The Digital Government Regional Review Promoting the Digital Transformation of African Portuguese-Speaking Countries and Timor-Leste was undertaken to support the governments of Angola, Cabo Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe and Timor-Leste in their shift from analogue government (paper-based administrative systems) and e-Government paradigms (digitised processes and services) to digital government. The review’s policy recommendations provide insights on important policy areas that include:

  • The use of digital technologies and solutions to enable core government functions.

  • Governance frameworks and institutional set-ups.

  • The use of policy levers to streamline ICT investment and contribute to more coherent and sustainable digital transformation of the public sector.

  • The development and reinforcement of digital skills within the public sector.

  • The reinforcement of an open and user-driven culture in the public sector.

  • The promotion of integrated digital service delivery based on inclusive, multichannel approaches.

This review is the first cross-country comparative study on the digital transformation of the public sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is based on the analytical frameworks for digital government, open government data and data-driven public sector provided by the OECD Recommendation on Digital Government Strategies (2014), and on the extended work of the OECD Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) in developing contexts.

Despite sharing the same language and having a similar cultural, legal and institutional legacy, African Portuguese-Speaking countries and Timor-Leste (PALOP-TL) have followed different pathways regarding the integration of digital technologies into government processes, policy making and the design and delivery of public services. The governments of PALOP-TL countries are facing the challenges of rapid technological change and rising citizen expectations for high-quality, convenient public services. These changes provide an opportunity for PALOP-TL countries to deliver development dividends for all, through the use of digital technologies to establish collaborative and citizen-driven approaches. As highlighted by the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies (2014), a digital transformation is not only a strategic driver for improving public sector efficiency and effectiveness, but can also create more open, transparent, innovative, participatory and trustworthy governments to ensure no one is left behind in the development process.

Angola, Cabo Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe and Timor-Leste have made significant progress in recent years in using digital technologies to promote internal efficiency, simplify government procedures and improve public services. Nevertheless, in order to fully reap the benefits of technology to modernise core administrative functions, such as collecting revenues, monitoring expenditure and managing the civil service, PALOP-TL countries must still make further progress in their digital government policies and practices.

Clear mandates, adequate institutional arrangements and effective policy levers, such as co-funding mechanisms, budget thresholds and business cases, are an important basis for supporting a coherent and sustainable digital transformation of the public sector supported by adequate political support. PALOP-TL countries are also encouraged to mobilise digital technologies to collaborate more systematically with citizens in policy making. Interoperability frameworks, data standards and digital identity systems can also support integrated, multichannel and inclusive digital service delivery approaches, and assist PALOP-TL countries to address their development divide.








Prior Notice: this review was funded by the Project of Support to Improvement in Quality and Proximity of Public Services of the African Portuguese-Speaking Countries and Timor-Leste (PASP PALOP-TL), a project co-financed by the European Union (EUR 5,000,000.00) under the 10th European Development Fund, and co-financed and implemented by Camões – Institute for Cooperation and Language, I.P. (EUR 1,000,000.00). Technical oversight of the project was provided by the Administrative Modernization Agency, I.P. (AMA, I.P.).




Disclaimer of Liability:

This publication was produced as part of the Project of Support to Improvement in Quality and Proximity of Public Services of PALOP and Timor-Leste (PASP / PALOP-TL). Its contents are the sole responsibility of its authors. Neither Camões, I.P nor any individual acting on behalf of the Camões, I.P is responsible for the use that may be given to the following information. The designations and presentation of the materials and data used in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of Camões, IP, Portuguese Cooperation or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or authorities, as well as the expression of any opinion regarding the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Reference to specific projects, programs, products, tools or services does not imply that these are supported or recommended by Camões, I.P., giving preference to others of a similar nature, which are not mentioned or publicized.


Contact: Camões - Institute of Cooperation and Language, I.P. | Ministry of Foreign Affairs | Avenida da Liberdade, 270, 1250-149 Lisbon, Portugal. +351 213 109 100 |[email protected]


Website Camões, I.P .:

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picture Disclaimer of liability:

This document has been prepared with the financial participation of the European Union. The opinions expressed in it do not necessarily reflect the official position of the European Union.

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