Annex B. Skills and the labour market

Access the data for tables in Annex B: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933869184

Table A B.1. Distribution by level of education, 2017
Percentages, 15-64 population not in education

 

Foreign-born

EU-born

Non-EU-born

Native-born

 

Very low

(ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Very low (ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Very low

(ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Very low

(ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Australia

..

16

52

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

23

36

Austria

3

28

29

0

11

39

5

41

20

0

13

31

Belgium

20

38

30

12

29

37

25

44

25

7

23

37

Bulgaria

2

8

47

-

..

..

1

3

57

4

20

26

Canada

..

10

60

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

15

45

Chile

11

21

13

..

..

..

..

..

..

23

36

9

Croatia

4

24

18

1

10

25

4

26

16

2

17

21

Cyprus1,2

9

25

34

5

19

34

13

30

35

12

20

40

Czech Republic

0

13

31

1

14

29

0

14

27

0

7

22

Denmark

6

26

40

1

11

52

10

28

36

3

27

31

Estonia

0

10

40

1

7

51

0

7

42

1

18

34

Finland

4

24

32

1

21

31

6

25

32

4

14

39

France

21

39

29

20

36

32

22

42

27

6

19

35

Germany

13

35

23

9

29

24

17

41

21

2

10

28

Greece

19

39

17

14

32

24

21

46

14

15

26

31

Hungary

2

15

29

3

15

26

1

15

34

1

17

23

Iceland

1

26

31

0

21

32

1

37

30

0

28

36

Ireland

4

12

50

4

13

44

4

8

62

9

24

38

Israel

6

10

57

..

..

..

..

..

..

6

15

41

Italy

9

49

13

4

34

12

12

54

12

6

38

18

Japan

..

22

32

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

13

37

Korea

..

30

30

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

8

50

Latvia

0

6

33

1

8

38

0

6

32

1

11

33

Lithuania

1

3

37

1

6

36

1

5

35

2

6

39

Luxembourg

12

29

45

13

29

46

9

28

42

4

24

28

Malta

1

46

27

1

41

30

0

0

0

8

56

18

Mexico

16

37

36

..

..

..

..

..

..

30

64

15

Netherlands

15

30

28

5

19

35

18

35

24

6

22

36

New Zealand

..

13

43

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

20

25

Norway

5

26

39

2

14

47

7

35

34

0

19

40

Poland

1

4

53

0

9

55

1

6

47

1

8

28

Portugal

15

32

31

9

30

34

17

38

28

34

54

22

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

26

16

Slovak Republic

0

10

28

0

10

22

0

6

38

1

10

22

Slovenia

2

23

18

2

16

24

2

32

9

1

12

32

Spain

19

44

24

8

31

33

24

47

22

9

43

34

Sweden

10

30

41

3

19

46

13

35

36

1

12

37

Switzerland

6

24

41

6

21

44

7

32

30

1

13

37

Turkey

..

54

19

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

65

17

United Kingdom

3

17

49

1

16

44

4

21

50

1

21

39

United States

9

23

40

..

..

..

..

..

..

0

7

45

OECD total

11

27

37

..

..

..

..

..

..

7

26

33

EU total

12

34

29

7

26

31

15

39

27

5

22

29

Source: Indicator 3.1.

Table A B.2. Distribution by level of education and gender, 2017
Percentages, 15-64 population not in education

 

Foreign-born men

Foreign-born women

Native-born men

Native-born women

Recent migrants (<10 years)

 

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Australia

15

34

51

16

30

54

22

48

30

23

35

42

10

28

62

Austria

25

47

27

30

39

31

11

57

32

16

53

31

21

41

38

Belgium

37

33

29

39

30

31

25

43

32

22

38

41

36

31

33

Bulgaria

9

52

39

8

38

54

20

60

20

19

49

32

9

40

51

Canada

10

32

58

11

27

62

17

45

39

13

35

52

11

27

61

Chile

17

68

15

24

65

11

36

55

9

35

55

10

19

67

13

Croatia

17

66

17

31

51

18

14

68

18

19

56

25

11

65

23

Cyprus1,2

26

42

32

24

40

36

21

45

34

20

33

47

30

40

29

Czech Republic

11

60

29

16

51

33

5

74

20

8

68

24

13

52

34

Denmark

28

35

37

23

34

43

29

44

27

24

40

36

14

29

57

Estonia

11

56

33

8

46

46

22

54

25

14

43

43

4

20

76

Finland

30

42

29

18

47

35

17

52

32

11

43

46

26

48

26

France

37

35

29

41

30

30

19

49

32

19

43

38

37

28

36

Germany

33

44

23

36

42

22

9

60

31

11

64

24

35

35

30

Greece

45

42

12

33

45

22

27

44

30

25

42

33

53

32

15

Hungary

14

58

28

17

54

29

15

65

19

19

56

26

22

51

27

Iceland

30

47

23

23

38

39

28

43

29

27

29

43

25

50

25

Ireland

12

41

48

11

36

53

28

39

33

20

38

42

8

39

52

Israel

11

35

54

10

31

59

17

47

37

13

41

45

20

32

49

Italy

55

36

9

45

39

16

40

45

15

36

43

21

51

37

13

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

29

41

30

32

38

30

7

41

52

10

42

48

30

39

31

Latvia

6

61

33

5

61

33

14

63

23

8

50

42

3

32

65

Lithuania

4

61

35

3

60

38

8

61

31

4

49

47

-

-

-

Luxembourg

29

26

45

28

27

45

22

51

27

26

45

29

19

22

59

Malta

48

28

24

44

26

30

56

27

17

55

27

19

37

22

40

Mexico

33

28

39

41

26

33

64

20

16

64

21

15

..

..

..

Netherlands

30

42

27

29

41

30

22

43

36

22

42

37

25

42

32

New Zealand

12

47

40

14

42

45

21

58

21

19

53

29

10

45

45

Norway

24

39

36

28

29

43

20

45

35

18

37

45

25

36

39

Poland

3

49

47

5

37

58

8

69

23

8

58

34

..

..

..

Portugal

37

38

25

28

36

36

58

25

17

49

24

27

39

41

20

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

-

24

61

15

28

55

17

-

-

-

Slovak Republic

10

62

28

10

62

28

8

74

18

11

64

25

8

48

44

Slovenia

18

67

15

29

49

22

11

63

26

12

48

40

19

68

13

Spain

47

31

22

41

33

26

45

23

32

40

23

37

41

31

28

Sweden

31

31

38

29

27

44

13

57

30

11

44

45

38

19

44

Switzerland

24

36

41

24

35

41

13

45

42

14

54

32

18

31

51

Turkey

53

27

19

50

27

22

62

21

17

73

14

13

..

..

..

United Kingdom

17

36

47

18

33

50

22

42

37

21

38

41

16

35

49

United States

25

37

38

22

36

42

8

51

41

7

45

48

20

34

46

OECD total

28

37

35

27

35

38

26

44

31

26

40

34

24

34

42

EU total

34

39

27

34

36

30

23

50

27

22

46

32

32

34

34

Source: Indicator 3.1.

Table A B.3. Distribution by level of education, evolution between 2006-07 and 2017
Change in percentage points, 15-64 population not in education

 

Foreign-born

EU-born

Non-EU-born

Native-born

 

Very low (ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Very low (ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Very low

(ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Very low (ISCED 0-1)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

High (ISCED 5+)

Australia

..

-11

14

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-14

10

Austria

1

-8

..

0

-4

..

2

-8

..

0

-4

..

Belgium

-8

-7

4

-10

-10

8

-8

-5

2

-5

-8

6

Bulgaria

2

4

-3

-

-

-

1

-1

11

-1

-6

6

Canada

..

-3

8

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-1

4

Chile

..

-2

-19

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-12

-5

Croatia

-6

-9

5

-2

-5

3

-6

-9

5

-3

-7

6

Cyprus1,2

3

-4

0

2

-2

-4

5

-3

3

-8

-9

11

Czech Republic

0

-10

13

-1

-13

14

0

-2

2

0

-5

10

Denmark

-1

-4

8

0

-4

6

-1

-9

11

3

3

1

Estonia

0

..

5

0

..

8

0

..

7

-1

..

4

Finland

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

France

-7

-9

6

-13

-14

12

-4

-6

3

-5

-11

9

Germany

0

-4

5

-1

-10

2

4

3

5

0

-3

3

Greece

-1

-7

3

5

3

3

-3

-4

1

-11

-14

10

Hungary

1

-1

-1

1

-3

0

0

5

-9

0

-6

6

Iceland

-2

-7

-5

-1

-7

-7

-2

-4

-2

-2

-14

10

Ireland

-3

-9

8

-3

-10

6

-1

-5

4

-7

-11

10

Israel

-4

-7

9

..

..

..

..

..

..

-6

-6

8

Italy

-4

2

0

-2

-1

-2

-4

-1

1

-9

-11

6

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Latvia

-1

-7

10

-1

-17

15

-1

-5

8

-1

-10

14

Lithuania

0

-4

13

-

-

-

0

-3

12

-1

-9

14

Luxembourg

-15

-8

15

-15

-9

16

-9

-3

10

-6

-10

9

Malta

..

-8

7

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-12

7

Mexico

..

7

-8

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-4

3

Netherlands

1

-3

6

-1

4

3

2

-3

5

-1

-7

7

New Zealand

..

-6

0

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-5

-5

Norway

-1

-7

5

-1

-5

0

-2

-7

8

-2

-6

10

Poland

-1

-16

27

0

-16

36

-2

-15

27

0

-6

11

Portugal

-14

-21

10

-13

-14

8

-14

-18

9

-23

-22

10

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-2

-2

5

Slovak Republic

-1

-4

6

-1

-5

2

0

-1

4

0

-3

9

Slovenia

-3

-9

6

-2

-7

6

-3

-6

1

-1

-7

12

Spain

-1

3

0

-2

0

2

-1

3

1

-11

-9

6

Sweden

-1

-1

12

-6

-8

16

0

1

8

-4

-9

10

Switzerland

-4

-8

13

-5

-8

12

-3

-4

8

-1

4

9

Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

United Kingdom

1

-7

19

1

-5

17

2

-5

20

0

-8

10

United States

-4

-7

7

..

..

..

..

..

..

0

-2

6

OECD total

-3

-5

7

..

..

..

..

..

..

-3

-5

6

EU total

-3

-4

7

-4

-7

5

-1

-2

7

-4

-8

8

Source: Indicator 3.1.

Table A B.4. Distribution by level of education and gender, evolution between 2006-07 and 2017
Change in percentage points, 15-64 population not in education

 

Foreign-born men

Foreign-born women

Native-born men

Native-born women

Recent migrants (<10 years)

 

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Low (ISCED 0-2)

Medium (ISCED 3-4)

High (ISCED 5+)

Australia

-9

-5

13

-14

-1

15

-12

4

7

-16

3

13

-7

-7

14

Austria

-6

..

..

-10

..

..

-1

..

..

-8

..

..

-12

..

..

Belgium

-6

4

3

-8

2

6

-7

3

4

-9

1

8

-3

2

1

Bulgaria

-

-

-

3

-12

9

-6

1

5

-6

-1

8

..

..

..

Canada

-2

-4

6

-4

-5

9

-1

-1

2

-2

-4

6

-4

-2

6

Chile

-2

22

-20

-1

19

-19

-11

16

-5

-12

17

-4

..

..

..

Croatia

-6

3

4

-11

5

6

-5

1

4

-9

1

8

..

..

..

Cyprus1,2

-4

3

1

-4

3

0

-7

1

7

-11

-5

16

-3

4

0

Czech Republic

-8

-3

11

-11

-5

16

-3

-4

7

-6

-6

13

0

-9

9

Denmark

-2

-2

5

-7

-5

12

7

-6

-1

0

-2

3

-16

-5

21

Estonia

..

..

1

..

..

10

..

..

3

..

..

5

..

..

27

Finland

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

France

-9

3

6

-10

3

7

-9

2

8

-12

2

10

-6

0

7

Germany

-2

-2

4

-6

0

6

-2

-2

3

-4

0

4

-5

-2

7

Greece

-8

7

1

-5

1

4

-14

6

8

-14

2

12

2

-4

3

Hungary

1

2

-3

-2

0

1

-5

0

5

-8

0

8

4

-4

0

Iceland

-2

14

-12

-11

9

2

-11

5

6

-17

3

14

..

..

..

Ireland

-10

1

9

-8

2

6

-11

3

9

-11

-1

12

-9

1

8

Israel

-7

-1

8

-7

-3

9

-6

-1

7

-5

-4

8

6

-2

-4

Italy

3

-3

-1

1

-2

1

-10

6

4

-13

5

8

3

-3

1

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Latvia

-9

-1

11

-6

-3

9

-11

2

9

-9

-10

18

-5

-24

29

Lithuania

-5

-9

14

-3

-9

11

-9

-1

10

-9

-9

18

..

..

..

Luxembourg

-8

-6

14

-9

-7

15

-7

0

6

-13

1

12

-5

-7

12

Malta

-4

-3

7

-11

3

8

-7

2

5

-17

9

8

..

..

..

Mexico

3

0

-4

10

3

-13

-3

1

2

-4

0

4

..

..

..

Netherlands

-3

-2

4

-4

-4

8

-5

0

5

-9

0

10

-3

-3

6

New Zealand

-6

6

0

-6

6

1

-4

9

-5

-6

12

-6

-5

5

-1

Norway

-8

3

5

-6

0

6

-5

-3

8

-7

-5

11

-12

2

10

Poland

-14

-5

20

-18

-16

34

-5

-3

8

-7

-8

14

..

..

..

Portugal

-19

12

8

-22

10

12

-20

12

8

-23

10

13

-11

8

3

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

-5

4

-5

-2

7

..

..

..

Slovak Republic

4

-6

2

-12

2

10

-2

-3

5

-4

-8

12

-10

-17

27

Slovenia

-5

3

1

-14

3

11

-6

-3

8

-8

-7

15

-3

16

-13

Spain

5

-4

-1

2

-3

0

-7

4

4

-12

4

8

1

-7

6

Sweden

0

-11

11

-3

-11

14

-8

0

8

-9

-4

13

2

-6

3

Switzerland

-5

-5

10

-12

-5

16

7

-11

4

1

-15

14

-7

-2

9

Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

United Kingdom

-5

-12

17

-9

-11

20

-4

-4

8

-11

-1

12

-4

-21

24

United States

-8

1

7

-5

-1

7

-2

-2

4

-2

-6

8

-15

0

15

OECD total

-5

-1

6

-5

-1

6

-4

0

4

-6

-2

8

-9

-3

12

EU total

-3

-3

6

-6

-2

8

-6

0

6

-9

0

9

-5

-6

11

Source: Indicator 3.1.

Table A B.5. Share of migrants with foreign education, 2015-16
Percentages, 15-64 population not in education

 

Total

Highly educated

Highly educated born in an EU country

Highly educated born in a non-EU country

 

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Australia

47

48

45

42

39

44

..

..

..

..

..

..

Austria

71

69

72

66

67

66

67

69

66

65

64

66

Belgium

68

68

68

62

63

62

68

71

65

57

56

57

Bulgaria

75

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Canada

..

..

..

50

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Chile

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Croatia

46

41

50

18

16

20

9

-

-

19

18

21

Cyprus1,2

79

77

79

69

68

69

67

69

66

70

66

72

Czech Republic

70

71

69

57

62

53

48

57

39

69

68

69

Denmark

59

61

57

57

60

55

58

61

56

57

59

55

Estonia

29

30

28

27

33

22

61

-

-

24

27

21

Finland

36

38

35

18

7

27

12

8

15

20

6

31

France

53

50

55

41

38

43

52

55

51

37

33

40

Germany

56

56

56

61

60

63

64

64

64

64

61

67

Greece

73

73

74

60

59

61

52

53

51

64

61

66

Hungary

68

70

66

47

51

44

51

61

40

40

30

50

Iceland

56

57

54

45

58

36

42

58

32

53

59

47

Ireland

67

68

65

68

68

68

63

65

62

74

72

75

Israel

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Italy

73

71

74

61

55

64

51

47

53

67

58

71

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

95

96

94

89

93

85

..

..

..

..

..

..

Latvia

33

34

33

25

24

25

11

6

14

27

27

27

Lithuania

73

75

71

54

54

54

-

-

-

57

57

57

Luxembourg

75

76

74

81

83

79

81

82

80

79

85

75

Malta

49

51

46

54

52

56

55

56

55

..

..

..

Mexico

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Netherlands

40

37

43

34

30

37

42

40

43

30

25

34

New Zealand

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Norway

64

66

60

64

66

62

69

72

66

58

59

56

Poland

..

..

..

..

..

..

 

 

 

..

..

..

Portugal

35

33

36

22

22

23

20

20

19

24

23

24

Romania

56

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Slovak Republic

57

58

56

46

46

45

33

-

-

63

-

-

Slovenia

64

63

64

35

36

35

27

24

29

39

41

38

Spain

72

72

72

64

67

62

64

71

58

64

64

64

Sweden

60

59

60

57

60

55

56

63

51

58

59

57

Switzerland

67

67

66

65

66

64

67

70

64

60

55

64

Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

United Kingdom5

51

52

49

42

44

39

45

52

41

40

41

38

United States

61

60

62

55

54

55

..

..

..

..

..

..

OECD total

61

60

61

53

54

54

..

..

..

..

..

..

EU total

60

59

60

51

52

51

56

60

53

49

48

51

Source: Indicator 3.1.

Table A B.6. Employment rates, 2017
Percentages of the 15-64 population

 

Foreign-born

Native-born

 

Total

Men

Women

Low- educated

Highly educated

EU-born

Non- EU-born

Recent (<5 years)

Settled (≥10 years)

Total

Men

Women

Low- educated

Highly educated

Australia

72

80

64

54

82

..

..

59

73

75

79

72

60

87

Austria

66

72

59

55

83

73

58

60

66

74

77

71

62

91

Belgium

54

61

47

41

75

64

46

50

54

64

67

61

46

87

Bulgaria

60

70

52

-

76

-

58

52

71

63

66

60

37

85

Canada

72

78

66

55

80

..

..

61

74

74

76

72

54

84

Chile

74

84

65

77

87

..

..

77

74

59

71

49

60

81

Croatia

56

64

49

35

79

63

55

-

57

56

61

52

37

82

Cyprus1,2

66

70

64

69

72

66

66

69

63

62

67

57

47

81

Czech Republic

77

87

68

59

84

72

74

66

73

73

81

66

50

88

Denmark

65

71

59

58

79

75

59

63

64

76

78

74

70

89

Estonia

72

78

66

65

76

69

70

73

70

74

77

71

66

88

Finland

60

67

53

61

76

70

53

45

67

70

71

70

53

86

France

57

65

49

48

75

66

52

39

58

66

69

63

53

87

Germany

67

74

60

58

80

77

60

49

73

76

79

73

66

91

Greece

53

65

42

56

57

55

53

38

54

54

63

45

48

73

Hungary

74

79

68

70

82

73

70

63

76

68

75

61

53

86

Iceland

83

87

80

86

90

85

80

80

80

85

88

83

82

95

Ireland

64

72

57

45

79

68

57

59

65

64

69

59

46

86

Israel

79

81

77

66

86

..

..

68

81

66

70

62

48

89

Italy

60

72

49

55

69

61

58

40

63

58

66

49

41

79

Japan

70

80

62

..

..

..

..

..

..

73

81

65

..

..

Korea

71

83

56

76

78

..

..

66

80

68

77

58

70

81

Latvia

67

72

62

47

77

69

64

41

65

70

72

69

59

89

Lithuania

70

72

69

-

81

62

69

-

69

70

71

70

47

91

Luxembourg

69

75

64

63

85

72

59

71

67

63

66

59

54

88

Malta

68

83

54

62

81

71

..

57

70

65

77

52

55

93

Mexico

52

66

39

60

79

..

..

..

..

61

79

45

65

81

Netherlands

64

71

57

51

82

75

57

45

63

78

82

74

70

91

New Zealand

74

80

67

63

85

..

..

68

76

75

79

70

64

90

Norway

68

73

63

56

82

81

60

63

70

76

76

75

63

92

Poland

70

75

67

-

82

65

58

..

..

66

73

59

43

89

Portugal

74

78

71

73

85

72

68

47

73

67

70

64

68

88

Romania

60

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

62

70

53

51

87

Slovak Republic

68

78

61

37

82

58

67

61

60

66

72

60

37

83

Slovenia

67

73

61

54

82

60

62

56

60

70

72

67

48

89

Spain

60

66

54

56

72

61

54

48

59

61

67

56

54

83

Sweden

67

71

63

57

83

76

60

48

73

80

81

80

67

94

Switzerland

76

84

68

69

84

81

68

74

76

82

85

79

78

92

Turkey

46

64

26

40

66

..

..

..

..

52

70

31

51

74

United Kingdom

73

83

64

62

86

78

67

67

73

76

79

72

65

88

United States

70

82

59

64

78

..

..

58

73

68

72

65

35

83

OECD total

68

77

59

58

79

..

..

57

71

67

74

60

55

84

EU total

64

73

57

55

80

71

59

53

66

68

73

63

53

87

Source: Indicator 3.4.

Table A B.7. Employment rates, evolution between 2006-07 and 2017
Change in percentage points, 15-64 population

 

Foreign-born

Native-born

 

Total

Men

Women

Low educated

Highly educated

EU-born

Non- EU-born

Recent (<5 years)

Settled (≥10 years)

Total

Men

Women

Low- educated

Highly educated

Australia

4

3

5

-4

-2

..

..

..

..

1

-2

3

-8

-2

Austria

3

1

5

-1

..

7

-2

7

0

3

1

6

2

..

Belgium

3

0

6

3

0

7

2

2

3

1

-2

4

-4

1

Bulgaria

-1

7

-7

-

-6

-

-1

-

-2

3

2

4

-1

2

Canada

2

1

3

-3

0

..

..

..

..

0

-1

1

-3

-1

Chile

9

5

11

7

7

..

..

..

..

3

-1

7

2

-3

Croatia

3

-1

6

1

-1

5

2

-

2

-1

-4

1

-7

0

Cyprus1,2

-5

-6

-5

-7

-5

0

-9

-3

-8

-8

-13

-2

-15

-8

Czech Republic

14

13

14

20

3

10

5

-11

16

8

6

9

13

2

Denmark

1

0

1

-5

-3

3

-1

1

-2

-3

-4

-1

-3

-1

Estonia

-1

1

-4

..

-6

-1

-3

-

-4

6

6

7

..

-1

Finland

-2

-1

-3

..

..

0

-2

-1

0

0

-1

1

..

..

France

-1

-2

0

-5

2

1

-3

1

-4

1

0

3

-6

2

Germany

8

6

9

5

9

11

2

5

10

6

4

8

3

3

Greece

-13

-19

-7

-17

-16

-8

-15

-22

-14

-7

-11

-3

-9

-11

Hungary

11

6

15

22

1

11

8

2

13

11

11

10

18

4

Iceland

-2

-3

0

-5

-2

1

-6

..

..

1

0

2

-4

0

Ireland

-8

-10

-5

-15

-5

-7

-6

-16

-3

-4

-8

0

-12

-4

Israel

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Italy

-6

-10

-1

-11

-7

-4

-8

-18

-5

0

-3

3

-10

-4

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Latvia

-5

-7

-5

-7

0

4

-9

-40

-7

4

1

7

6

-1

Lithuania

0

-4

4

-

-2

-

0

-

-1

6

4

9

5

1

Luxembourg

-1

-4

3

-5

0

0

1

-5

0

3

-2

8

0

2

Malta

12

7

15

9

10

..

..

..

..

11

4

17

8

6

Mexico

-2

-9

5

-2

10

..

..

..

..

0

-2

1

4

0

Netherlands

3

1

4

-3

2

4

-1

-4

-1

2

-1

4

2

2

New Zealand

3

2

5

1

3

..

..

..

..

-2

-4

0

-4

3

Norway

0

0

-1

-2

-7

0

-1

0

-2

-1

-3

1

-2

0

Poland

34

30

39

-

17

30

29

..

..

10

10

10

2

4

Portugal

2

0

4

-1

-2

5

-6

-25

-1

0

-3

3

-2

1

Romania

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

5

0

0

1

Slovak Republic

9

7

12

10

-2

-1

4

-

0

6

4

8

13

-2

Slovenia

-1

0

-1

-5

1

-4

-7

-

-8

2

1

4

-7

0

Spain

-11

-15

-5

-12

-6

-9

-16

-20

-11

-3

-9

2

-5

-3

Sweden

4

4

4

0

2

4

3

1

6

4

3

6

-1

3

Switzerland

3

1

4

0

0

3

1

3

2

2

-1

5

2

-1

Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

United Kingdom

7

6

8

10

0

3

5

0

6

4

2

6

-1

-2

United States

-1

-2

0

-3

-2

..

..

-8

-1

-2

-3

-1

-6

-1

OECD total

0

-1

2

-2

-1

..

..

-6

0

1

-1

2

1

0

EU total

1

0

3

1

3

3

-3

-6

2

3

1

5

-2

0

Source: Indicator 3.4.

Table A B.8. Unemployment rates, 2017
Percentages of the labour force, 15-64 population

 

Foreign-born

Native-born

 

Total

Men

Women

Low- educated

Highly educated

EU-born

Non- EU-born

Recent (<5 years)

Settled (≥10 years)

Total

Men

Women

Low- educated

Highly educated

Australia

6

5

7

9

4

..

..

9

5

6

6

5

8

3

Austria

11

11

10

19

6

8

14

11

11

4

5

4

10

2

Belgium

16

17

16

24

10

10

22

19

15

7

7

6

14

3

Bulgaria

4

7

-

-

2

-

0

-

2

8

9

8

23

4

Canada

7

6

8

10

7

..

..

11

6

6

7

5

14

4

Chile

6

5

7

5

4

..

..

6

5

8

7

9

8

6

Croatia

15

12

18

23

8

15

15

-

14

15

14

15

20

9

Cyprus1,2

14

15

12

14

12

14

13

9

17

14

14

15

20

11

Czech Republic

3

2

4

9

3

6

5

7

6

3

2

4

14

1

Denmark

10

9

10

14

8

9

14

16

10

5

5

5

9

4

Estonia

6

7

6

6

6

4

9

8

9

6

6

5

12

3

Finland

16

15

17

19

12

13

21

25

15

8

9

8

18

5

France

15

15

16

20

10

10

19

27

15

9

9

9

16

5

Germany

7

7

6

10

5

5

9

11

6

4

4

3

10

2

Greece

30

26

34

28

27

25

33

36

32

21

17

25

24

16

Hungary

3

3

4

7

1

5

8

5

7

4

4

5

11

2

Iceland

5

6

5

6

5

7

3

10

6

3

3

4

6

2

Ireland

10

11

9

19

8

10

11

11

10

8

10

7

16

4

Israel

4

4

4

4

3

..

..

8

4

4

4

5

8

3

Italy

14

13

16

16

11

14

16

24

14

11

10

12

16

6

Japan

5

6

5

..

..

..

..

..

..

4

5

4

..

..

Korea

4

3

6

3

5

..

..

4

3

4

4

4

3

4

Latvia

8

9

7

19

3

10

11

30

10

9

10

8

19

4

Lithuania

8

8

7

-

4

14

9

-

9

7

9

6

22

3

Luxembourg

9

8

9

12

5

7

16

11

8

5

5

4

10

2

Malta

6

4

8

7

3

3

..

10

6

5

5

5

8

2

Mexico

4

4

4

6

2

..

..

..

..

4

3

4

3

4

Netherlands

9

8

9

13

5

7

14

15

12

4

4

5

8

3

New Zealand

5

5

6

6

4

..

..

7

5

6

5

6

8

2

Norway

10

10

11

17

7

6

13

16

6

4

4

3

9

2

Poland

9

7

8

-

7

9

14

..

..

5

5

5

13

2

Portugal

10

10

11

11

8

10

16

27

13

9

9

9

10

6

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

7

6

9

4

Slovak Republic

8

8

8

-

3

12

9

10

12

8

8

8

30

4

Slovenia

8

5

10

10

4

10

12

16

11

6

6

7

12

5

Spain

23

22

25

29

17

23

31

29

28

16

15

18

24

9

Sweden

15

16

15

28

10

7

20

29

10

4

4

4

13

2

Switzerland

8

7

9

10

7

6

12

10

7

3

4

3

7

2

Turkey

12

12

14

12

11

..

..

..

..

11

9

13

10

13

United Kingdom

5

4

7

8

4

5

6

8

5

4

5

4

8

3

United States

4

4

5

5

3

..

..

6

4

5

5

5

14

3

OECD total

8

7

9

12

5

..

..

10

8

6

6

6

10

4

EU total

12

11

12

17

8

9

16

15

12

7

7

8

15

4

Source: Indicator 3.5.

Table A B.9. Unemployment rates, evolution between 2006-07 and 2017
Change in percentage points, 15-64 population

 

Foreign-born

Native-born

 

Total

Men

Women

Low- educated

Highly educated

EU-born

Non- EU-born

Recent (<5 years)

Settled (≥10 years)

Total

Men

Women

Low- educated

Highly educated

Australia

1

0

1

2

0

..

..

..

..

1

2

1

1

1

Austria

1

1

0

5

..

1

1

-3

2

0

1

-1

2

..

Belgium

0

1

-3

1

0

0

-1

-1

0

0

1

-2

2

0

Bulgaria

-3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-4

1

1

-1

4

1

Canada

0

0

0

0

1

..

..

..

..

0

1

0

2

1

Chile

0

2

-2

-1

1

..

..

..

..

0

1

-1

0

1

Croatia

2

1

3

5

2

-

2

-

2

4

5

3

7

2

Cyprus1,2

8

9

7

9

8

8

8

3

12

10

10

10

15

8

Czech Republic

-7

-6

-9

-21

-2

-5

-4

3

-8

-3

-3

-4

-9

-1

Denmark

2

1

3

3

2

4

5

7

3

1

2

1

3

1

Estonia

0

-1

0

..

0

3

2

-

2

1

1

1

..

1

Finland

0

1

-2

..

..

2

0

-4

1

1

1

0

..

..

France

2

3

2

5

0

2

4

3

4

1

2

0

5

0

Germany

-9

-9

-9

-10

-6

-7

-7

-16

-7

-5

-5

-5

-7

-1

Greece

21

21

19

20

17

16

24

26

22

12

12

12

16

9

Hungary

-2

0

-5

-4

-1

0

3

0

1

-3

-3

-3

-6

-1

Iceland

3

4

2

1

4

4

1

..

..

1

1

1

2

1

Ireland

4

5

3

10

3

4

4

4

5

4

5

3

9

2

Israel

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Italy

6

7

4

7

4

6

8

13

7

5

5

4

8

1

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Latvia

1

4

-1

10

-2

3

4

27

4

2

3

2

5

0

Lithuania

0

1

-1

-

1

-

2

-

2

2

4

1

13

1

Luxembourg

3

4

2

5

2

3

3

4

4

1

2

0

4

0

Malta

-2

-3

-1

-3

-2

..

..

10

6

-2

-1

-3

-1

-1

Mexico

-2

0

-7

1

-5

..

..

..

..

0

0

0

0

0

Netherlands

0

-1

0

2

0

1

3

3

3

1

1

1

2

1

New Zealand

1

1

1

1

0

..

..

..

..

2

2

2

2

-1

Norway

3

2

5

5

4

4

4

5

2

1

2

0

3

0

Poland

1

-2

1

-

-1

4

3

..

..

-7

-6

-8

-8

-3

Portugal

0

2

-1

1

-1

1

6

18

3

1

2

0

2

0

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-1

-1

0

0

0

Slovak Republic

-3

-1

-5

-

-2

2

-4

..

2

-4

-3

-5

-17

1

Slovenia

2

0

2

2

0

4

5

-

5

1

1

1

4

2

Spain

13

14

11

17

8

15

19

17

17

8

8

7

14

4

Sweden

2

3

2

9

0

1

3

9

-1

-1

-1

-2

2

-1

Switzerland

0

1

0

0

2

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

2

1

Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

-

..

..

..

..

..

..

United Kingdom

-2

-3

-2

-4

-1

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

0

United States

0

0

0

0

1

..

..

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

OECD total

0

0

0

2

0

..

..

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

EU total

0

1

0

3

0

1

3

1

2

0

0

-1

4

0

Source: Indicator 3.5.

Table A B.10. Over-qualification rates, 2017
Percentage of the highly educated employed population aged 15-64 not in education

 

Foreign-born

Native-born

 

Total

Men

Women

Recent (<10 years)

Settled (≥10 years)

Foreign- educated

Host-country

educated

EU-born

Non-EU-born

Total

Men

Women

Total

Foreign- educated

Host-country educated

Australia

32

33

32

..

28

35

29

..

..

..

..

23

23

23

Austria

38

35

41

40

36

45

31

34

49

56

40

27

26

28

Belgium

29

27

31

30

28

32

23

21

39

50

26

18

17

19

Bulgaria

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23

25

21

Canada

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Chile

38

37

40

38

41

..

..

..

..

..

..

41

42

39

Croatia

16

18

15

-

16

-

16

15

16

-

16

14

14

14

Cyprus1,2

45

33

53

50

41

51

35

38

53

60

40

33

28

36

Czech Republic

18

15

21

20

18

22

16

14

27

34

12

14

11

17

Denmark

29

30

28

37

24

40

18

24

33

47

22

11

11

11

Estonia

38

35

40

22

42

36

41

15

41

43

42

20

20

21

Finland

30

30

30

42

24

28

14

13

42

-

19

18

14

21

France

30

28

32

38

28

43

22

22

33

52

24

21

18

23

Germany

31

28

35

33

31

41

18

31

33

44

18

16

16

17

Greece

61

59

62

56

54

69

36

40

62

78

39

32

34

30

Hungary

19

19

19

19

17

16

20

15

24

-

26

13

13

12

Iceland

33

33

32

55

20

49

15

31

38

57

14

11

9

12

Ireland

41

37

45

43

39

43

38

42

39

38

40

29

29

30

Israel

35

35

36

56

33

..

..

..

..

..

..

18

20

17

Italy

52

49

53

66

46

67

32

37

62

77

35

17

13

20

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

74

79

65

77

59

77

47

..

..

..

..

60

64

53

Latvia

26

26

25

13

23

23

21

20

22

24

21

19

21

17

Lithuania

22

21

22

-

23

23

22

-

22

23

21

23

27

21

Luxembourg

5

4

7

5

6

6

5

5

8

10

4

3

5

2

Malta

23

16

30

30

18

..

..

15

..

..

..

12

9

14

Mexico

32

31

34

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

33

34

32

Netherlands

22

19

25

30

21

36

17

18

25

42

20

16

14

17

New Zealand

31

26

35

36

27

..

..

..

..

..

..

20

18

22

Norway

35

37

33

48

22

44

20

34

35

45

24

10

12

9

Poland

30

29

31

22

..

..

..

-

31

..

..

20

20

19

Portugal

25

24

26

46

17

47

13

18

21

58

11

12

10

13

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18

19

18

Slovak Republic

18

17

20

-

22

15

23

27

-

-

-

21

19

22

Slovenia

20

20

19

39

13

26

17

11

26

-

23

15

15

14

Spain

54

50

57

50

52

57

43

45

56

64

43

37

37

37

Sweden

30

32

28

40

23

42

14

21

35

50

17

11

12

11

Switzerland

17

16

18

16

20

18

17

14

26

30

21

19

20

17

Turkey

30

27

34

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

32

34

29

United Kingdom

32

29

34

38

27

31

31

36

29

27

30

23

22

25

United States

37

36

37

37

36

40

32

..

..

..

..

36

39

33

OECD total

35

34

36

38

34

40

29

..

..

..

..

31

33

29

EU total

34

31

37

38

31

42

28

31

35

46

27

21

20

22

Source: Indicator 3.10.

Table A B.11. Over-qualification rates, evolution between 2006-07 and 2017
Change in percentage points aged 15-64 not in education

 

Foreign-born

Native-born

 

Total

Men

Women

Recent (<10 years)

Settled (≥10 years)

Total

Men

Women

Australia

3

4

3

..

2

3

4

2

Austria

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Belgium

1

3

-1

-1

3

-3

-2

-5

Bulgaria

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

2

Canada

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Chile

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Croatia

2

-

-

..

..

2

2

2

Cyprus1,2

-6

-4

-8

-13

4

4

4

4

Czech Republic

4

2

5

2

10

8

6

11

Denmark

3

3

4

5

8

-1

-2

0

Estonia

-2

-7

2

-

1

-4

-4

-4

Finland

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

France

5

8

1

-6

6

1

3

-1

Germany

1

-2

3

-3

2

-4

-6

0

Greece

0

-2

2

-17

2

15

17

13

Hungary

5

10

-1

2

5

2

3

2

Iceland

5

7

2

..

..

1

1

1

Ireland

0

-3

3

-5

15

1

1

1

Israel

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Italy

10

5

12

8

19

5

4

6

Japan

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Korea

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Latvia

-4

-2

-6

..

-7

4

4

4

Lithuania

-8

-

-

..

-8

1

-1

2

Luxembourg

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

-1

Malta

6

0

12

..

..

5

3

6

Mexico

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Netherlands

3

1

5

6

4

3

3

3

New Zealand

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Norway

8

11

6

10

3

-1

0

-2

Poland

16

14

-

-

..

5

6

4

Portugal

1

-1

2

-6

5

0

0

0

Romania

-

-

-

-

-

9

9

9

Slovak Republic

11

8

-

-

16

12

10

14

Slovenia

10

9

12

..

5

8

8

8

Spain

-6

-8

-5

-19

23

5

3

6

Sweden

1

-2

3

3

-3

0

0

1

Switzerland

-1

0

-2

2

-1

-2

-3

0

Turkey

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

United Kingdom

9

9

8

12

5

1

3

-1

United States

-3

-3

-2

-3

-3

0

0

0

OECD total

-1

-2

-1

-4

0

0

0

0

EU total

1

0

1

-7

7

1

1

2

Source: Indicator 3.10.

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