and come under a school head. Many pre-primary education settings are centre-based and independent of schools.

In Australia, schools are mainly focussed on providing general education. Some schools also provide accredited vocational education at ISCED levels 2 to 4. Around a quarter of a million students in Australia choose to undertake Vocational Education and Training (VET) in school each year as part of their senior secondary studies. VET in schools has to be delivered by a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) or in partnership with an RTO. Although most schools choose the latter and have the training delivered and assessed by an external organisation, some schools become RTOs themselves. Other school delivery models involve a combination of the two approaches. Most vocational education in Australia is provided by institutions outside schools and has separate accreditation and teaching requirements to schools.

Total duration of initial teacher education: For pre-primary to upper secondary teachers, courses vary in length from 4 years which is usual for undergraduate teaching degrees, to post-graduate qualifications of 1-2 years which is additional to other study undertaken at an undergraduate level.

Qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education: For pre-primary, lower and upper secondary (general subjects) teachers, minimum ISCED level qualification is ISCED 6 (bachelor’s degree). Vocational teachers in secondary schools must have a minimum vocational qualification at ISCED 4.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Universities use a range of criteria to select applicants for initial teacher education programmes for pre-primary, primary and secondary teachers of general subjects. Teacher education applicants graduating directly from secondary school must have an ATAR (Australian Tertiary Admission Rank) score equal to or greater than the course entry cut-off. Interviews are generally not required; but an interview may be part of the selection process for some courses. Universities use a range of additional mechanisms to select students to enter initial teacher education courses.

Austria:

Total duration of initial teacher education: The duration of initial teacher education for pre-primary education teachers conducted in post-secondary Vocational Education and Training (VET) courses is two years. In initial teacher education for primary school teachers, there is an optional extension/specialisation opportunity, if chosen, to prolong the duration by another 0.5 years. In some fields of initial teacher education for vocational schools, the master programme is optional; in that case, initial teacher education programme takes only 4 years.

Qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education: Education of pre-primary teachers at post-secondary VET course is classified at ISCED 5. Acquiring ISCED 7 for upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects is optional - some subjects end at ISCED 6.

Minimum ISCED level of qualification required for entry into initial teacher education: Pre-primary teachers who start their initial teacher education at a post-secondary VET course are required to have completed a programme at ISCED 3. For further details, see alternative pathways.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Multi-level/multi-phase admission procedure and competence screenings (performance-oriented, personal, professional and pedagogical competences) conducted. Interviews are conducted within the autonomy of teacher training colleges and universities. As other selective criteria for admission to some subjects in general education, applicants have to pass a special competence test to prove their professional competences in the field of the subject (Sports, Musical and Instrumental Education, Fine Arts, Arts and Crafts).

Belgium (Flemish Community):

Notes on interpretation: Lower secondary education refers to the first stage of secondary education and upper secondary education refers to the second and third stages of secondary education in the Flemish Community.

Initial teacher education for teachers of vocational subjects refer to the educational graduates' programme (ISCED 5), as many prospective teachers of vocational subjects enter initial teacher education programme after several years of professional experience. To enter the educational graduate' programme, candidates are required to have at least 5 years of professional experience in the vocational subjects that they will teach or at least 3 years of professional experience if the candidate has a study certificate in that vocational subject. However, for some vocational subjects, it is possible to follow an educational bachelor's programme (e.g. hairdressing, electricity) or an educational master's programme.

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: For initial teacher education for teachers of vocational subjects, these programmes are aimed at prospective teachers who have already gained several years of professional experience and wish to pass on this knowledge as a teacher in technical or practical subjects. The focus is on teaching and not on content knowledge.

Total duration of initial teacher education: The total duration of initial teacher education is 180 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) for prospective candidates of pre-primary and primary teachers and lower secondary teachers of general subjects, 90 ECTS for secondary teachers of vocational subjects and 90 or 120 ETCS for upper secondary teachers of general subjects.

For teachers of vocational subjects, the total duration of educational graduate's programme is 90 ECTS, of which minimum 45 ECTS goes to practical training in teaching. For shortened educational bachelor's programme and shortened educational master's programme, the total duration of the programme is 60 ECTS, of which 30 ECTS goes to practical training in teaching.

Minimum ISCED level of qualification required for entry into initial teacher education: For lower and upper secondary teachers of general subjects, the universities decide autonomously which previous bachelor’s programmes give direct access to which educational master's programmes.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Since the academic year 2017/18, all students enrolling in initial teacher education at bachelor level have to take a non-binding admission test on study skills and motivation and the knowledge of Dutch. Students enrolling in the educational bachelor for primary education take additional tests on the knowledge of mathematics and French. Taking the test is compulsory, but admission to the initial teacher education programme is not linked to the results on the admission test.

The non-binding admission test is to assist identifying remediation needs of these prospective students. It is a generic, institution-neutral test that prospective students can take online. The objective of the test is not to select students, but to provide an insight into the expected initial competences for the specific programme and to give prospective students an insight into their own strengths and weaknesses and possible points to work on. A more qualitative intake should lead to an increase in study efficiency and a decrease in the time to graduation. After completing the test, the prospective student will receive feedback, giving the student to catch up, if necessary, either independently or within the university college. The feedback from this test strengthens prospective student with a good result in their study choice and on the other hand either refers those with a lower score to remediation or challenges them to question their choice to enter the programme.

Belgium (French Community):

Total duration of initial teacher education: For upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects, different pathways are possible, so the total duration of the programmes might vary as well. The figures reported reflect the duration of the typical pathway, which consists of formal initial teacher education programme that is similar to programme for general subjects. However, formal initial teacher education does not exist for all vocational subjects.

Total duration of the pedagogical and practical training is two years if a didactical master’s degree programme is chosen or one complementary year after finishing a non-didactical master's degree programme.

Brazil:

Notes on interpretation: In 2019, the Common National Base for the Initial Training of Basic Education Teachers was published, which was established by Resolution 2 of 20 December 2019.

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: According to Article 15 of the Common National Base for the Initial Training of Basic Education Teachers, established by Resolution 2 of 20 December 2019, the workload for pedagogical practice must be intrinsically articulated, from the first year of the course, with the studies and practice foreseen in the curricular components.

Qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education: In accordance with the National Education Law (Lei 9394/96), the teachers’ diploma of ISCED 3 is the minimum qualification required to teach at pre-primary and primary levels.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: It is required by the National Education Law that every higher education programme must have a selection process in order to enrol students (LDB, art. 44), such as competitive examination. In addition, higher education institutions have the autonomy to choose selection mechanisms, which could be standardised test, grade point average from secondary schools and/or grades from the upper secondary examination, interview or any other selective criteria.

Selection for progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: A master's degree is not a prerequisite to enter a teaching career and is also not required at a later stage of initial teacher education.

Colombia:

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: The autonomy of institutions and universities, established by the Colombian Law, must be taken into account when establishing the models of initial teacher education. As such, institutions providing teacher training programmes are free to organise their courses in any way they see fit within the same degree (either first academic subject/subject matter classes followed by practical training in teaching, or in parallel), but both components are within the same academic certification programme.

Total duration of initial teacher education: It is two years in a teacher training college for pre-primary and primary teachers, and four years in undergraduate education programmes for lower and upper secondary teachers.

Qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education: Graduates of initial teacher education for pre-primary and primary teachers can be awarded "Normalista Superior" (from the Teacher Training Colleges), professional in Education or professional in another area (alternative pathway). Graduates of initial teacher education for lower and upper secondary teachers can be awarded professional in Education or professional in another area (alternative pathway).

Czech Republic:

Notes on interpretation: There are three categories of upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects: (group A) teachers of theoretical vocational subjects, (group B) teachers of practical education (učitelé praktického vyučování), and (group C) teachers of practical training (učitelé odborného výcviku). These three groups of teachers have different educational pathways regarding both the forms and duration of initial teacher education, minimum ISCED level of qualification required for entry into initial teacher education, ISCED level of qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education etc. The information provided in the tables refers to the most representative group of teachers (with the largest proportion of all teachers in Vocational Education and Training (VET)). Additional comments for the other two groups of teachers are available under each heading, where applicable.

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: Consecutive model is predominant for initial teacher education for upper secondary teachers of practical education (group B) and of practical training (group C).

Total duration of initial teacher education: The reported duration of initial teacher education for pre-primary teachers refers to the minimum teaching qualification required for pre-primary teachers (ISCED 354). The duration of initial teacher education is 4.5 years for upper secondary teachers of practical education (group B) and 3.5 years for teachers of practical training (group C).

The consecutive model of initial teacher education for secondary teachers of general subjects is defined as non-pedagogical master´s degree plus 188 hours of professional training, which includes pedagogical and practical training. The professional training may be followed in parallel to or after a non-pedagogical master´s degree. It usually lasts from one to two years.

Total duration of the pedagogical and practical training reported for secondary teachers of vocational subjects applies to all three categories of VET teachers (groups A, B and C). The minimum duration of pedagogical and practical training is set to 120 hours of professional training (corresponding to 0.5 years) in institutions providing in-service training of education staff or at higher education institutions.

Qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education: Data reported for pre-primary teachers refers to the minimum qualification level prescribed by top-level legislation. Pre-primary teachers most often obtain their qualification in four-year secondary school programmes completed with Maturita examination in a field aimed specially at pre-primary teacher training (ISCED 354). Tertiary level of education (ISCED 6 or 7) can also be obtained.

Teachers of theoretical vocational subjects (group A) require a master´s degree (ISCED 7) to teach whereas upper secondary education with Maturita examination (ISCED 354) is sufficient as the minimum qualification level for the teachers of practical education (group B). The minimum qualification level for teachers of practical training (group C) is VET final examination (závěrečná zkouška) and a VET certificate (výuční list) (ISCED 353).

Minimum ISCED level of qualification required for entry into initial teacher education: Data reported for pre-primary teachers refers to the programmes awarding the minimum qualification level prescribed by top-level legislation. See the note on “Qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education”.

Entering initial teacher education for upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects require ISCED 2 for both teachers of practical education (group B) and of practical training (group C).

Fixed, limited number of student positions available for entry into initial teacher education: No limit is set at national/central basis. The capacity of a specific course of study with a specific education institution may be limited.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: There are additional selective criteria under the responsibility of individual schools and higher education institutions as the admission procedure is in the autonomy of individual schools or higher educational institutions. The selective criteria include competitive examination, standardised test, grade point average from secondary school or upper secondary examinations, interview and/or additional selective criteria (e.g. portfolio). If implemented, the administration and the design of competitive examinations and/or standardised test are under the responsibility of higher education institutions and schools. In addition, all prospective pre-primary teachers who wish to enter initial teacher education at ISCED level 3 must pass common admission examination (entrance examination) in the form of nationally standardised test organised for ISCED 344/354 fields (not specific for initial teacher education programmes).

Fixed, limited number of student positions available to progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: The data do not apply for upper secondary teachers (vocational subjects) of practical education (group B) and practical training (group C).

Selection for progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: In initial teacher education of secondary teachers, higher education institutions set their own criteria for the transition to the next stage. For example, students with excellent results in lower stages can enter to the next stage directly whereas other students have to take a competitive examination, another test or an interview. The data do not apply for upper secondary teachers (vocational subjects) of practical education (group B) and practical training (group C).

Denmark:

Notes on interpretation: To become upper secondary teachers of general subjects, students must enrol in a one-year professional post-graduate teacher training programme, which combines theoretical courses and teaching. This is not considered a part of initial teacher education as it is offered after graduation. However, it is a requirement that teachers pass this programme within the first year of employment. The data on upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects primarily focus on the teachers who teach in vocational subjects (not academic subjects). Obtaining vocational qualification is considered to be a part of initial teacher education for prospective teachers of vocational subjects.

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: Initial teacher education of upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects follows a consecutive model, if the vocational education of prospective teachers is considered as a part of the teacher education programme.

Total duration of initial teacher education: Prospective upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects must have a vocational training qualification and usually a minimum of 5 years of practical work experience within the field of the subject they teach. Furthermore, teachers of vocational subjects shall have a diploma in pedagogical education, which typically can be gained on a part-time basis and completed over three years (the duration is equivalent to a one-year full time study programme). An occupation as a teacher is usually required to enter pedagogical education.

Minimum ISCED level of qualification required for entry into initial teacher education: There are two pathways to enter the teaching profession (quotas 1 and 2). Applicants to higher education who have grade point averages too low for quota 1 and applicants with a different access basis than a general upper secondary examination can be admitted after selection criteria set by the individual educational institution (quota 2).

The minimum ISCED level of qualification required is ISCED 2 to enter initial teacher education of upper secondary teachers of vocational subjects, if the vocational education of these prospective teachers is considered as a part of the teacher education programme.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: To enter initial teacher education for pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers of general subjects, applicants typically have to meet a grade minimum in the general upper secondary leaving exam. Applicants of initial teacher education for primary and lower secondary education have to take an interview only if their mark from the upper secondary leaving exam is below 7.

Selection for progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: The admission to the postgraduate pedagogical diploma (for prospective upper secondary teachers of general subjects) is reserved for candidates with a trainee job at upper secondary schools. Therefore, the entry to the last stage of the teacher education is decided at school level.

England (United Kingdom):

Notes on coverage: Data on teachers of vocational subjects refer to those in government-dependent private institutions. There are no public institutions providing vocational programmes at secondary level.

Notes on interpretation: No data is reported for pre-primary level. Pre-primary (Early Years) teacher education refers to a specific Early Years Teacher Status (EYTS), which is recognised and badged by Department for Education. This status is specific and limited to specific pre-primary settings, separate to that for private sector nurseries and childminders. Pre-primary practitioner education mostly exists outside of teacher training and school settings. A separate Early Years Initial Teacher Training (EYITT) leading to EYTS exists in limited publicly funded Early Years settings and does not cover private sector nurseries and childminders. However, those with EYTS cannot lead teaching in maintained state schools (even that which falls into the 3-5 range and covers the Early Years settings for pre-primary nurseries and Reception year primary classes). They can lead classes only in academies and private settings at the discretion of headteachers having flexibility around Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) requirements. Nevertheless, Primary Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) can cover the 3-7 age range and qualifies a teacher to teach in mainstream/state-funded schools. For clarity, EYTS is not reported in favour of Primary QTS.

Total duration of initial teacher education: Initial teacher education for primary and secondary teachers of general subjects is 4 years, including completion of an undergraduate degree over 3 years (academic education element) and completion of an Initial Teacher Training (ITT) route that leads to QTS which is typically 1 year (pedagogic/practical training element). For a small number of prospective teachers, it can take 5 years, if they choose to complete the High Performing ITT through Teach First after their undergraduate degree (but QTS is achieved after 1 year).

Minimum ISCED level of qualification required for entry into initial teacher education: Level 3 qualifications are required to access higher education (undergraduate ITT).

Fixed, limited number of student positions available for entry into initial teacher education: Places are allocated only for undergraduate ITT courses, postgraduate primary education ITT and EYITT leading to EYTS. There are no restrictions on any other postgraduate courses of ITT leading to QTS.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Tertiary institutions are independent and autonomous and are solely responsible for the decision of whom to admit and upon what terms. Individual tertiary institutions conduct a holistic assessment of an applicant’s potential. Different tertiary institutions consider (and give varying weight) to a wide range of factors.

Lower and upper secondary teachers of general subjects must have their ISCED 5 qualifications in particular subjects. There are additional entry requirements as set out in the published ITT criteria and supporting advice document, specifically General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) equivalence, degree criteria and suitability to train to teach.

Selection is most commonly based on the sum of points based on grades, not a Grade Point Average. Each subject is assessed separately with an individual grade awarded. Also, accredited ITT providers have discretion and responsibility to determine whether a candidate is suitable to train to teach as per the ITT Criteria. This might include things like competitive examination, interviews, references, etc. but it is not mandated. Providers have this discretion as long as they are confident that their selection process is rigorous and appropriate. Previously, there was a standardised test, however, the requirement for candidates to take the professional skills test was removed from 1 April 2020 in favour of a provider-led approach. Providers must assure the trainees’ English and mathematics prior to the award of QTS.

Estonia:

Notes on interpretation: Initial teacher education is mainly regulated by two documents: the Professions Act and the occupational qualification standards. Over time, these documents have been updated because of (i) improved understanding in content and needs and organisational issues or (ii) changes in other regulations. From regulations, the Professions Act regulates the functioning of the professional qualifications system. Then within the qualification system, the occupational qualification standards are submitted and must be taken into account in study programmes. An educational institution can get the rights of an awarder of professions and has the possibility to register the institution in the professional register without the competition based on an application by the educational institution, if the curriculum of the institution complies with the professional standard and is nationally recognised. For the purposes of this Act, the curriculum shall be deemed to be in compliance with a professional standard if the learning outcomes of the curriculum include the competence requirements provided for in the professional standard.

Currently, the general practice of the initial teacher education for secondary teachers of general subjects has been reduced from consecutive Bachelor’s and Master’s programme of 5 years to concurrent master’s programme of 2 years. The situation is in concordance with teacher education framework and helps to solve the shortage of subject teachers in secondary schools.

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: The curricula of initial teacher education for (primary and lower secondary) teachers in basic schools and subject teachers in upper secondary schools are on Master's level. Upon admission to the Master’s degree programme, the courses completed during Bachelor's studies are reviewed to understand whether the prerequisite subject knowledge has been acquired in the course of previous studies or additional subject training is required. Then pedagogical competences are acquired during the Master's studies.

Fixed, limited number of student positions available for entry into initial teacher education: Number of available student position is not fixed at the state level nor in the administrative contracts with higher education institutions. Number of available student positions may be decided by the university. It is agreed in the administrative contracts that universities increase the admission into teacher education (share or number is not added).

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Candidates must take the exam, but it is the autonomy of individual higher education institutions gives them the right to set the rules and content of exams.

Fixed, limited number of student positions available to progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: Number of available student position is not fixed on the state level nor in the administrative contracts with higher education institutions. Number of available student positions may be decided by the university. It is agreed in the administrative contracts that universities increase the admission into teacher education (share or number is not added).

Selection for progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: Primary teachers have integrated 5-year programmes. It is up to institutions to decide what kinds of exams are needed.

Finland:

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: Consecutive model of initial teacher education also exists for subject teachers.

Total duration of initial teacher education: Multiform learning (i.e. combine face-to-face and on-line studies) and attending the training while working are possible to reduce the duration of the pedagogical and practical training.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Other than Grade Point Average from secondary schools and/or grades from the upper secondary examination, the admission to general teacher education can also be gained by taking an entrance test. Interview can be decided upon by the institution autonomously, as a part of the assessment on the student’s aptitude. The admission to initial teacher education for teachers of general subjects also generally comprises an aptitude test, assessing the applicant’s suitability to the profession as well as skills, motivations and commitment. The teacher education institutions for teachers of vocational education have agreed that in their student selection they also take into account merits such as teaching experience, continuing professional development, research, international experience etc.

France:

Notes on coverage: Fully-qualified teachers are civil servants (regrouping public education and private education).

Notes on interpretation: All future teachers must take a civil service teaching competition, which is subject to entry requirements. This competition can be prepared at the National Institute for Teacher Education (Instituts nationaux supérieurs du professorat et de l'éducation; INSPÉ), which provides both professional and subject-specific teaching over two years as part of the MEEF (Métiers de l'enseignement, de l'éducation et de la formation) Master's degree, specialising in preparation for teaching careers. The data covers the teachers who follow the MEEF master's programme preparing for the competitive examination (Concours externe) to become teacher.

The Law for a School of Trust (Loi pour une école de la confiance; no. 2019-791) is gradually implemented regarding initial teacher education. From the school year 2019/20, a programme offers students the opportunity to follow a pre-professionalisation training course (parcours de préprofessionnalisation) for three years, starting with the second year of the bachelor's degree, and which precedes the year of preparation for the competitive examination. The implementation of this programme is still in progress and does not concern the majority of student-teachers. More information is provided here.

Total duration of initial teacher education: Initial teacher education takes 5 years from the time prospective teachers enter the university in first year of bachelor level to the time they become fully-qualified teachers.

Fixed, limited number of student positions available for entry into initial teacher education: Except for the most popular bachelor’s programmes, the number of student positions are not fixed/limited.

Germany:

Notes on interpretation: The data on pre-primary teachers refer to the information on pedagogic staff in the German early childhood sector. Pedagogic staff in the German early childhood sector do not have the training and status of teachers. The guiding profession of Erzieher/Erzieherinnen is rooted in a socio-pedagogical tradition. In some Länder, Erzieher/Erzieherinnen are supported by childcare assistants (Kinderpfleger/Kinderpflegerinnen) or social assistants (Sozialassistent/Sozialassistentinnen). As a rule, pedagogic staff in early childhood education and care are trained at Fachschulen for youth and community work. Some of the staff (especially those in senior positions) have a degree from a Fachhochschule as youth and community workers (Sozialpädagogen).

Total duration of initial teacher education: For primary and secondary teacher education, this depends on the duration of the preparatory service (practical phase of teacher training), which varies between 12 and 24 months. The duration of ITE is therefore 5 years at university plus 12 to 24 months of preparatory service.

Fixed, limited number of student positions available for entry into initial teacher education: There might be a numerus clausus for prospective pedagogic staff studying at Fachhochschulen. For prospective school teachers, it depends on the numerus clausus policy of the individual university.

Fixed, limited number of student positions available to progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: For prospective school teachers, it depends on the numerus clausus policy of the individual university. The number of students in the next stage of initial teacher education may differ from the number of students graduating from the earlier stage. In some cases, applicants for the next stage have to wait until the next possible opportunity to enter the master’s level stage.

Selection for progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: There are two additional selection stages after prospective teachers enter initial teacher education programmes after graduating from high schools (ISCED 3). The first additional stage during initial teacher education is when they move from a bachelor's degree programme (ISCED 6) to a master's degree programme (ISCED 7), then the second additional stage during initial teacher education is from training in training institutions to practical training in a school setting (preparatory service). Prospective teachers need to pass first the Bachelor's examination to proceed to master's degree programme. Then they must pass either the Master's examination or the First State Examination, which occurs at the end of a degree course at an institution of higher education, enabling access to preparatory service.

Greece:

Total duration of initial teacher education: For consecutive models of initial teacher education for upper secondary teachers, they take a one-year pedagogical course after their first degree. Therefore, total duration depends on the duration of their first tertiary degree programmes (e.g. economics teachers need 4+1 years, engineers need 5+1 years).

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Though Grade Point Average from upper secondary schools is not used for selection purposes, grades from the Panhellenic Exams determine if participants enter tertiary education and which department they will enter. The Panhellenic Exams are a competitive examination that takes place after the final year of school and that is common for all students in the country. Students are examined in a number of subjects depending on what they want to study in the university, but not in all subjects.

Fixed, limited number of student positions available to progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: There is no additional selection stage for the majority of students who are in the concurrent programmes, which ensure pedagogical and teaching competence. However, initial teacher education for some secondary teachers may require bachelor’s degree holders from faculties that do not provide pedagogical training in the degree programme (e.g. in economics or law) to complete programmes in pedagogical education and training to certify pedagogical and teaching competence that is not ensured by their bachelor's degrees. There are a limited number of student positions available for the programmes in pedagogical education and training.

Selection for progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: The programmes in pedagogical education and training have additional selective criteria, such as the grade from the tertiary degree programmes, knowledge of foreign languages (proven with a certificate), knowledge in in ICT (proven with a certificate), master's and/or doctoral degrees etc.

Hungary:

Notes on interpretation: Teachers in Public Education schools refer to pre-primary, primary and lower secondary teachers and upper secondary teachers of general subjects.

Teacher of vocational theory must hold a master’s degree (MA) but teacher of vocational practice may have a VET qualification plus matura or a bachelor’s degree (BA). Practical trainers in VET schools, initial trainer education refers to a VET qualification plus matura.

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: The model of initial teacher education for lower and upper secondary teachers of general subjects will be more concurrent-like from the year 2022.

Total duration of initial teacher education: Until 2022, the duration of initial teacher education is 6 years for lower secondary teachers of certain subjects and upper secondary teachers. From 2022, it will be 5 years at both lower and upper secondary teachers, with the final one-year training will be reduced to 0.5 year.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: Other selective criteria used are aptitude tests for pre-primary (kindergarten) and primary teachers (physical, musical/vocal skills, speech), and for prospective teachers of vocational subject, practical skills assessment.

Fixed, limited number of student positions available to progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: The mainstream Public Education teacher programmes is undivided but VET teacher programmes is divided into a bachelor’s degree programme (BSc) and a master’s degree programme (MSc).

Selection for progress onto the next stage of initial teacher education: Use of interview as a selective criterion depends on the institution.

Ireland:

Notes on coverage: The term ‘teacher’ is restricted to those who are registered with the teaching council. Currently, this excludes staff in pre-primary settings who, in the main, are not registered teachers. Ireland does not have an established VET system at upper secondary level.

Predominant organisation model of initial teacher education: Concurrent model is slightly predominant for primary teachers (in the reference year 2020/21, 1 000 students on concurrent routes versus 850 on consecutive routes), but consecutive route is predominant for secondary (post-primary) teachers.

Total duration of initial teacher education: Concurrent route of initial teacher education for primary teachers is a four-year Bachelor of Education programme (ISCED 6) and consecutive route takes 6 years, which consists of bachelor’s degree programme and a Professional Master’s in Education programme (ISCED 7). For prospective secondary teachers (post-primary), consecutive route of initial teacher education will take 5-6 years depending on their tertiary degree for students commencing in the 2020/21, and concurrent route takes 4 years.

Qualification awarded at the end of initial teacher education: For graduates of 4-year concurrent initial teacher education programme for primary and secondary (post-primary) teachers, the highest qualification awarded is Bachelor of Education (ISCED 6). However, graduates of the consecutive route (after the second stage of initial teacher education) are awarded Professional Master’s in Education (ISCED 7).

Fixed, limited number of student positions available for entry into initial teacher education: The number of students admitted to the Bachelor of Education (Primary) and the Professional Masters in Education (PME) (Primary) in the State Funded Higher Education Institutions is determined by the Minister, having regard to teacher supply and demand issues, and available resources. The intake to the Bachelor of Education (Primary) has remained at 1 000 places per year since 1999. The approved intake to the PME programme (Primary) has remained at 200 places for the last number of years. However, in 2014, to ensure sufficient supply of teachers to meet demand at the time as well as to alleviate financial pressure on the higher education institutions, they were allowed to increase their postgraduate numbers on the understanding that there would be no additional funding from the Department and Higher Education Authority (HEA) for the increased intake. In addition to students admitted to state funded higher education institutions, a private provider catered for an average of 650 students per year since 2014.

Selection for entry into initial teacher education: For prospective students of initial teacher education for primary teachers, candidates of concurrent programmes are selected based on their secondary school exam results but they also have to achieve minimum grades in Irish, English and Mathematics and meet other academic requirements. In consecutive programmes, there are no selective criteria for entry into the first stage (a general bachelor’s programme), but the minimum grades requirements will also apply to the consecutive programme in 2021.

For successful candidates of initial teacher education for primary teachers, additional non-selective process exist to determine fitness to practise teaching: (i) Garda vetting and (ii) medical requirements.

  1. 1. Garda vetting: Before a higher education institution can complete a student registration; all incoming teacher education students undergo a process of Garda vetting in order to establish whether they have any convictions or criminal charges pending. Where this process confirms the existence of such, the matter is referred to a Vetting Committee within the higher education institution, which decides whether the student can continue with his/her programme of study.

  2. 2. Medical requirements: Some higher education institutions require that all incoming teacher education students complete a medical information form, indicating whether they have any significant ongoing illnesses or disabilities which might adversely impact their capacity to meet the requirements of the course, including school placement. Entrants who de