Chapter 4. Strengthening the foundations for integrated digital service delivery in Brazil

This chapter analyses and discusses the foundations for digital service delivery policies and practices in the Brazilian federal government. It starts by discussing the importance of digital key enablers required for sustainable and coherent public service delivery. It then focuses on the Brazilian experience in common architectures and standards, open source software and digital identity, as critical facilitators of integrated and coherent service delivery. Finally, the chapter underscores the role of legal and regulatory frameworks in securing the proper adoption of key enablers across the public sector.

    

Introduction

Shifting from an e-government culture (often determined by the institutional set-up of governments, leading to silo-based efforts and essentially government-centred) to a digital government environment (characterised by whole-of-government and system-thinking approaches) requires the development of key enablers. Their adoption, aligned with the proper governance frameworks and inclusive of the institutional set-ups (see Chapter 2) and policy levers (see Chapter 3), can support the efficiency and coherency of digital government policies. Interoperability frameworks, digital identity systems and data infrastructure are among the most common key enablers mobilised to foster a propitious environment for the dynamics required for digital government to grow.

Key enablers can indeed support the integration and consolidation of public efforts for digital government (as discussed in Key Recommendation 6 of the OECD Recommendation on Digital Government Strategies) (OECD, 2014[1]). When shared across the sectors and levels of government they can help avoid gaps and overlaps in public investments; enable better communication; improve access; encourage sharing and reuse of data and information across public sector organisations; and assist in systems integration. This can provide the basis for advanced user experience in service delivery.

This chapter analyses the digital government key enablers and building blocks that can play a critical role in securing a coherent and sustainable digital transformation of the public sector policy. The analysis starts by presenting the broad Brazilian panorama on the use of enabling frameworks in the federal government. Common architectures and standards, open source software and digital identity are discussed in more detail in the following sections, highlighting the Brazilian government’s practice in these critical digital government key enablers. The chapter concludes with a section dedicated to the legal and regulatory frameworks necessary to reinforce the foundations of integrated and coherent service delivery.

Digital enabling frameworks

In Brazil, as in most OECD countries, e-government policies have progressively prioritised the development of key enablers as mechanisms to ensure co-ordination across the different sectors of the federal public administration. Given the country’s size and geographical diversity, different levels of government and substantial autonomy (see Chapter 1), the key enablers are also perceived as fundamental mechanisms to consolidate public efforts to drive the digital transformation of the public sector.

Table 4.1 illustrates Brazil’s development and use of digital key enablers. Evidence collected during this review shows that some of the most relevant key enablers are available in the country’s federal administration: a common interoperability framework, base registries, digital identity, and support for the use of cloud computing or open source software. Some examples of shared services in infrastructure and connectivity are also available (see Box 4.1).

Table 4.1. Digitally enabling frameworks in Brazil

Enabling frameworks

Not available

Available to central government institutions

Available to regional/county level institutions

Available to local/municipal government institutions

Available to private sector institutions

Common interoperability framework

X

X

X

X

Base registries

X

Shared ICT infrastructure (e.g. shared data centres)

X

Shared business processes (e.g. common logistics management)

X

Shared services (e.g. joint software development)

X

Support for the use of cloud computing

X

Support for the use of open source software

X

X

X

X

Source: OECD (2018[2]), “Digital Government Survey of Brazil”, Central version, unpublished.

Box 4.1. Infovia Brasilia: An optical fibre shared service for the federal government

Infovia Brasília is an optical communications network infrastructure that provides to the federal government agencies located in Brasilia with a set of services and functionalities in a safe, high-performance and high-availability environment. Given its shared service nature, the network promotes the reduction of communication costs and a digital environment capable of supporting the implementation of government public policies.

Under the responsibility of the Secretariat of Information Technology and Communication (SETIC), linked to the Ministry of Planning, Development and Management, the government communication network supports information in the form of voice, data and images at high speed.

Source: Ministério do Planejamento, Desenvolvimento e Gestão ((n.d.)[3]), “Infovia”, https://www.governodigital.gov.br/transformacao/orientacoes/infovia (accessed on 8 October 2018).

Nevertheless, Table 4.1 reflects some room for improvement in the use of digital key enablers in the following domains:

  • The absence of some important key enablers such as shared infrastructures like shared data centres that can lead to the duplication of public efforts for the development of a digital government.

  • With the exception of a common interoperability framework and support for the use of open source software, available to different levels of government and to private sector institutions, the remaining key enablers seem to be accessible only by federal level institutions.

Given the importance of key enablers in supporting the consolidation and quality of digital transformation efforts, the government of Brazil should continue prioritising the development of this type of digital mechanism in order to achieve the shift from e-government to digital government. Yet, the development and availability of key enablers is only part of the necessary public effort to reap the full benefit of their potential. The effective use by public sector institutions, recognising their added value for sectoral public sector agendas, is also part of the necessary co-ordinated efforts for digital government development. Based on OECD country experiences, efforts to ensure the uptake and use of existing key enablers by public sector organisations is as important as those undertaken to make them available.

As evidenced in Table 4.1, although several digital key enablers are available to the Brazilian federal administration, their effective use and appropriation could still be significantly improved. None of the available key enablers has levels of adoption above 30% of the federal public sector institutions, demonstrating that significant efforts should be made to improve the current situation of effective use. The results of the Digital Government Survey of Brazil, run within the context of this review, and reflected in Figure 4.1, are aligned with evidence collected though country interviews during the mission to Brasilia in July 2017 where a common consensus was found in the ecosystem of stakeholders about the need to improve the quality of the available key enablers and support their development to improve their effective use across the public sector.

Figure 4.1. Use of digitally enabling frameworks in the Brazilian federal government
picture

Source: OECD (2018[4]), “Digital Government Survey of Brazil”, Public sector organisations version, unpublished.

The following sections will analyse some of the digital key enablers in place in Brazil in more detail.

Common architectures and standards for public sector interoperability

The interoperability of public sector digital systems is one of the most critical key enablers for digital government development. Common architectures and standards for public information technology (IT) systems aid the exchange and reuse of data, with natural benefits in terms of public efficiency, increased knowledge about citizens’ needs and upgraded capacity to improve digital service delivery. Interoperability frameworks are fundamental, in this sense to shift from a silo-based administration with IT systems that do not communicate or exchange data with each other, to an optimised, integrated and data-driven administration.

In Brazil, the e-PING architecture - Standards of Interoperability of Electronic Government - reflects the federal government policy on the current key enabler. Through the definition of requisites, policies and technical standards for the governance and management of digital systems in the public sector, e-PING envisages fostering the use of interoperability standards across the Brazilian public sector. Since 2005, the adoption of the e-PING standards has been mandatory across all the entities of the executive branch of the federal government and optional for the remaining branches (Secretário de Logística e Tecnologia da Informacão, 2005[5]) (Ministério do Planejamento, 2014[6]).

The adoption of e-PING highlights the following general policy orientations:

  • adoption of open standards encouraged, except when a transition from a legacy system is underway and when a required open standard doesn’t exist

  • use of public software or open source software

  • availability of technical support in the market, as the digital solutions foreseen on e-PING are broadly used in the market.

Nevertheless, the identified lack of policy levers able to push for strategic policies suggests substantial room for improvement regarding the adoption of e-PING (see Chapter 3). Evidence collected for this review shows that the main reasons impeding a higher uptake of e-PING in the Brazilian public administration include legal constraints, silo-based mindsets, legacies from existing systems and lack of political support.

In 2018, the platform Conecta.gov was launched, reflecting the federal government’s commitment to improving interoperability among the different sectors and levels of government (see Box 4.2). Since Conecta.gov was launched during the drafting of this review, the number of application programming interfaces (APIs) available and the level of uptake is still limited. Nevertheless, the use of APIs for the exchange of information within the public sector is among the most agile and innovative models for the creation of an interconnected and data-driven administration, where sharing and integration are a reality. In this sense, the launch of the platform by the Brazilian government positively reflects the country’s commitment to reaching the next level for the digital transformation of its public sector.

Nevertheless, the launch of a digital platform represents one of the first steps on a long path to keep stakeholders involved, satisfied and able to feed and consume the platform’s information and data. In co-ordination with the proper policy levers and benefiting from the necessary political support, the Brazilian federal government could consider prioritising the release of APIs by public sector institutions for data and information exchange. Doing so would enable Connecta.gov to play a central role in the promotion of the “once-only principle”, as well as develop proactive service delivery where the public sector is able to anticipate users’ needs and deliver services tailored to their needs, linked to their life events or their living conditions (see Chapter 5).

Box 4.2. Conecta GOV: The Brazilian catalogue of government APIs

Based on the need to improve interoperability, the federal government launched a platform in 2018 called Conecta.gov (http://www.conecta.gov.br) through Efficient Brazil, a programme of the National Debureaucratization Council.

This new interoperability platform consists of a catalogue of APIs that can be used for the integration of public services and the exchange of information within the administration. The platform enables public institutions to connect their platforms using APIs and release/consume data in a more efficient and effective way.

Source: www.conecta.gov.br.

The Brazilian experience with open source software

Although it cannot be regarded as an emerging trend in the digital government realm, open source software (OSS) continues to gain momentum as a relevant policy lever that can lead to more open, collaborative and efficient public sectors (see Box 4.3). The most evident benefits come from the transparency asset that represents the use of OSS by the public sector, enabling civil society to develop accountability mechanisms to reinforce citizen trust in government institutions. Given the progressive relevance of encouraging citizens to better understand how the government uses their personal data or makes decisions based on algorithms, the use of open source software is an important component of an open state.

Beyond transparency, strategic OSS policies can also support increased collaboration among public sector institutions as well as between the public sector and civil society (e.g. academia, non-governmental organisations, civic tech). This increased co-operation potential can support value co-creation, enabling the development of commissioning practices based on the joint development and reuse of software code. For instance, through the use of open source solutions, the public sector enables the private sector and civil society to reuse and build on public software code, promoting important economic spin-offs and the creation of an economic footprint.

The use of OSS can also support the adoption of common standards across different sectors and levels of government, able to ensure interoperability among public digital systems and avoid vendor-locked scenarios and fragmented contexts where the public sector is unable to exchange data and information due to defensive/closed market strategies followed by software providers. The use of OSS solutions within public administrations can also generate savings and efficiencies since software licencing models can be avoided and the potential of reuse of developed solutions is high, contributing simultaneously to a more coherent and sustainable software policy in the public sector. In addition, promoting more balanced market competition and encouraging the emergence of new market players (e.g. local small and medium-sized enterprises [SMEs]) are among the most relevant and advanced arguments that sustain the use of OSS in the public sector. Through the use of open source approaches, national or local level developers of software are able to better compete with international providers on tenders for the delivery of software to the public administration. This approach can therefore generate a more open, competitive and balanced software market. It also allows governments, through the alignment of policies on open source research and development (R&D), to strategically support the development of national or local open source market players and reinforce software development sectors in specific national or local contexts.

In line with the experience of some OECD countries (see Box 4.3). OSS is an important component of the development of digital government in Brazil. In fact, Brazil’s experience on this topic goes back to at least 2003 when the federal government created a Technical Committee on the Implementation of Open Source Software (Casa Civil, 2003[7]) to promote capacity building for information and communication technology (ICT) professionals in this kind of software, namely reaping the full benefit of online knowledge-sharing tools. This technical committee, responding at the time directly to the Executive Committee on E-Government of the Council of Government (Casa Civil, 2000[8]), prioritised the adoption of OSS solutions, programs and services by the Brazilian public sector to contain the legacy of digital systems based on proprietary software and to promote the migration of proprietary systems to OSS (Ministério do Planejamento, 2018[9]).

Box 4.3. Strategic support for the use of open source in selected OECD countries

Australia

The Digital Transformation Agency of the Government of Australia is responsible for a Digital Service Standard that ensures digital teams build better government digital services. All services that were designed or redesigned after 6 May 2016 fall within the scope of the standard and must be assessed against it.

Principle 8 of the standard highlights that all new source code should be open by default, underlining that OSS helps to:

  • reduce costs for projects

  • avoid lock-in

  • stop duplication

  • increase transparency

  • add benefits, from improvements by other developers.

France

With the approval in October 2016 of the law on the Digital Republic, the French central government established an ambitious policy to promote the use of OSS in the public sector (Legifrance, 2016[10]). An interdepartmental Open Source Contribution Policy was developed by the Inter-ministerial Directorate of Digital and the State Information and Communication System (Direction Interministérielle du Numérique et du Système d’Information et de Communication de l’Etat, DINSIC) in order to:

  • set the rules and principles for opening source codes

  • support the ministries and share good practices

  • define the governance.

The published contribution policy is focused on new software developments, developed internally by the administration or on behalf of the administration.

United Kingdom

The public sector organisation that leads digital government in the United Kingdom – Government Digital Service (GDS) – maintains several publicly available OSS projects that were used in the country’s central digital services portal (Gov.uk). By sharing these projects, the GDS expects to positively contribute to the work of public sector organisations, as well as private and civil society organisations. But GDS also expects to obtain contributions from outside the government to improve the mentioned projects.

In addition, Point 8 of the Digital Service Standard – a set of criteria to help the public sector run good digital services – underlines that all new source code should be made open and reusable, published under appropriate licences.

European Commission

In line with the European Commission’s policy of share and reuse, the Open Source Observatory publishes news, studies and best practices on the use of free and open source software solutions in public services. The observatory provides support to public sector organisations in finding OSS made available by other public administrations and solves issues related to its development.

The Open Source Software Observatory shares news, knowledge and solutions from European member countries and also from the European Commission.

Source: Digital Transformation Agency (2018[11]), “Make source code open”, https://www.dta.gov.au/standard/8-make-source-code-open/ (accessed on 8 October 2018); DINSIC (2018[12]), “Modalités d’ouverture des codes sources”, https://disic.github.io/politique-de-contribution-open-source/en/ (accessed on 8 October 2018); GDS (2018[13]), “Open source software from GDS Operations”, http://gds-operations.github.io/ (accessed on 8 October 2018); Joinup (2018[14]), “Open Source Observatory (OSOR)”, https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/collection/open-source-observatory-osor (accessed on 8 October 2018).

Another example of the Brazilian government’s commitment and innovative role in the adoption of OSS was the creation in 2007 of the Brazilian Public Software Portal (www.softwarepublico.gov.br). The portal is focused on the sharing and development of source code to support the public sector OSS policy (Ministério do Planejamento, 2018[15]). The portal contains a catalogue of OSS submitted to a specific public licencing scheme to be used by the different sectors and levels of government. The portal makes available general management software (e.g. budgeting, planning, project management), as well as specific solutions that can be used in different policy areas (e.g. agriculture, education, social protection). The Brazilian Public Software Portal is a good, concrete example of how a central government is able to build on the potential of open source software for improved collaboration within the public sector and with civil society.

Although these examples demonstrate Brazil’s solid experience in the use of OSS, the topic’s significance in the country’s digital government policy has decreased in more recent years. In the 2016 Digital Governance Policy (Política de Governança Digital) the presence of OSS and public software measures was not core. For instance, although a reference to public software still exists in the first version of the Digital Governance Strategy (Ministério do Planejamento, 2016[16]), the 2018 revised version doesn’t mention the topic (Ministério do Planejamento, 2018[17]).

This policy change on the relevance of OSS in the Brazilian public sector reflects several difficulties encountered in earlier years to guarantee the efficiency and sustainability of the model initially established. During the OECD fact-finding mission to Brasilia in July 2017, the stakeholders were able to express some problems with the government’s capacity to leverage the OSS ecosystem and guarantee the efficient support for an efficient and agile adoption of OSS solutions across the public sector. Difficulties in getting assistance for the products made available via the public software portal, and problems keeping them updated and capable of competing with available market solutions seem to have generated some disappointment among public sector stakeholders with regard to the potential to consistently use OSS in the Brazilian public sector. This growing disappointment seems to have encouraged the federal government to reconsider the level of relevance attributed to the use of OSS in the public sector.

The support for a specific policy is normally directly connected to the impact and results of its implementation. In this sense, the negative analysis of the effects of the OSS policy in the public administration over recent years seems to explain the decrease of relevance granted by the Brazilian government to such a policy. Nevertheless, inspired by the benefits produced by open source policies in public sectors worldwide as part of digital government strategies aimed at boosting more open, efficient and innovative administrations, the government of Brazil could prioritise the development and strengthening of an OSS ecosystem able to deliver value and sustainability to the country’s digital government policy.

Building on its experience and also building on other country practices (see Box 4.3), the government could consider reinvesting in this policy, namely by:

  • prioritising the involvement of and collaboration with the ecosystem of stakeholders, and promoting shared policy ownership and responsibility with civil society as a key approach to ensuring the positive impact of OSS in the public sector

  • setting concrete and realistic goals and objectives connected to the implementation of OSS

  • introducing an open-source-by-default recommendation in the development of digital services

  • creating a monitoring and knowledge-sharing mechanism, such as an observatory, in order to improve the collaboration, awareness and understanding of OSS at federal, state and local levels.

Digital identity for improved public governance

The capacity of the government to identify citizens and businesses requires the development of a digital identity framework able to be adopted as a strategic tool to drive the digital transformation of the public sector. A digital identity framework allows the public sector to have a tool that can provide a reliable, safe and clear identity of its constituents, properly adapted to increasingly digitalised contexts. This leads to the improved management of citizens’ and businesses’ data and information within the public administration.

Digital identity frameworks also allow citizens and businesses to better interact with the public sector through the use of digital authentication and digital signature mechanisms capable of taking public digital service delivery to a new level. Given its security and reliability, the integration of digital identity mechanisms in public services increases the range and outreach of online service delivery.

When questioned about the existence of a digital identity mechanism, 56% of the countries of the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region responded positively, including Brazil (see Figure 4.2), demonstrating the increasing recognition governments attribute to its development. Nevertheless, the following aspects should be considered:

  • The existence of a legally recognised digital identification mechanism should not be confused with the existence of a public digital identity framework available to all citizens through a civil identity card (e.g. as in Belgium, Estonia, Portugal, Uruguay) or a publicly recognised strong digital authentication mechanism (e.g. as in Norway, United Kingdom).

  • The existence of a digital identity framework is a step and does not guarantee broad adoption and use by citizens and businesses. The uptake of digital identity solutions is one of the most critical aspects of this policy’s effectiveness and impact, requiring strategic actions to ensure its utility and integration of services available to citizens and businesses.

Figure 4.2. Existence of a legally recognised digital identification (e.g. digital signature) mechanism in the LAC region
picture

Source: OECD (2016[18]), Government at a Glance: Latin America and the Caribbean 2017, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264265554-en.

When questioned about using digital signatures for interaction with citizens and businesses, 62% of the institutions that participated in the Digital Government Survey of Brazil responded positively (see Figure 4.3). This reflects a significant openness and willingness of the Brazilian public sector ecosystem to adopt digital solutions to interact with citizens and businesses.

Brazil also has an Infrastructure of Public Keys – ICP-Brasil (Infra-Estrutura de Chaves Públicas Brasileira) since 2001 (Casa Civil, 2001[19]). The infrastructure was created to ensure the authenticity, integrity and legal validity of documents in electronic form, supporting applications and enabled applications using digital certificates, as well as secure electronic transactions. The Management Committee (Comitê Gestor da ICP-Brasil) is located in the Civil House of the President of the Republic and brings together representatives from several relevant ministries (e.g. Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning, Management and Development, Ministry of Science and Technology.

Figure 4.3. Government use of digital identity mechanisms with individuals or businesses in Brazil
picture

Source: OECD (2018[4]), “Digital Government Survey of Brazil”, Public sector organisations version, unpublished.

The establishment of a clear digital identity framework, able to be used by all Brazilian citizens as formal identification in their interactions with the public sector, is delayed, however, due to technical and institutional requirements that have blocked its development.

In Brazil, the main national civil identification document is the identity card (cédula de identidade or carteira de identidade). Approved in 1983, the document contains basic identification elements such as the citizen’s name, date of birth, filiation and photo (Casa Civil, 1983[20]). Since it is considered a weak mechanism for the identification of citizens given its lack of use, other identity documents and numbers have been progressively adopted for civil identification, e.g. the tax number and the driver’s licence number.

The progressive digitalisation of public sector interactions with its citizens has determined Brazil’s increasing efforts to develop a digital identity system:

  • In 1997, a law foresaw a Register of Civil Identity (Registro de Identidade Civil, RIC) (Casa Civil, 1997[21]), regulated by the federal government in 2010 (Casa Civil, 2010[22]).

  • Following several setbacks and identified requirements for improvement in the pilot phase, the project developed by the Ministry of Justice was attributed to an academic stakeholder – the Foundation of the University of Brasilia (Fundação Universidade de Brasília) – in order to analyse the implementation of a single document.

  • In June 2015, a proposal was addressed to the federal government (Nexo, 2017[23]).

  • In 2017, the National Civil Identification (Identificação Civil Nacional) was created using information from different public registries: the biometrical database of the electoral register and information from the National System of Information from the Civil Register (Sistema Nacional de Informações de Registro Civil). The National Identity Document (Documento Nacional de Identidade, DNI) was also approved. The Superior Electoral Court (Supremo Tribunal Eleitoral), responsible for the country’s pioneer electronic voting system, is the entity responsible for co-ordinating the new digital identity framework in Brazil (Casa Civil, 2017[24]).

  • The new National Identity Document (DNI) was presented publicly in May 2018 in the Brazilian Senate (OECD, 2014[25]). During the drafting of the current review, the document was being tested and piloted. Access is available through an app to be installed on an Android or iOS smartphone. The document contains a photo, biometrics and the number of the physical person cadastre (cadastro de pessoas físicas, CPF). Password-protected, the document cannot be saved in the smartphone and cannot be connected with the phone’s chip. The data is based on the National Civil Identification register, managed by the Electoral Superior Court (Senado Notícias, 2018[26]).

Although the creation of a digital identity framework in Brazil has suffered several delays, compromising the country’s digital government development, the recent launch of the DNI reflects the government’s commitment to overcoming the existing gap. The new public identification mechanism, available only in digital format, allows Brazil to leapfrog the majority of OECD country experiences on digital identity, presenting an innovative solution. Additionally, the fact that the Superior Electoral Court is the public entity co-ordinating the national efforts on this matter supports the credibility of the system, given its experience managing the pioneer and advanced electronic voting system of the country. It should also be stressed that the connection of DNI to Brazil Citizen (Brasil Cidadão), a platform that seeks to provide a single authentication service for citizens to interact and consume governmental services, will also increase the value of the new solution for the digital transformation of Brazil’s public sector.

Still, building on the current momentum of broad political and societal support for the topic of digital identity, the Brazilian government could consider:

  • taking steps to encourage the adoption of DNI by the Brazilian population, promoting broad information campaigns about its utility and liability

  • prioritising the connection between the new DNI and Brazil Citizen, the public single authentication mechanism

  • ensuring that the segments of the population that don’t own smartphones will not have their rights limited or suffer from any new form of social or economic exclusion.

Updating legal frameworks to strengthen digital key enablers

As mentioned above, and in accordance with Key Recommendation 6 of the OECD Recommendation of Digital Government Strategies which reads, “Ensure coherent use of digital technologies across policy areas and levels of government” (OECD, 2014[1]), the development of interoperability frameworks, a public digital identity system and data-driven approaches are important steps for building an efficient, coherent and sustainable digitally-enabled state. Nevertheless, the development of digital key enablers can only generate value if properly co-ordinated with other elements of the overall digital government governance framework: institutional settings ensuring leadership (see Chapter 2) and facilitating co-ordination and shared responsibility (see Chapter 2), policy levers (see Chapter 3), and legal and regulatory frameworks (see Figure 4.4).

Figure 4.4. Strengthening digital key enablers
picture

Source: Author.

Digital government policies require the development and regular update of the legal and regulatory frameworks as a critical element of the required governance structure for the digital transformation of the public sector (OECD, 2016[28]). In a context of rapid change initiated by the digital transformation underway, a reinforced public commitment for updated regulatory frameworks is required namely to ensure the:

  • respect for digital rights (e.g. digital communication, access to information and data, open algorithms)

  • institutionalisation of digital procedures, standards and services (e.g. digital identity framework, common architectures)

  • attribution of legal value to digital interactions and artefacts (e.g. digital documents, digital certificates, digital signatures)

  • adaptability of procurement procedures (e.g. ICT commissioning, pre-market consultation)

  • protection of personal data (e.g. data protection laws, consent models)

  • security of information systems (e.g. cybersecurity laws).

In Brazil, the government’s commitment and efforts to develop digital government can also be observed in the diversity of legislation regulating the use of digital technologies in the public sector, economy and society. In fact, as this review clearly demonstrates, the analysis of regulations issued over the last two decades is undoubtedly a relevant approach to understanding the evolution of Brazil’s e-government/digital government policy. Regulation is in this sense a central and critical mechanism assumed by the Brazilian government to promote digital change. Currently, the Brazilian legal framework presents a substantial level of updates on digital government issues, reflecting the level of prioritisation of the topic on the public sector’s agenda.

Brazil appears to be characterised by a significant legalistic culture and regulations are regularly pointed to as the most important policy levers to make change happen in the country. Whether to promote the exchange of data within the administration, allow for more agile procurement processes or promote digital inclusion, the stakeholders interviewed during the peer review mission frequently raised the need for new or updated legislation and regulations as the top priority for areas requiring public sector attention and intervention.

Although Brazil should prioritise keeping its digital government legal and regulatory framework updated, the government should also complement the observed legalistic culture with the promotion of a more innovative, piloting and agile-oriented policy mindset, allowing the public sector to better address the digital transformation without permanently considering legal and regulatory actions as the first steps to be taken. An innovative and action-oriented culture, sustained by the permanent involvement of the ecosystem of stakeholders to ensure synergies and joint ownership, is critical to seize the benefits of a transformational context where public sectors are permanently challenged to adapt, manage and lead change.

References

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[21] Casa Civil (1997), Lei n. 9.454, de 7 de Abril de 1997, Institui o número único de Registro de Identidade Civil e dá outras providências., http://www.planalto.gov.br/CCIVIL_03/Leis/L9454.htm (accessed on 09 September 2018).

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[13] GDS (2018), Open source software from GDS Operations, http://gds-operations.github.io/ (accessed on 8 October 2018).

[14] Joinup (2018), Open Source Observatory (OSOR), https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/collection/open-source-observatory-osor (accessed on 8 October 2018).

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[3] Ministério do Planejamento, Desenvolvimento e Gest((n.d.)), Infovia, https://www.governodigital.gov.br/transformacao/orientacoes/infovia (accessed on 8 October 2018).

[17] Ministério do Planejamento, D. (2018), Estratégia de Governança Digital (EGD) — Versão Revisitada, https://www.governodigital.gov.br/EGD (accessed on 15 July 2018).

[9] Ministério do Planejamento, D. (2018), Implementação de Software Livre — Governo Digital, https://www.governodigital.gov.br/EGD/historico-1/comites-tecnicos/implementacao-de-software-livre (accessed on 07 September 2018).

[15] Ministério do Planejamento, D. (2018), Software Público Brasileiro — Governo Digital, https://www.governodigital.gov.br/transformacao/cidadania/software-publico (accessed on 07 September 2018).

[16] Ministério do Planejamento, O. (2016), Estratégia de Governança Digital (EGD), http://www.planejamento.gov.br/EGDSecretaria (accessed on 16 July 2018).

[6] Ministério do Planejamento, O. (2014), Portaria n. 92, de 24 de Dezembro de 2014, institui a arquitetura ePING, http://pesquisa.in.gov.br/imprensa/jsp/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=1&pagina=50&data=26/12/2014.

[23] Nexo (2017), “Em que fase está o projeto de criar um documento único para os brasileiros”, Nexo Jornal, https://www.nexojornal.com.br/expresso/2017/03/20/Em-que-fase-est%C3%A1-o-projeto-de-criar-um-documento-%C3%BAnico-para-os-brasileiros (accessed on 09 September 2018).

[2] OECD (2018), Digital Government Survey of Brazil, Central version.

[4] OECD (2018), Digital Government Survey of Brazil, Public sector organisations version.

[28] OECD (2016), Digital Government in Chile: Strengthening the Institutional and Governance Framework, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264258013-en.

[18] OECD (2016), Government at a Glance: Latin America and the Caribbean 2017, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264265554-en.

[1] OECD (2014), Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies, OECD, Paris, https://www.oecd.org/gov/digital-government/Recommendation-digital-government-strategies.pdf (accessed on 17 August 2018).

[25] OECD (2014), Survey on Digital Government Performance, https://qdd.oecd.org/subject.aspx?Subject=6C3F11AF-875E-4469-9C9E-AF93EE384796 (accessed on 16 July 2018).

[5] Secretário de Logística e Tecnologia da Informacão (2005), Portaria Normativa n. 5, de 14 de Julho de 2005 - Institucionaliza os Padrões de Interoperabilidade de Governo Eletrônico - e-PING, no âmbito do Sistema de Administração dos Recursos de Informação e Informática – SISP, cria sua Coordenação, definindo a competência de seus integrantes e a forma de atualização das versões do Documento, https://www.governodigital.gov.br/documentos-e-arquivos/legislacao/Portaria_e-PING_-14_07_2005.pdf (accessed on 16 July 2018).

[26] Senado Notícias (2018), “Documento Nacional de Identidade é lançado no Senado”, Senado Notícias, https://www12.senado.leg.br/noticias/materias/2018/05/29/documento-nacional-de-identidade-e-lancado-no-senado (accessed on 09 September 2018).

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