Chapter 3. Bandung, Indonesia

Chapter 3 examines the threat of natural disasters in Bandung, and how the city and metropolitan area can build greater resilience to them systematically and comprehensively through a variety of means.

The chapter is divided into three sections: 1) the natural hazards that pose the greatest risk to Bandung are identified; 2) the current state of DRM policy in Bandung is assessed; and 3) co-ordination and governance mechanisms between government entities and other stakeholders are discussed.

A focus is placed on the impacts of natural disasters and urban resilience policies on the most vulnerable segments of the local population. In addition, the chapter also stresses the need for broad support and full engagement of affected communities, civil society, and the private sector, with local political leadership.

This chapter draws on the key findings of the OECD study “Green Growth in Bandung, Indonesia” (OECD, 2016). It also benefited from discussions held during the third Knowledge-Sharing Workshop ‘Smart Cities and Green Growth’ in Bandung (6 -7 May, 2015), and by independent research and discussions with subject matter experts in Indonesia, Asia, Europe, and the United States.

Main Points
  • The most serious natural hazards facing the Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) stem from increasingly frequent and destructive floods followed by less frequent, but potentially more devastating impacts from volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Fires and landslides also pose risks. This is partially due to topography and Bandung’s location in a geologically and seismically active area, and tropical monsoon climate. The city’s exposure to flooding risks is exacerbated by the concentration of poorly prepared urban populations in highly exposed parts of the city.

  • One of the basic building blocks for the BMA is to undertake a vulnerability and risk assessment (VRA) and asset inventory. Currently, no hazard maps have been developed by the City of Bandung and other local government units in the BMA. The next step is to revise zoning regulations and land use controls based on the VRA and asset inventory in order to prevent urban population and economic activities from locating in the most risk-prone areas.

  • Applying ICT tools to DRM is a promising option for the BMA, given that the City of Bandung is developing strategies to become a regional leader in the smart city field. Digital technologies can help to make urban planning more resilient through a flood early warning system, to co-ordinate the evacuation and rescue response teams and to reach-out to and receive real-time feedback from local communities and the private sector and to assess the performance of recovery efforts more efficiently.

  • The current DRM approach in the BMA is very focused on disaster response and co-ordination between local governments in the BMA has been a challenge. In June 2018, a presidential decree officially approved the establishment of a BMA-level metropolitan co-ordinating body, which should be particularly useful to enhance horizontal policy co-ordination on DRM.

  • Within the City of Bandung, a lack of horizontal co-operation also increases the cities’ vulnerability to flooding. A possible solution is to create a DRM taskforce which could put all the relevant departments in the city government on board, and advised by external advisory groups. The Bandung Command Centre could be used as a more central governance tool in DRM in the city, co-ordinating data and action from the various relevant departments.

  • Building greater DRM requires the participation of a broad spectrum of stakeholders and collaboration in shared decision-making processes. An inclusive approach involving all major stakeholders includes public agencies at various levels of government and across different agencies and has been shown to greatly improve the quality, acceptance, and durability of the solutions generated. An ideal vehicle for such collaboration would be the VRA and Local Resilience Action Plan (LRAP) processes.

Natural disaster risks

Bandung is located in the central-west interior of the island of Java, about 140 kilometres south-east of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. The Bandung Metropolitan Area (Cekungan Bandung, as it is widely known) covers a mountainous and elevated area of 3 488 km² (Figure 3.1). Bandung City, located at the centre of this metropolitan area, is the capital of West Java Province. Bandung’s economic activities extend beyond the administrative borders of Bandung City and encompass a much larger urban agglomeration. The Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) boundary identified in the West Java Province Spatial Plan is the principal analytical unit of this report. On some occasions where data for the metropolitan area are not available, the analysis only takes Bandung City into account.

Figure 3.1. Map of Bandung Metropolitan Area

Source: Bandung City (2016), “Answers to the OECD case study questionnaire”, internal document, unpublished.

Bandung’s location 768 metres above sea level, mountainous geography and a mild climate distinguish it from the other case study cities. It also exposes it to a number of natural hazards. For example, in 2014, West Java Province recorded 290 natural disasters, more than anywhere else in Indonesia. Moreover, Bandung recorded the second highest number of disaster events nationally with 31 or more than 10% (Jakarta Post, 2014a). The most serious natural hazards facing Bandung stem from increasingly frequent and destructive floods followed by less frequent and predictable, but potentially more devastating impacts from volcanic eruptions, landslides, and earthquakes. Fires also pose serious risks to Bandung.

These natural hazards have the power to severely damage Bandung’s critical infrastructure, public services, and built environment, putting people and their livelihoods and assets at risk. They also have the potential to undermine the sustainability of Bandung’s economic and social advances in the future, and its environmental quality. The potential failure of critical urban systems, such as the city’s electrical grid, transportation links or water supply and sanitation systems impedes immediate disaster response and recovery efforts.

Bandung’s valley floor location close to the Citarum River and surrounding volcanic peaks that reach heights of 2 000 metres make it vulnerable to flooding. High and extreme variation in rainfall between the wet and dry seasons generates a basin effect where water drains towards the river, presenting manifold and ongoing water-induced challenges.

Flooding has the largest impact on people’s livelihoods in Indonesia and represents nearly 40% of all disasters nationwide. For instance, the 2014 Christmas floods that inundated several city districts for two weeks heavily affected the city and caused considerable damage. The floods also inundated 36 000 households in five northern districts upstream of Bandung along the Citarum River for almost two weeks (Jakarta Post, 2014b). Indonesia’s national agency for disaster management (BNBP) has warned that flooding in Bandung has become an almost annual occurrence since the 1980s due to its growing population, local topographic location on a valley floor surrounded by mountains, and tropical monsoon hydrological regime. In the future, these factors will leave Bandung increasingly exposed and vulnerable to floods especially as the climate changes.

The threat posed by flooding in Bandung, due to heavy rainfall associated with the tropical monsoon climate, is exacerbated by a number of human factors, including: i) Land conversion of natural areas upstream for agricultural or new housing projects; ii) presence of larger populations living in ‘harm’s way’ in low-lying flood-prone areas in Bandung; and iii) Poorly-maintained drainage systems in parts of the old city centre along the Citarum River and its tributaries as well as along dozens of drainage canals.

Bandung is also threatened by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions due to its location in a geophysical active area of central West Java. These are the two other most serious, but less frequent, natural hazards Bandung is facing. The most recent major earthquake in 2009 (magnitude 7.0 on the Richter scale) killed 79 people, injured hundreds of others, and damaged many buildings in Bandung (Earthquake Track, 2016). The active Tangkuban Perahu volcano is also one of 17 volcanoes monitored by Indonesia’s National Agency for Disaster Management (BNBP) in West Java. In combination, landslides instigated by seismic activity also pose significant risks as well.

Assessment of DRM policies

Vulnerability and risk assessment

One of the basic building blocks of resilience enhancement in any city is to undertake a vulnerability and risk assessment (VRA) and asset inventory. The fundamental steps and processes involved are only just beginning in Bandung now. The VRA mapping exercise that city officials and community representatives conducted with assistance from USAID in 2015 represents one of several methodologies that have been developed by various multi-lateral development banks and international organisations (Box 3.1).

Box 3.1. VRA mapping and LRAPs in Bandung

The City of Bandung recently received a one-week training workshop (May 2015) in the Vulnerability Risk Assessment (VRA) methodology developed under the USAID Adapt Asia and Pacific Project by the East-West Centre of the University of Hawaii. That methodology can be accessed from Dr. Kem Lowry at, or at

Many variations of VRA methods exist from most of the multi-lateral and bi-lateral donors as well as a number of international NGOs, such as 100 Resilient Cities, ICLEI, ACCCRN, etc.

The World Bank has developed the methodology for creating Local Resilience Action Plans (LRAPs), which have been piloted in various cities around the world and are available on-line through the World Bank’s “e-Library.”

Source: Author’s elaboration.

Zoning regulations and building codes

Buildings and the housing stock in cities are among the greatest causes of death and destruction in most disasters. When buildings or homes collapse in earthquakes, floods, mudslides or landslides, they injure or kill many people. Collapsed buildings have accounted for nearly two-thirds of all natural disaster fatalities since 1980 (Munich RE, 2015). In Bandung however, people have been allowed to settle and build in flood-prone areas and this development is actually increasing the city’s exposure to further flooding risks (Tarigan, et al., 2016). At a national level, it is estimated by the Ministry of Public Works that in excess of 25 million people already live in highly exposed settlements in rapidly growing and unprepared urban slums (Give2Asia, 2016). Their vulnerability is more attributable to poorly enforced zoning regulations and land use controls than it is to topography or hydrology. Bandung should critically strengthen its enforcement of zoning regulations and building codes to minimise damages and losses from flooding or landslides caused by periodically intense tropical rainstorms.

Bandung could facilitate efforts to convert these areas into attractive and widely used public spaces to prevent re-settlement by squatters or from being used illegally to dump wastes. The Citarum River, which runs through the heart of Bandung, is heavily polluted by human and toxic wastes containing lead, mercury, arsenic and other toxins (Box 3.2). They are dumped into the river without treatment from more than 2,000 industries and textile factories located in Bandung and Cimahi (ADB, 2007).

Box 3.2. Revitalising the Citarum River

In 2008, the Asian Development Bank approved a $500 million loan to clean up the Citarum river. However, work did not begin until late 2011 when a much larger (USD 4 billion) and more comprehensive project to revitalise 180 kilometres from Mount Wayang through eight regencies and three cities, including Bandung, was initiated. As of yet, the area running through Bandung has not been developed into a ‘showpiece’ of urban renewal efforts. This is an opportunity for Bandung to use it for the dual purpose of providing much needed space for urban recreation while retaining its flood-protection properties when needed. There are also other ways to create multi-purpose public spaces, such as below grade parks, playing fields, and underground parking lots, for their temporary water storage capacity, which could significantly improve Bandung’s resilience to periodic floods.

Source: Author’s elaboration.

Co-benefit DRM approach

Bandung has begun to pursue integrated, cross-sectoral planning in at least two critically important areas: (i) land-use spatial planning efforts to create new development projects as self-contained, multi-purpose areas where people can ‘work, live, and play’ in safer, less crowded areas, and (ii) by connecting them to other areas using high-quality public transportation modes. This type of transit oriented development (TOD) which promotes interconnected nodes could also incorporate other DRM strategies by making greater use of renewable energy sources, land and water resources, and more energy efficient buildings, cars, and factories.

This assessment found that poor solid waste management is one of the critical issues undermining DRM in Bandung. Bandung requires an improvement to solid waste collection systems and public health awareness-building campaigns in order to reduce the amount of garbage illegally dumped into local streams and drainage canals. The use of ICT should be pursued to enhance solid waste management. For instance, Bandung could create a special smartphone application to report uncollected solid waste in the city so that citizens can alert a special waste management unit of the City of Bandung. The Bandung Command Centre has the capacity to easily collect such input from citizens since it already communicates with them through Twitter. In parallel, awareness programs would need to be launched by the city government to communicate the benefits of such an application.

The Love Clean London initiative is a good inspiration: it enables citizens to report environmental problems such as poor waste storage, through texts, uploaded photographs, and reports submitted through a free application. The reports can be visualised on a map by the city government to show where clean-up actions are most needed (BIS, 2013). In Barcelona (Spain), garbage bins are equipped with sensors that send alerts to residents when they get full, to encourage them to minimise waste and recycle. In Groningen (the Netherlands), smart bins automatically send text message to the city government when they are full. It allows reducing labour and petrol costs – and thus environmental impacts – by sending garbage trucks only to bins that need emptying (BIS, 2013).

Use of ICT

Smart city tools can be an effective means to make Bandung more resilient to disaster risk. They are rapidly developing in many cities, which are already relying on sensors to monitor water levels and seismic activities. Bangkok’s Flood Control Centre (FCC) is a good example (see Section 0). Although there is room for improvement of the FCC (e.g. such as adding more elaborated analytical capacities such as the 3Di tool), it can be an interesting starting point to create smart resilient infrastructure in the City of Bandung. A complementary initiative that the City of Bandung could consider to monitor river and canal management would be to assess the conditions of waterway infrastructure such as gates. In the Santa Clara County, California, district field staffs were sent to the field to catalogue the condition of such infrastructure, with the help of GIS tablets. This initiative not only digitalised such information but also made it more easily accessible for the city government.1

There is a need to assess the quality of river and canal water in Bandung, as poor quality water represents a major health hazard if a flood occurs. Sensors could be placed in strategic locations and send data to the Bandung Command Centre for on-screen visualisation. While the city’s Command Centre will be useful to co-ordinate the action of emergency response teams, developing other smart initiatives could allow the city to tackle the lack of resilience more comprehensively, in particular by enhancing urban planning, infrastructure management, and the effectiveness of local community and private sector engagement before, during and after a disaster.

GIS is one of the most common digital tools used for mapping flood risk assessment. With regard to floods for instance, it consists in overlaying different types of GIS maps (e.g. topography, rivers, urban areas) to identify populations physically exposed to floods and earthquakes. However, no hazard map has been developed by the City of Bandung to identify such populations and take actions accordingly to prevent high human and economic damages from a potential future flood or earthquake. Capacity building is therefore required to develop such hazard maps.

However, GIS hazard maps are relatively static and do not provide an understanding of the dynamic impacts that a disaster such as a flood can have. In this regard, the City of Bandung could also consider complementary types of digital technologies to inform resilient urban planning. The Public Utilities Board of Singapore, for instance, is using simulation software called 3Di.2 This not only measures real-time water levels in different places in the city, but analyses, models and forecasts potential water flows in the city in case of flash floods. Such a system can help to identify catchment-wide solutions to reduce the speed of surface runoff in urban areas, to identify which areas to monitor and to decide proactively on appropriate land-use and infrastructure strategies (Public Utilities Board of Singapore, 2013). Such technology should be distributed to other local authorities in the West Java Province and to the provincial government, to assess region-wide water flows and encourage a comprehensive regional approach. This is critical because the software may help to identify weaknesses in other local areas that are also risk factors for the City of Bandung.

The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyser estimates the human and economic damages potentially born by floods, based on different scenarios and geographical scales. For instance, it estimates that even in a scenario of moderate climate change and continuation of current socio-economic development trends, and assuming a 50-year infrastructure protection, the West Java State could undergo damages of more than USD 500 million by 2030, and more than 47 000 persons would be affected. Since West Java State is the smallest unit of analysis, the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyser does not produce detailed information on the City of Bandung or its metropolitan area. The local government could therefore consider developing a partnership with the WRI to produce data at the local level.

This study found that ICT can provide a more ambitious and needed understanding of the performance of infrastructure as regards resilience. The Bandung Command Centre could connect information on water levels collected through sensors and warning systems that would automatically be activated. Such sensors need to be developed and digitalised in parallel with a geo-referenced database of natural streams and man-made drainage channels to help identify their proper locations. Although sensors are important, further tools need to be developed to grasp the complexity of the impact of a natural disaster on urban infrastructure, and how to manage all types of infrastructure (transport, energy, water, etc.) in a co-ordinated way when a disaster occurs. Rio de Janeiro’s Operations Centre is a citywide data system integrating information on different types of urban infrastructure. It collates all data, input online, to identify trends and complex impacts of potential disasters, such as floods, fires and landslides. Further, the Operations Centre remotely controls sirens that indicate to people in the poorest urban areas where to take shelter in case of heavy rainfall The City of Bandung could consider developing such technology, and integrate it in the Bandung Command Centre, considerably enlarging its disaster response capacities, which are mostly limited to police and fire brigade interventions.

The Bandung Command Centre already informs police and fire brigades if a disaster occurs, but this study has found that the local government should also include the citizens as a critical resource to ensure resilience. The Centre can utilise smart city tools during a disaster to collect street-level information from citizens to identify priority needs. The leaders of volunteer communities should be identified and can be equipped with mobile devices so that the local government or the Centre can contact them directly. Since Bandung faces the risk of a major earthquake, flood or volcanic eruption, it should develop a system to identify priority needs such as an emergency switchboard. The Bandung Command Centre could work as a central unit collecting and organising SMS, calls, and social media posts since it already collects input from citizens via Twitter. The staff in charge of the Centre must be ready to receive a greater number of inputs in case of disaster, and thus, capacity building may be required.

Assessment of DRM governance structure

Vertical and horizontal co-ordination

Disaster response falls under the aegis of the National Agency for Disaster Management (BNBP) and Disaster Management Authority (DMA) as the lead agencies in Indonesia. They co-ordinate with other ministries at the national level and with provincial level BNBP agencies to carry out their respective roles and responsibilities. At the national level, the BNBP has been actively implementing programmes to enhance the country’s DRM, many of which are related to cities. For example, a program to strengthen its national and regional hydro-meteorological institutions has been conducted with technical and financial assistance from USAID as part of the Asia Flood Network. Overall, there were 14 country-specific programmes in 2014. The other programmes include: the Program for the Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER), the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), Mobile Communication for Preparedness in Southeast Asia Program, and the Indonesia Liquidity Facility After Disasters (ILFAD) Program.

Despite the Indonesian government’s active engagement, DRM actions at local levels are not well linked with the central government. For example, the DMA reports that many provincial disaster management agencies (BPBDs) have limited human and financial resources, inadequate equipment, and lack local disaster preparedness plans. They also reported that BPBDs are reluctant to use their limited provincial budgets and instead rely on Indonesia’s national disaster funds. Only 18 of the 33 provinces in Indonesia have established corresponding regional offices (Give2Asia, 2016). In addition, the current DRM approach in the BMA is very focused on disaster response. A governance reform within the administration may be necessary to adopt a more holistic approach including preparation and prevention policies. Understanding the potential benefits of a holistic approach to DRM would be crucial to gain political support at the provincial and local levels and to lead policy actions.

The City of Bandung demonstrates a lack of horizontal co-operation within the city government in terms of DRM. An ad-hoc Task Force on Disaster Management (Satkorlak Penanggulangan Bencana dan Pengungsi), which incorporates several public agencies, focuses solely on post-disaster response, and while the fire department is responsible for disaster preparation, uncertainty clouds other agencies’ respective responsibilities (Bandung City, 2015). The lack of clearly defined roles has led to inadequate co-ordination and communication between departments, especially as part of preparation and prevention efforts. This is partly because DRM is understood as disaster response (thus understood as something for which the fire department should be responsible). In addition, although the notion of DRM becomes wider, cities where their governance systems are rigidly ‘stove-piped within sectoral silos’ tend to have greater difficulty addressing the cross-sectoral implications of climate and disaster threats. Responsibilities and roles tend to be rigidly defined, but fragmented and disputed. This slows down efforts to build greater climate resilience beforehand and to respond afterwards.

A possible solution is to create a DRM taskforce chaired by the Department of Development and Planning of Bandung City. Such a taskforce could bring all the relevant departments in the city government on board, and be advised by external advisory groups who can oversee all the city government’s DRM actions. The Bandung Command Centre could also be used as a more central governance tool in DRM in the city to co-ordinate data and action from the various relevant departments (not only fire and rescue but also environment, urban planning, communication, police, etc.). Another important option is a Local Resilience Action Plan, which can mainstream DRM across Bandung’s plans, budgets, and daily operations.

Local co-ordination

In June 2018, a presidential decree officially approved the establishment of a BMA-level metropolitan co-ordinating body. The first of its kind in Indonesia, the establishment of such a body should be welcomed as it seeks to enhance policy co-ordination on DRM. The objective of this body is to co-ordinate policies through BMA-wide master plans, but also to facilitate private investment in the region. West Java Province functions as a co-ordinator for the body and decisions will be collectively made by the five municipalities. This executive structure will be particularly helpful as the West Java Province is always involved in any project mobilising at least two municipalities, which is the case of some ongoing projects such as the Light Rapid Transit (LRT). It could also be an opportunity for the provincial government to be more active and visible in the development of the BMA. The central government can intervene on certain issues – the BMA is designated as a “national strategic area” – and also has important financial influence as it can decide whether to prioritise projects collectively agreed upon by the BMA.

The establishment of the new body will be particularly useful since co-ordination between local governments in the BMA has been a challenge to date. As mentioned previously, decentralisation reforms in Indonesia have tended to empower cities without creating incentives for horizontal collaboration in parallel, thereby discouraging local governments from making efforts to talk to and govern with their neighbours. In addition, many local government officials lack awareness on the co-ordination needs created by decentralisation reforms and their potential benefits (Firman, 2009). The parochial attitude of many local governments has caused a number of problems in services which require cross-border co-operation, including solid waste management and water supply, in many regions in Indonesia (Firman, 2009). This has exacerbated the already limited provision of urban services because the BMA’s local governments work counterintuitively to their collective good.

In order to enhance DRM in the BMA, the new metropolitan co-ordinating body could address in priority the following most critical horizontal co-ordination issues in the BMA:

  • Flood risk management: rapid land-conversion for real estate development in the BMA has decreased its ecological function and water absorptive capacities, leading to higher risks of floods (Hudalah, et al., 2010). Part of the problem lies in the absence of a metropolitan-wide action plan for flood management, with strategies such as the creation of buffer zones.

  • Solid waste management: the City of Bandung lacks appropriate space to dump collected solid waste in sanitary landfills and to adapt to the increasing amounts of waste generated, which already exceed current collection and treatment capacities. At present, BMA’s five municipal areas rely on the same landfill site, which is under great stress and has been repeatedly scheduled to close, most recently in 2015 (IGES and City of Kawasaki, 2015). Negotiations to use vacant lands in the surrounding areas of BMA have been unsuccessful (Tarigan, et al., 2015) and further co-operation is needed. Some current green projects such as the introduction of biodigesters in Bandung City will also receive waste from the surrounding municipalities and require efficient co-operation on the conveyance system; and

  • Water supply: the five municipalities of the BMA use the same groundwater aquifer, which is under stress from high consumption from residential, commercial and industrial activities. To avoid depletion of water resources and ensure sustainable supply to the households and economic activities, all local government units must agree together on a water supply and sanitation plan and adopt harmonised water extraction rules in the whole BMA. Likewise, the study on the drainage master plan undertaken in 2009 in the BMA recommended metropolitan-wide watershed management actions such as building dams and water ponds. No implementation has followed the study to date.

As the co-ordinating body was only recently approved by presidential decree in June 2018, it is too early to assess its implementation. In order to assess the effectiveness of its implementation in the future, a few criteria must be considered: the transparency of decision-making; the adequacy of the technical, political, and financial resources of the BMA; whether co-ordination mechanisms with other levels of government have been established, and the legitimacy of such mechanisms; whether the intended authority conferred to the body has been respected in practice. Effective monitoring and evaluation practices must be implemented to assess these criteria and should be prioritised.

Disaster risk financing

Bandung is in a similar situation to many other cities in the developing world in that the financial resources are difficult to obtain and are inadequate relative to the scale required. To date, Bandung has used traditional financing instruments and approaches of “balance sheet” self-funding, transfers from provincial and central governments, and conventional financing to pay for public amenities and services.

There was little evidence of innovative financing strategies or climate risk insurance instruments being used to pay for or insure investments that would enhance Bandung’s financial capacity. Although Bandung’s revenue has recently increased, the city of Bandung still has limited authority and scope to internally generate its revenue and must depend upon its own limited resources, government transfers, and private sector financing.

Stakeholder engagement

Building greater resilience to climate change and natural disasters will also enhance Bandung’s local social capital. In addition to the Bandung government’s own DRM efforts, public officials should engage the largest possible coalition of local stakeholders in all shared decision-making processes. These stakeholders should come from local private sector associations, community and civic groups, religious and educational institutions, and work together in partnership with local and provincial government authorities to create innovative solutions to their most pressing concerns and needs related to DRM. An ideal vehicle for such collaboration would be the VRA and LRAP processes.

In addition to urban planning and infrastructure strategies, effectively engaging the private sector and local communities is a very important requirement to ensure economic and social resilience. Of course, the internet provides opportunities to diffuse information about natural disasters and how to be prepared for them, as exemplified by the Greater London Authority (detailed above). The City of Bandung should replicate this digital tool while diffusing information about resilience more comprehensively. The overall objective should be to more effectively engage the private sector and local communities before, during and after a disaster.

Main policy recommendations
  • Continue the development and implementation of a comprehensive vulnerability risk assessment (VRA) and a local resilience action plan (LRAP) for the BMA through international assistance.

  • Establish a DRM taskforce chaired by the Department of Development and Planning of Bandung City and consulted by relevant city government departments and external advisory groups in order to oversee the city government’s DRM actions.

  • Enhance resilient urban planning through GIS vulnerability mapping and flood simulation software, as well as data collection in co-operation with international institutes such as the WRI.

  • Strengthen enforcement of zoning regulations and building codes to minimise damages and losses from natural disasters.

  • Develop the capacities of the Command Centre to manage infrastructure in times of disaster by collecting real-time data on their condition, with the help of digital technologies.

  • Create a smart early warning system and ICT mechanisms to reach-out to and to provide assistance to citizens and the private sector, as well as to collect real time data in the event of a disaster.

  • Engage companies and financial institutions in the private sector with economic interests at stake or strategic contributions to make, as well as affected communities, civil society groups, researchers and academicians, and the media.

  • Monitor the implementation of the co-ordination mechanism introduced by the recently created BMA co-ordinating body, and consider adjustments where necessary.


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← 1.

← 2. The 3Di Water Management software was developed by Deltares, the Delft University of Technology and Nelen & Schuurmans, in the Netherlands.

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