Chapter 5. Creating a culture of integrity in Nuevo León using a whole-of-society approach

This chapter analyses whether Nuevo León’s integrity reforms are effectively engaging citizens, civil society and the private sector in recognising their shared responsibility for public integrity. It identifies additional strategies for raising awareness and increasing knowledge about the social, economic and political benefits of public integrity for society. This chapter also assesses the initiatives that have been launched in the state to instil integrity norms and values in children and youth. It provides recommendations for mainstreaming the existing programmes into the main curriculum and ensuring that teachers have the skills to provide education on integrity in the classroom.

    

5.1. Introduction

Public integrity is not only the responsibility of public officials. Citizens, firms and civil society also have a responsibility to uphold the integrity of their communities. In whatever capacity they serve, citizens have three core roles. First, as watchdogs of government officials and politicians, they can hold officials accountable for the promises they make and the actions they take to prevent corruption and cultivate public integrity. Second, citizens and firms are also active members of the community and have a responsibility to promote public integrity more generally in society. When citizens and/or firms pay bribes, evade taxes, receive fraudulent social benefits or exploit public services without paying, they are unfairly diverting government resources and undermining the fabric of society. Third, citizens are also employees of the private or public sectors, where they are expected to comply with their obligations to maintain public integrity.

When corruption is an entrenched social norm, integrity policies must find solutions to cultivate new social norms and behaviour. This means disrupting norms that encourage circumventing the rules, such as paying bribes to obtain public services faster or buying public positions. Challenging entrenched norms also requires confronting the collective action problem, where corrupt behaviour is justified because “Everyone else is doing it”. These efforts must take place both in the public sector and more broadly across society.

Taking a whole-of-society approach to fighting corruption, therefore, should be at the heart of a strategic approach to any government’s anti-corruption policies. Governments can promote a culture of public integrity by partnering with the private sector, civil society and individuals, in particular through:

  • explicitly acknowledging in the public integrity system the role of the private sector, civil society and individuals in respecting integrity values in their interactions with the public sector and with each other.

  • encouraging the private sector, civil society and individuals to uphold those values as their shared responsibility, by:

    • raising awareness in society of the benefits of integrity and reducing tolerance of violations of public integrity.

    • Carrying out, where appropriate, campaigns to promote civic education on public integrity among individuals and particularly in schools (OECD, 2017[1]).

5.2. Cultivating a shared sense of responsibility for integrity across society

5.2.1. The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could propose awareness raising activities for citizens and firms on their roles and responsibilities for respecting public integrity.

Citizens in Nuevo León show a high tolerance for paying bribes in dealing with the public administration in various sectors (education, health and medical services, the judicial system, police, etc.), to a degree comparable with the national average (see Figure ‎5.1).

Figure ‎5.1. Number of bribes reported to have been paid and not paid to public officials in Nuevo León (2015)
picture

Source: Based on the INEGI, Encuesta Nacional de Calidad e Impacto Gubernamental, 2015.

Similarly, in the private sector, tolerance for paying bribes is also high (see Figure ‎5.2). More than 58% of firms reported paying bribes to speed up procedures, compared to the national average of 65%. Similarly, 46% of firms reported paying bribes to avoid fines or sanctions, higher than the national average of 39%.

Figure ‎5.2. Reasons cited in the private sector for being complicit in corruption
Time frame: October-December 2016
picture

Source: Based on the INEGI, Encuesta Nacional de Calidad Regulatoria e Impacto Gubernamental en Empresas, 2016.

Legal and institutional integrity reforms can be prone to failure in regions where the prevailing social norms are tolerant of corruption (Acemoglu and Jackson, 2014[2]). The social environment has a strong influence on individual attitudes towards corruption (Gatti, Paternostro and Rigolini, 2003[3]). When integrity violations are widespread, as is the case in Nuevo León, individuals are more tolerant of integrity violations (Barr and Serra, 2010[4]; Fisman and Miguel, 2008[5]; Gächter and Schulz, 2016[6]). A co-ordination problem emerges, discouraging citizens from attempting to combat corruption. Concrete steps must be taken to communicate and demonstrate the new expected social norms, to ensure that all citizens and government organisations are aware of the new standards of conduct to which they should adhere.

The government of Nuevo León is aware of the integrity challenges facing society, and has been partnering with firms and with civil society to promote a culture of integrity. The Law for the Promotion of Values and Culture of the Legality of the State of Nuevo León, first passed in 2007, promotes the values and respect for the rule of law that underpin a harmonious co-existence in society (State of Nuevo León, 2016[7]). To carry out these functions, the law established the State Council for the Promotion of Values and Culture of Legality (Consejo Estatal para la Promoción de los Valores y Cultura de la Legalidad). Made up of state and non-governmental representatives, this council is responsible for bringing together the different actors promoting values in Nuevo León to work together in an integrated organisation (State of Nuevo León, 2016[7]).

In addition, the Executive Agency for the Co-ordination of the State’s Public Administration (Coordinación Ejecutiva de la Administración Pública del Estado de Nuevo León) and the Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency (hereinafter the Office of the Comptroller) have initiated several awareness-raising campaigns to inform public officials, citizens and civil society organisations of initiatives to fight corruption. Key themes have included:

  • information on the approval of the Ethics Code;

  • a competition that was launched to promote the participation of youth in enhancing transparency and accountability in the state as a mechanism to fight corruption; and

  • processes for making complaints about the delivery of public services.

Co-operation agreements between representatives of chambers of commerce and the government have been in effect since 2016 (Box ‎5.1). These promote joint initiatives of the public and private sector on transparency and ethics. The public and private sector have also agreed on a strategic plan that includes: 1) creating a citizen committee for transparency and fighting corruption, 2) developing an evaluation of the level of transparency in government, 3) promotion and facilitation of reports from citizens, 4) promoting a new platform, “I did not pay a bribe” (“Yo no di un moche”) to monitor how civil society is contributing to anti-corruption initiatives, and 5) promoting ethics in public service.

Box ‎5.1. Engaging the private sector in cultivating a culture of integrity in Nuevo León

A co-operation agreement on transparency and anti-corruption was signed by Nuevo León and seven key corporate bodies on 7 November 2016. Along with the government, these seven corporate bodies (CANACO, CAINTRA, COPARMEX, CANIRAC, CMIC, CAPROBI and CANADEVI) agreed to actively participate in anti-corruption initiatives. Civil society organisations such as the Civic Council and Let’s Do It Right! were involved in this effort.

For the government, the agreement proposes the following three actions:

  • Develop projects on ethics, transparency and prevention of conflicts of interest.

  • Include the private sector in measures to promote citizen participation in monitoring public actions and programmes, as well as to act as witnesses in public procurement and accountability activities carried out by the government.

  • Organise training programmes and conferences at the request of business chambers and exchange experiences on ethics, culture of legality, transparency, citizens’ complaints, public procurement and e-government, as well as other initiatives related to fighting corruption.

For the private sector, the agreement identified the following actions:

  • Disseminate whistle-blower and public ethics values initiatives amongst its affiliates, using bulletins, booklets, conferences and discussions, etc.

  • Promote the rejection of corrupt acts amongst its members and prevent conflicts of interest from arising.

  • Promote ethics projects and a culture of legality in business.

  • Share studies, assessments, surveys and other tools that identify opportunities to improve the public procurement framework.

  • Formulate proposals for regulations and good governance practices in the ethics, transparency and the prevention of corruption.

  • Generate common ethics principles on public integrity and prevention of conflicts of interest, among other initiatives.

Both parties also agreed to promote steps to prevent conflict of interest in interactions between government organisations and the private sector. It was also agreed that each party would take measures every year focusing on preventing conflicts of interest and appoint a representative to co-ordinate their initiatives, and ensuring the necessary material and human resources.

Source: Government of Nuevo León (2016 unpublished), Co-operation agreement between the Government of Nuevo León and CANACO, CAINTRA, COPARMEX, CANIRAC, CMIC, CAPROBI and CANADEVI.

Nuevo León and several civil society organisations have also been working to cultivate a culture of integrity more broadly in society. For example, Nuevo León has been working with the civil society organisation Let’s Do It Right! (Hagamoslo bien!), a citizen movement created in 2013 and made up of representatives from civil society organisations, chambers of commerce (COPARMEX Nuevo León), academia (e.g. Tecnológico de Monterrey), churches and citizens. The activities of Let’s Do It Right! are focused on building a new sense of citizenship that complies with the rule of law and actively resists corruption.

Although these initiatives underscore Nuevo León’s commitment to cultivate a culture of integrity in society, the government’s efforts to engage the private sector and civil society on integrity could be further co-ordinated under a clear action plan. To co-ordinate these various measures, the Office of the Comptroller could consider developing an action plan for awareness raising that clearly identifies the desired objectives (e.g. the behaviour to change or the perceptions to challenge), the core outputs (e.g. the methods for achieving the objectives) the target audiences and (where appropriate) the key partners in this effort. These objectives and outputs should, as far as possible, be framed in a measurable way, using indicators that allow for monitoring and evaluation of the proposed actions. The strategy should target vulnerable areas where citizens and firms have been observed not to comply with the law. Where the action plan proposes that other ministries take on these tasks, the Office of the Comptroller could request that the governor of Nuevo León assign responsibility to the relevant ministries. The Civil Society Liaison Co-ordinator (Coordinación de Enlace con la Sociedad Civil) can help the Office of the Comptroller to develop and carry out the action plan. The State Council for the Promotion of Values and Culture of Legality could also support these entities in carrying out the awareness raising campaigns.

To be effective, these campaigns should be tailored to the target audiences, generate community responsibility and increase a sense of agency, and encourage action (Figure ‎5.3).

Figure ‎5.3. Success factors of behaviour-changing campaigns
picture

Source: (Mann, 2011[8]).

In developing the awareness campaigns, fear-based campaigns should be avoided. Citizens may dismiss their messages as too extreme, unlikely to happen to them or too disturbing (Mann, 2011[8]). Box ‎5.2 provides an overview of research evidence pointing to the role of positive messaging. Likewise, the campaigns should not sensationalise the issue and should instead employ credible and authentic evidence to encourage recipients to identify with the core messages (Mann, 2011[8]).

Box ‎5.2. Phrasing and framing: It matters how we talk about integrity

Problem-centred communication can be discouraging. Public debate, articles in the media and awareness raising campaigns often feature corruption as a problem, running the risk of making corruption a self-fulfilling prophecy (Gingerich et al., 2015[9]). The perception that corruption is common in society makes integrity breaches seem more justifiable, with citizens thinking “This is just how things work in this country”. This can lower the moral burden of an integrity breach, leaving citizens less inclined to change their behaviour to serve a greater good, and feeling as though their individual action makes no difference.

Engaging with the public is an opportunity for integrity policy makers to make their efforts seen and to shape a positive debate. Communication efforts should thus feature integrity instead of focusing on corruption. Awareness raising campaigns could highlight integrity as a reciprocal norm that is worth investing in. Such campaigns should be personal, actionable and social. Integrity communication should convey messages of personal relevance, while respecting the context and social norms and limited scope of action in which the recipients find themselves.

Citizens’ perception may also be influenced by indirect communication. Integrity policy makers could, for example, publish their efforts and progress in a regular Monitoring and Evaluation report and engage in pro-active dialogue with the media. They could also publicly emphasise positive role models, e.g. by tendering an integrity award or publishing success stories, e.g. a portrait of an everyday ethical public official.

Where this strategy succeeds, it serves two functions:

  • Reconnecting ethical dilemmas with the moral self and re-evaluating an established behaviour with respect to a moral reference point.

  • Dissolution of the collective action problem through reinstatement of a sense of control and personal responsibility. Both objectives might be more easily achieved for a specific integrity problem in a targeted group than for corruption throughout society.

Source: Adapted from (OECD, 2018[10]).

The awareness raising campaigns could have two objectives. First, they can be used to challenge the attempts to justify unethical behaviour and create a link between individuals’ integrity and the wider public benefit. Even though the majority of people do not like to harm others (Camerer, 2003[11]), the damage done by corrupt behaviour often remains abstract, and not directly linked to another individual, thereby facilitating justification (Barkan, Ayal and Ariely, 2015[12]). Challenging such behaviour means linking awareness raising to actual dilemmas in which citizens understand how their actions can have a negative impact on the community.

Second, the awareness raising campaigns could be used to counteract the collective action problem. This could be achieved by communicating core messages about the expected social norms for integrity and identifying the roles and responsibilities of public officials, citizens and firms in upholding social norms. For example, as the public sector reforms take root, the Office of the Comptroller could consider carrying out awareness raising campaigns that highlight ethical public officials. The campaigns could showcase “everyday ethical heroes” who are known for their integrity in the public service, highlighting the values and behaviour these officials apply to fulfil their public role with integrity, and ask citizens to support them in supporting integrity. Such a campaign would serve two purposes. First, it would communicate to citizens the government’s efforts to introduce reforms; and second, it would challenge the perception that “Everyone is corrupt”. In doing so, these campaigns could help increase citizens’ sense of agency and resolve the collective action problem.

5.2.2. The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could develop integrity and anti-corruption training programmes for the business sector and civil society and request that the governor of Nuevo León assign the relevant ministries the responsibility of carrying this out.

Integrity and anti-corruption training programmes can also help establish norms of integrity. Such programmes support the awareness raising measures, and have been found to give citizens tools for making moral choices and recognising and addressing ethical dilemmas as they arise (Integrity Action, 2016[13]). Integrity and anti-corruption training programmes are generally targeted to specific segments of society, such as the business community or non-profit organisations. For example, Hong Kong’s Independent Commission against Corruption (ICAC) has engaged in a series of integrity and anti-corruption training programmes, which, when coupled with awareness raising campaigns, resulted in higher instances of reporting on corruption (Box ‎5.3).

Box ‎5.3. Mobilising Society to fight corruption through civic education and awareness-raising programmes: the case of Hong Kong’s Independent Commission Against Corruption

Since it was established in 1974, Hong Kong’s Independent Commission against Corruption (ICAC) has embraced a three-pronged approach of law enforcement, prevention and community education to fight corruption. The Community Relations Department (CRD) is responsible for promoting integrity in society, and uses several different methods to educate society, including civic education programmes and awareness-raising campaigns.

The CRD offers tailor-made preventive education programmes, from training workshops to integrity-building programmes, for different community groups, including businessmen and professionals. Training workshops cover the ordinance on prevention of bribery, the pitfalls of corruption, ethical decision making at work, and managing staff integrity.

The CRD disseminates anti-corruption messages to students in secondary schools and at tertiary institutions, through interactive dramas and discussions on personal and professional ethics. It also organises regular talks and seminars for the private and non-profit sector, to advise how to incorporate corruption prevention measures into their operational systems and procedures. Topics range from knowledge of the pitfalls of corruption, risk management, ethical governance and what to do if offered bribes.

The CRD also uses various platforms to raise awareness about corruption and publicise anti-corruption messages to different segments of society. Anti-corruption messages are disseminated on television and radio, through poster campaigns and online. The main website of ICAC houses ICAC’s two video channels, which include the popular ICAC TV drama series “ICAC Investigators” and training videos on how to prevent corruption. The ICAC’s smartphone application communicates the latest ICAC news and activities, including the integrity videos. An eBooks Tablet App provides access to ICAC e-publications, offering free access to anti-corruption materials at any time.

In its first year of operation, the public education campaigns resulted in 3 189 reports of alleged corruption, more than twice the number received by police in the previous year (Panth, 2011[14]). More than thirty years later, the efforts of Hong Kong’s ICAC have produced a situation in which 7 out of 10 Hong Kong citizens are willing to report corruption (Johnston, 2005[15]).

As Hong Kong’s example demonstrates, preventing corruption was not solely the result of strong institutions and laws. Enlisting society’s participation to hold institutions to account, and concerted attention, has led to an environment in which corruption is rejected both by public officials and citizens.

Sources: (ICAC, 2016[16]; Panth, 2011[14]; Johnston, 2005[15]).

The Office of the Comptroller could propose a training plan and request that the Governor of Nuevo León assign the relevant state bodies with implementation on a series of integrity and anti-corruption training programmes for civil society organisations and firms, similar to the trainings offered to public officials to become “Agents of Change” (see Chapter 3). The Civil Society Liaison Co-ordinator can support the Office of the Comptroller in connecting with the civil society organisations and firms. This training course could be offered in person or through online training, and include: 1) a module on corruption and the impact of rules violation in society; 2) a module aimed at promoting an understanding of why citizens/private sector/non-profit organisations may violate the rule of law; 3) a module on public integrity and society’s roles and responsibilities in upholding it; 4) a module to develop capacity for resolving ethical dilemmas; and 5) a module communicating the roles and responsibilities of public officials for integrity and activities for citizens, the private sector and non-profit organisations to support the integrity of public officials. Building on the good practice of the Let’s Do It Right! initiative, the Office of the Comptroller could consider signing an agreement with the Let’s Do It Right! initiative to obtain authorisation to use a feature like its online training course on the culture of legality and citizens’ responsibilities for ensuring change in society (Box ‎5.4).

The integrity training can be offered online on the government website. Stakeholders could be encouraged to enrol and take part in this e-learning course by offering incentives for completion, such as issuing a certificate identifying them as “Citizen for Integrity” or “Business for Integrity”. This could be considered, for instance, in applications for qualifying for support funding or for public procurement activities. While all citizens of Nuevo León should be encouraged to take this e-training, it should be mandatory for all members of the future Citizen Participation Committee. Information on the training sessions could be disseminated on TV commercials, social media (e.g. Twitter and Facebook).

Box ‎5.4. Interactive training to promote a culture of legality: Nuevo León’s government, civil society and private sector initiative

The Let’s Do It Right! initiative has launched an interactive online training course on the culture of legality. The website also provides free access to tools to help citizens of Nuevo León recognise the social benefits of supporting the rule of law in their communities in order to transform their cities. The online training is provided free of charge.

The course offers an introduction to the principles of a culture of legality, an explanation of the importance of a culture of legality and the role of citizens. It describes the barriers to and mechanisms for creating a culture of legality in their communities. The course also provides citizens with basic information on principles of the rule of law and the role of citizens in respecting the rule of law and changing their interactions in society. After completing the course, participants take an examination, and on passing, receive a certificate of completion.

Source: (D.R. Tecnológico de Monterrey, 2013[17]).

The Civil Society Liaison Co-ordinator could also identify the public organisations where a high level of corruption has been reported by citizens. The Office of the Comptroller can use these findings to help develop specific educational programmes on integrity. These programmes could follow the example of one for reducing tax evasion developed by Mexico’s Tax Administration Service (Servicio de Administración Tributaria, or SAT), which launched these educational programmes in higher education. Nuevo León could use this experience to introduce civic education programmes in other areas at risk, such as public procurement, which has been identified as a sensitive area both by the public and the private sector.

5.2.3. The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could propose measures to “nudge” individuals and firms to act with integrity and request the Governor of Nuevo León’s to assign responsibilities to the relevant ministries.

Behavioural insights, the evidence-based understanding of what influences human choices and behaviour, can be usefully applied in integrity policies. Subtly changing the setting in which people are presented with a choice can, for example, make them more likely to make a better choice for their own benefit. In applying behavioural insights, it is useful to be aware of the choice architecture, that is, the way in which people are presented with a choice. Mapping high-risk areas can help public entities understand where and when citizens are unintentionally making choices that could lead to an integrity breach. Based on this information, the respective processes and procedures should be examined to show how to reduce such a risk. Evidence from the behavioural sciences has found, for example, that factors such as demonstrating that most people perform a desired action, the power of networks, including a small message (a “moral reminder”), enabling collective action, providing mutual support and encouraging behaviours to spread peer to peer, can have a positive influence on a person’s behaviour (OECD, 2016[18]). Box ‎5.5 offers several examples from countries that have used behavioural insights in this way.

Box ‎5.5. Using behavioural insights to inform policy making

Several countries have undertaken initiatives to apply insights from recent research in behavioural sciences aiming to modify their citizens’ behaviour:

  • Including norm messages in letters sent to non-tax payers: Experiments have indicated that individuals are influenced by what others around are doing. In the United Kingdom, the Behavioural Insights Team conducted a series of randomised control trials to determine the impact of including social norm messages in letters to non-tax payers. The results of the trials found that featuring the phrase “Nine out of 10 people pay their tax on time, and you are one of the few people who have not yet paid”, more directly the effect of mentioning a localised social norm alone, with payment rates increased from 36.8% to 40.7% (Behavioural Insights Team, 2012[19]).

  • Building moral reminders into key reporting processes: Like moral reminders that can inform ethical decision making, requiring signature boxes at the beginning of a tax declaration or federal reporting form can help prompt vigilance against error or false reporting from the outset. For example, in the United States, federal vendors who make sales through the Federal Supply Schedules are required to pay the industrial funding fee, which is calculated based on a fraction of the total sales made. To calculate the fee, vendors must self-report the quantity of their total sales. To increase compliance with self-reporting, the General Services Administration (GSA) piloted an electronic signature box at the beginning of its online reporting portal. As a result of the pilot, the median self-reported sales amount was USD 445 higher for vendors who signed at the top of the form. This translated into an extra USD 1.59 million in industrial funding fees paid to the government in a single quarter (Congdon and Shankar, 2015[20]).

Sources: (Behavioural Insights Team, 2012[19]; Congdon and Shankar, 2015[20]).

Focusing on specific areas where the public sector and citizens interact (for example, paying taxes, applying for and receiving social benefits, applying for a licence or submitting a tender for a procurement process), the Office of the Comptroller could identify areas where an effective intervention in choice architecture may be feasible. Table ‎5.1 identifies examples of possible tools for changing the choice architecture used to nudge citizens toward ethical behaviour. The Office of the Comptroller could then request that the governor of Nuevo León assign responsibilities to the relevant ministries for piloting and testing innovative measures in society to inform integrity decision making. Drawing on good practice from the United Kingdom’s Behavioural Insights Team (Box ‎5.6), the pilots should be based on a clear definition of the outcome, should understand the context within which the intervention is conducted, should be tailored to the specific issue at hand, and should be adapted based on the outcome of the pilots.

Table ‎5.1. Use of tools to change choice architecture

Tool

Typical application

Example

Default

Setting default in procedures

In each tender package, private sector bidders automatically receive a form for declaring any conflicts of interest.

Reminders and timing

Moral messaging

Placing a signature box at the beginning of the tax declaration form.

Identity prime

“As a good student, you are committed to integrity.”

Values prime

“Paying bribes compromises your integrity as a member of our company.”

Social prime

“Nine out of 10 people pay their tax on time, you are one of the few people who have not yet paid.”

Simplification and convenience

Reducing the number of steps in a process

Submission of tax declarations through an electronic system.

Chunking

Instead of communicating on various values and rules of conduct, sum all of them up in a meaningful concept/word that is easy to remember.

Visualisation

Displaying the code of ethics in offices of local public services.

Convenience

Enabling citizens to pay taxes through a phone application.

Gaming

Games/quizzes

Create an online quiz about integrity and ethical conduct…

Competitions

…and allow participants to share their results and let them compete against each other.

Micro-incentives

Allow for participants to gain awards and certifications within the game.

Commitment device

Self-commitment

“I hereby declare that all information entered below in this unemployment benefits request form will be truthful.”

Source: Adapted from (OECD, 2018[10]).

Box ‎5.6. Good practices from the UK’s Behavioural Insights Team

The Behavioural Insights Team has developed a methodology that draws on experience of developing major strategies for the UK Government, on a rich understanding of the behavioural literature, and the rigorous application of tools testing “what works”.

The EAST framework, which encourages policy makers to make behavioural interventions Easy, Attractive, Social and Timely, is at the heart of this methodology, but it cannot be applied in isolation from a sound understanding of the nature and context of the problem.

The Behavioural Insights Team has formulated a method for developing projects, with four phases:

  1. 1. Define the outcome: Identify exactly what behaviour is to be influenced. Consider how this can be measured reliably and efficiently. Establish how large a change would make the project worthwhile, and over what time period.

  2. 2. Understand the context: Visit the situations and people involved in the behaviour, to understand the context from their perspective. Use this opportunity to develop new insights and design a sensitive and feasible intervention.

  3. 3. Build your intervention: Use the EAST framework to generate your behavioural insights. This is likely to be an interactive process that returns to the two steps above.

  4. 4. Test, learn and adapt: Put the intervention into practice so its effects can be reliably measured. Wherever possible, BIT attempts to use randomised controlled trials to evaluate its interventions. These introduce a control group to indicate what would have happened if you had done nothing.

Source: (Behavioural Insights Team, 2015[21]).

5.3. Preparing future generations to act with integrity and prevent corruption

5.3.1. The Ministry of Education and the State Institute for Youth could consider implementing an action plan to scale up the existing legality, public integrity and anti-corruption education materials and incorporate into the core curriculum.

Education about public integrity and anti-corruption can help challenge entrenched social norms that allow corruption to flourish. Such education can be found in the schools (e.g. in the existing curriculum or through extra-curricular activities), or through tools offered independently (such as initiatives by civil society organisations). Education on public integrity generates shared knowledge about the expected norms and behaviour for preventing corruption. It also cultivates lifelong skills and values for integrity, encouraging young citizens to accept their role and their responsibility for rejecting corruption. Civic education programmes have been found to increase the likelihood that young people reject corruption in government, and reduce the likelihood that they tolerate or participate in law-breaking activities (Ainley, Schulz and Friedman, 2011[22]; Fraillon, Schulz and Ainley, 2009[23]).

Integrating values into the school curriculum is not a new policy in Mexico. Civic education has been included in basic education in the national curriculum since the early 2000s. Similarly to the national level, the focus of civic and values education in Nuevo León is on promoting a culture of peace and legality (see Table ‎5.2). This responds to a pre-determined need to equip young citizens of Nuevo Leon with the skills to prevent bullying, handle conflict in a non-violent way and respect their fellow citizens.

Table ‎5.2. Programmes that Nuevo León has initiated to promote a culture of legality and non-violence

Programme

Programme objectives

Programme reach

Living and Learning in a Safe School (Convive y aprende en una escuela segura)

To increase healthy co-existence and peaceful conflict resolution in schools in Nuevo León and to strengthen student learning and educational achievement (this was replaced by the PNCE programme in the 2016-2017 school year).

4 397 preschool, primary and secondary teachers.

Promoters of Human Rights and the Culture of Legality (Promotores de los Derechos Humanos y la Cultura de la Legalidad)

Through the direct participation of educational establishments:

1) to disseminate and raise awareness amongst adolescents on the actions of human rights that affect the culture of legality

2) to shape cultural patterns that determines a healthy social integration.

25 000 students.

National School Co-existence Programme (Programa Nacional de Convivencia Escolar, or PNCE)

To encourage a harmonious, peaceful and inclusive environment in schools that helps prevent bullying in public basic education schools. The aim is to raise the quality of learning and comprehensive training in all demographic groups.

The programme aims to benefit a total of 2 236 schools, 2 499 principals, 27 173 teachers and 694 408 students.

Campaign to Strengthen School Co-existence: A Co-existing School that Works! (Campaña de Fortalecimiento a la Convivencia Escolar ¡A Convivir que se ocupa!)

To provide environments favourable for social interaction in teaching and learning, where students can develop cognitive skills to learn throughout life, as well as social-emotional skills to learn to live together peacefully.

Outreach campaigns in 4 023 primary and secondary schools.

Gender Equality Unit (Unidad de Igualdad de Género)

To generate, promote and disseminate strategies to incorporate gender equality perspectives, the exercise of human rights and the eradication of gender-based violence.

The entire educational community: students, teachers, principals and administrative staff, parents of primary and secondary school students.

Watch me grow (Acompáñame a crecer)

To encourage the development of healthy school co-existence and peaceful school environments through workshops with parents or guardians of students. Topics presented include: strengthening self-esteem, managing emotions, rules and limits, and assertive conflict resolution in the family.

79 basic education schools from January to June 2018.

Conferences to prevent school violence

To strengthen a culture of healthy, peaceful and violence-free co-existence in schools.

499 schools, 132 022 students, teachers, principals, administrators and parents of elementary and secondary school students.

Campaigns to promote civic values

To increase students’ love and respect for their country, a sense of national and regional identity and a culture of legality, to encourage harmonious co-existence and a culture of peace in society.

The campaigns target 112 908 students and 1 785 teachers in a total of 2 901 schools.

Understanding the role of rules and the need for them in a successful society is a building block of public integrity. Programmes of the kind described in Table ‎5.2 aim to teach students how to identify and resolve problems in their community. These are key skills necessary for cultivating a culture of integrity, because they help students understand how stakeholder engagement can be leveraged to solve complex societal problems. To reduce tolerance for corruption and inculcate values of integrity, the existing PNCE programme could ensure that specific lessons and activities on integrity and anti-corruption are incorporated in teaching manuals and student textbooks, as noted in the national integrity review (OECD, 2017[24]). At the secondary level, activities to engage students in discussion of the negative impact on society of corruption and integrity violations could be included in the actions developed in the PNCE.

In addition to the peace and legality programmes, the Ministry of Education of Nuevo León (Secretaría de Educación en el Estado de Nuevo León) has signed four agreements with various institutions for programmes to promote integrity and anti-corruption skills (see Table ‎5.3). This includes a programme developed by the Office of the Comptroller and the Ministry of Education to teach students how to promote a culture of integrity in society. Called “The Incorruptibles” (Los Incorruptibles), the programme educates students between the ages of 6 and 12 about the Comptroller’s role in preventing corruption. Other initiatives, like the initiative to raise the awareness amongst school leaders, teachers and students of the role of transparency and the right of access to public information, are useful in helping citizens to understand their responsibility for being accountable and the tools they have to achieve that.

Table ‎5.3. Educational programmes in Nuevo León on integrity and anti-corruption

Government entities responsible

Programme and programme objectives

Ministry of Education and the civil society organisation Fundación EducarUno A.C.

“Design the Change”: to establish the basis and mechanisms for collaboration, to encourage the participation of teachers and students in public basic education schools to develop and implement solutions for improving the environment in their communities.

Ministry of Education and the Transparency and Access to Information Institute of Nuevo León

To organise courses, workshops and informative talks for school leaders, teachers, administrative staff, parents and public school students. The objective is to increase their knowledge of the role of transparency and the right of access to public information, the protection of personal data and the rendering of accounts, as well as disseminating printed materials to promote a culture of transparency.

Ministry of Education and the Electoral Commission of the State of Nuevo León

To encourage the interest of young people in engaging in democratic life in Nuevo León by voting when they are of voting age.

Ministry of Education and the Office of the Comptroller

“The Incorruptibles”: to promote citizen education and a culture of anti-corruption among the educational community, based on principles of vigilance, oversight, transparency and accountability.

The Ministry of Education, in partnership with other government entities, has made considerable progress in developing material to cultivate a culture of integrity across the state. Without a concrete action plan, however, the interventions are ad hoc and depend on interested school leaders and teachers willing to incorporate the programmes into their schools and classrooms. Moreover, without a dedicated learning outcomes framework that clearly lays out the expected learning goals and the methods for achieving them, students’ knowledge of integrity and anti-corruption could remain piecemeal.

To ensure longevity and robust content, the Ministry of Education and the State Institute for Youth (Instituto Estatal de la Juventud)1 could create an action plan to mainstream education about integrity and anti-corruption in the curriculum. Building on existing programmes, including the federal Programa Nacional de Convivencia Escolar (PNCE), the Incorruptibles Programme and the Transparency and Access to Information Programme, the Action Plan could identify actions, resources, indicators and time frames to achieve these core activities: the design of the learning outcomes framework, the design of the teaching and learning materials, the teacher training process and the piloting and revision process. The Action Plan should also clearly set out the process for mainstreaming the learning outcomes framework and the teaching and learning materials in the core curriculum, after a process of piloting and revision. The Action Plan could also include a provision to develop a monitoring and evaluation framework for assessing the impact on students’ knowledge.

The learning outcomes framework should identify the core knowledge, skills and attitudes desired for students about public integrity and anti-corruption (see, for example, those presented in Table ‎5.4). The teaching and learning materials should be based on the learning outcomes framework, tailored to specific age groups, and should include activities allowing students to apply their knowledge about values of integrity in a tangible way. This could include in-classroom activities, like games, role-playing scenarios and debates (see, for example, Box ‎5.7 on Austria). For the older students, it could also include real-life encounters with public officials, such as the “everyday ethical individuals” mentioned in the previous section. This could provide an opportunity for students to meet public officials working for integrity to apply their knowledge in practice.

Table ‎5.4. Suggested learning outcomes for education about public integrity

Core Learning Outcome 1: Form and defend public integrity value positions and act consistently upon these, regardless of the messaging and attractions of other options.

Sub learning outcomes and indicators to improve upon

Students can explain their own public integrity values, those of others, and that of society as a whole, and what they look like when they are applied.

Identify and use vocabulary that describes values and the situations in which they apply.

Explain the mechanisms that may lead to a lack of trust in the values of others or their application.

Explain the benefits that arise from having consistent application of proper processes.

Describe and define the behaviours that are in opposition to public integrity.

Students can identify the public integrity values that promote public good over private gain and describe the institutions and processes that are designed to protect public good.

Cite examples of public good and contrast it with private gain and the values that drive processes that keep these interests separate.

Describe and compare the role of integrity institutions and the need for – and characteristics of – those processes that protect and build integrity.

Clearly separate individuals and their actions and the role and importance of integrity institutions and thus be able to see that while individuals may fail in their duties the underlying rationale for the institutions themselves should remain sound.

Students can construct and implement processes that comply with their own public integrity value positions and those of society.

Create and follow rules /processes.

Encourage others to follow “rule of law” principles.

Students can apply intellectual skills in regards to the defence of public integrity values.

Devise questions that demand high order thinking, and the ability to respond to questions of others.

Critically examine their own behaviour as citizens and explain reasons as to why others take part in actions that damage public integrity.

Explain the causes of behaviours that are in opposition to public integrity.

Core Learning Outcome 2: Apply their value positions to evaluate for possible corruption and take appropriate action to fight it

Sub learning outcomes and indicators to improve upon:

Students can define corruption and compare it with immoral or illegal behaviour.

Form value positions about corruption and express opinions about corrupt acts.

Readily counter the argument that “it is okay to take part in corruption because everyone else does”.

Explain why corruption is worse than simple theft.

Give examples that show why theft of public funds or goods is as bad as theft of private funds or goods.

Identify public norms/values and/or religious views that are opposed to the actions of corrupt leaders.

Students can compare and determine the major different mechanisms in corruption.

Explain the meaning of bribery and gives examples; and compare the role and morality of the bribe giver with the bribe taker.

Define and give examples of nepotism: explain why is it bad for the development of a country or organisation; explain the consequences of nepotism; and explain how selection on merit works and why it is better than nepotism.

Explain the meaning and give examples of conflicts of interest: explain how they can be avoided; design a process that deals with conflicts of interest; and explain the consequences.

Define and give examples of theft or misuse of public goods: explain the consequences of theft of public goods; and compare and contrast grand from petty corruption.

Students can describe and evaluate consequences of corruption on a whole country

Explain and give examples of how corrupt acts affect everyone; how inequality of income and opportunity get worse with corruption; and why legal businesses do not like corruption.

Students can identify the likely signs of corruption.

Identify likely signs of corruption and give examples such as nepotism instead of selection on merit; and lack of accountability and transparency.

Students can describe ways to, and suggest strategies for, fighting corruption

Explain why it is that if we don’t fight corruption we are part of the problem.

Define and give examples of transparent processes: explain how transparent procedures stop corruption; evaluate a procedure as transparent; and explain, using examples, why over regulation can cause more corruption.

Define accountability, explain why and give examples of how accountability stops corruption.

Define and give examples of honesty.

Demonstrate transparency, accountability and honesty in their actions.

Students can identify who and/or which organisations to which corruption should be reported.

Describe a variety of ways to report corruption.

Identify organisations fight corruption (integrity institutions).

Explain the role of the media and civil society organisations in fighting corruption.

Students can explain the purpose and function of integrity policies.

Understand the role of a Freedom of Information law.

Design a Code of Ethics / Conduct, explain how it works compared to laws, and abide by and determine if their actions are compliant.

Understand the concept of whistleblower protection, and explain why whistleblowers need protection.

Source: (OECD, 2018[25]).

Box ‎5.7. Examples from Austria of interactive activities about public integrity and anti-corruption

Austria’s Federal Bureau of Anti-corruption (or BAK) provides anti-corruption training for students aged 14 to 18, using a combination of teaching and interactive activities. One such activity is the “Corruption Barometer”. Two sheets of paper are placed on the floor, one reading “Corruption” and the other reading “No Corruption”. The trainer reads out examples of cases of possible corruption, and the students position themselves behind the two sheets of paper, depending on the level of corruption they believe that each case represents. They are then asked to justify their decision. After the exercise, each case is reflected on and discussed in more detail.

Another activity is a role-playing session, where cases of corruption are presented and students are given a “role card” to explain their role. One of the cases, “Acceptance of Gifts”, reads as follows:

Claudia is a poor student and is likely to fail in mathematics. Her mother arranges to meet Claudia’s teacher at school. During the conversation, the mother gives the teacher an expensive pen. The director of the school and a teacher of philosophy are present.

Students, in groups, then discuss a series of questions, including:

  1. 1. How would you evaluate the behaviour of each person?

  2. 2. In your opinion, can this already be considered corruption?

  3. 3. How should these people behave appropriately?

Sources: (Federal Bureau of Anti Corruption, n.d.[26]; Federal Bureau of Anti-Corruption, 2013[27]).

5.3.2. The Ministry of Education could work with the federal Ministry of Public Education to design and deliver training on public integrity and anti-corruption to teachers.

The success of teaching on integrity and anti-corruption depends on how well teachers can deliver instruction on the subject in the classroom. Teacher training on anti-corruption and integrity concepts is a crucial component of curriculum reform. Both trainees and experienced professionals can benefit from acquiring the skills, knowledge and confidence to address the subject. Training on integrity and anti-corruption can also introduce normative standards to teachers, for example the notion that they have a moral obligation to challenge corruption (Starkey, 2013[28]). Teacher training can take many forms, from courses in trainee teacher programmes and professional training to seminars and resource kits prepared by government institutions and/or civil society actors.

As noted in (OECD, 2017[24]), Mexico has a tradition of teacher training, and initial preparation for pre-primary and primary teachers is generally provided by special higher education institutions for teachers, known as teachers’ colleges (Escuelas Normales). Universities also provide initial teacher education for both lower secondary and upper secondary teachers. The OECD recommended that the federal Ministry of Public Administration (SFP) and the Ministry of Public Education (SEP) work together to develop a course for teachers for inclusion in the teacher training curriculum, to prepare them to teach the integrity and anti-corruption subjects. In Nuevo León, the Secretariat of Education could consider supporting the development of such courses, by offering to pilot the courses in select universities and colleges at the state level.

In-service teacher training is a requirement under Mexico’s Law on Professional Teaching Service. This requires teachers to undergo training and assessment throughout their careers, and the Ministry of Education offers a continuing education programme (Capacitación para docentes). In Nuevo León, teachers can obtain an advanced professional diploma in civic education and ethics for pre-school, primary and secondary school. This course could serve as a potential pilot for mainstreaming integrity and anti-corruption teacher training in pre-service and in-service teacher training. A General Co-operation Agreement was signed in April 2016 by the Ministry of Education and the civil society organisation Mundo Sustentable A.C. to train teachers on strengthening values in students of basic education.

Box ‎5.8. How Lithuania prepares teachers to teach anti-corruption

In developing its anti-corruption curriculum, Lithuania identified two project objectives to help teachers integrate anti-corruption content in their lesson plans: 1) an in-service training programme of anti-corruption education, and 2) a team of trainers able to consult and train other teachers.

In February 2004, the project team prepared a training course for teachers and an in-service training programme. From March to August 2004, workshops and training seminars were held for teachers, covering the following themes:

  • critical thinking methodology for anti-corruption education

  • foundations of adult education

  • principles of strategic planning

  • developing an in-service training programme for anti-corruption education.

From September to December 2004, the in-service training programme was prepared and piloted in the regions, helping to inform updates to the programme. The resulting course, “Anti-corruption education opportunities for secondary school”, is part of the permanent training offered by the Modern Didactics Centre, a centre of excellence for curriculum and teaching methods. The programme aims to provide teachers information about corruption, provide anti-corruption education and to encourage teachers to include elements of anti-corruption education in their lesson planning and extra-curricular activities.

Source: (Modern Didactics Centre, 2004[29]).

Proposals for action

Cultivating a shared sense of responsibility for integrity across society

  • The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could propose awareness-raising activities for citizens and firms on their roles and responsibilities for respecting public integrity.

  • The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could consider developing an action plan for awareness raising that clearly identifies the desired objectives (e.g. the behaviour they wish to change or the perceptions they wish to challenge), the core outputs (e.g. the type of method to achieve the objectives), the target audiences and (where appropriate) the key partners for achieving these goals.

    • Where the action plan proposes that other ministries assume certain responsibilities, the Office of the Comptroller could request that the governor of Nuevo León assign implementation responsibilities to the relevant ministries.

    • The Civil Society Liaison Co-ordinator can support the Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency in developing and implementing the action plan, and the State Council for the Promotion of Values and Culture of Legality could also support these entities in carrying out the awareness-raising activities.

  • The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could consider proposing awareness raising campaigns that highlight ethical public officials. The campaigns could showcase “everyday ethical heroes” known for their integrity in the public service, highlighting the values and behaviour of these officials in conducting their public duties with integrity, and asking citizens to support them in their pursuit of integrity.

  • The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could propose developing integrity and anti-corruption training programmes for the business sector and civil society and request that the governor of Nuevo León assign the responsibility for this task to the relevant ministries.

  • The Civil Society Liaison Co-ordinator could identify public sector organisations where citizens report a high level of corruption. The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could use this information to help develop specific educational programmes on integrity.

  • The Office of the Comptroller for Government Transparency could identify areas where an effective intervention in choice architecture may be feasible. It could then request that the governor of Nuevo León assign responsibility to the relevant ministries to pilot and test innovative measures in society to encourage decision making that promotes integrity.

Preparing future generations to act with integrity and prevent corruption

  • The Ministry of Education and the State Institute for Youth could consider introducing an action plan for scaling up the current education materials on legality, public integrity and anti-corruption and incorporate them into the core curriculum.

  • The Action Plan could outline how the Ministry of Education of Nuevo León and the State Institute for Youth will build on existing programmes, including the federal Programa Nacional de Convivencia Escola (PNCE), the Incorruptibles Programme and the Transparency and Access to Information Programme.

    • The Action Plan could outline actions, resources, indicators and time frames for the following core activities: the design of the learning outcomes framework, the design of teaching and learning materials, teacher training and the piloting and revision process.

    • The Action Plan should also clearly lay out how the learning outcomes framework and teaching and learning materials will be mainstreamed in the core curriculum after the pilot projects and revision process have been completed. It should also include a provision for developing a monitoring and evaluation framework to assess the impact on students’ knowledge.

  • The learning outcomes framework should identify the core knowledge, skills and attitudes desired for students on public integrity and anti-corruption. The teaching and learning materials should be based on the learning outcomes framework and tailored to specific age groups, and should include activities in which students can apply their integrity knowledge in a tangible way.

  • The Ministry of Education could work with the federal Ministry of Public Education to design and provide training programmes for teachers on public integrity and anti-corruption.

  • The Ministry of Education could consider supporting the development of college and university courses on integrity and anti-corruption, by offering to pilot the courses in select universities and colleges at the state level.

References

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[22] Ainley, J., W. Schulz and T. Friedman (2011), ICCS 2009 Latin American Report: Civic knowledge and attitudes among lower-secondary students in six Latin American countries, IEA, Amsterdam.

[12] Barkan, R., S. Ayal and D. Ariely (2015), “Ethical dissonance, justifications, and moral behaviour”, Current Opinion in Pyschology, Vol. 6, pp. 157-161, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.08.001.

[4] Barr, A. and D. Serra (2010), “Corruption and culture: An experimental analysis”, Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 94, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2010.07.006.

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[19] Behavioural Insights Team (2012), Applying behavioural insights to reduce fraud, error and debt, Cabinet Office, Behavioural Insights Team, http://38r8om2xjhhl25mw24492dir.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/BIT_FraudErrorDebt_accessible.pdf.

[11] Camerer, C. (2003), Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in strategic interaction, Russell Sage Foundation, https://press.princeton.edu/titles/7517.html.

[20] Congdon, W. and M. Shankar (2015), “The White House Social and Behavioral Sciences Team: lessons learned from year one”, Behavioral Science and Policy, Vol. 1/2, pp. 77-86, https://behavioralpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/BSP_vol1is2_Congdon.pdf.

[17] D.R. Tecnológico de Monterrey (2013), Cultura de la Legalidad - Recursos educativos en línea, http://www.cca.org.mx/culturadelalegalidad/.

[26] Federal Bureau of Anti Corruption (n.d.), Anti-Corruption Training in the field of education, Austrian Ministry of Interior, Federal Bureau of Anti Corruption.

[27] Federal Bureau of Anti-Corruption (2013), Anti-Corruption Training for Students of 14-18 Years”, Presentation to the 4th UNCAC Working Group 26-28 August 2013, https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/workinggroup4/2013-August-26-28/Presentations/Austria_Meixner_Anti-Corruption_Training_2.pdf.

[5] Fisman, R. and E. Miguel (2008), Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence and the Poverty of Nations, Princeton University Press, https://press.princeton.edu/titles/9170.html.

[23] Fraillon, J., W. Schulz and J. Ainley (2009), ICCS 2009 Asian Report: Civic knowledge and attitudes among lower-secondary students in five Asian countries, IEA, Amsterdam, http://www.iea.nl/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Electronic_versions/ICCS_2009_Asian_Report.pdf.

[6] Gächter, S. and J. Schulz (2016), “Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies”, Nature, Vol. 531, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17160.

[3] Gatti, R., S. Paternostro and J. Rigolini (2003), “Individual Attitudes toward Corruption: Do Social Effects Matter?”, No. 3122, World Bank, Washington, D.C., http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/1813-9450-3122.

[9] Gingerich, D. et al. (2015), Corruption as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Evidence from a survey experiment in Costa Rica, https://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/6826/Corruption%20as%20a%20Self-Fulfilling%20Prophecy%3A%20Evidence%20from%20a%20Survey%20Experiment%20in%20Costa%20Rica.pdf?sequence=1.

[16] ICAC (2016), Independent Commission Against Corruption, Hong Kong, http://www.icac.org.hk/en/ack/pep/index.html.

[13] Integrity Action (2016), Integrity Clubs Manual Outline, Integrity Action, https://integrityaction.org/sites/default/files/training_materials/Integrity%20Clubs%20Manual%20-%20English.pdf (accessed on 10 September 2018).

[15] Johnston, M. (2005), Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power and Democracy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[8] Mann, C. (2011), Behaviour changing campaigns: success and failure factors, U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, Bergen, http://www.u4.no/publications/behaviour-changing-campaigns-success-and-failure-factors/.

[29] Modern Didactics Centre (2004), Education Against Corruption/in-service training, http://www.sdcentras.lt/antikorupcija/en/kt.htm.

[10] OECD (2018), Behavioural Insights for Public Integrity: Harnessing the Human Factor to Counter Corruption, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264297067-en.

[25] OECD (2018), Education for Integrity: Teaching on Anti-Corruption, Values and the Rule of Law, OECD, Paris, http://www.oecd.org/governance/ethics/education-for-integrity-web.pdf.

[24] OECD (2017), OECD Integrity Review of Mexico: Taking a Stronger Stance Against Corruption, OECD Public Governance Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264273207-en.

[1] OECD (2017), OECD Recommendation of the Council on Public Integrity, http://www.oecd.org/gov/ethics/Recommendation-Public-Integrity.pdf.

[18] OECD (2016), Protecting Consumers through Behavioural Insights: Regulating the Communications Market in Colombia, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264255463-en.

[14] Panth, S. (2011), Changing Norms is Key to Fighting Everyday Corruption, The Communication for Governance and Accountability Programme, World Bank, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGOVACC/Resources/ChangingNormsAnnexFinal.pdf..

[28] Starkey, H. (2013), “Teaching the Teachers”, in, Transparency International: Global Corruption Report Education, https://www.transparency.org/gcr_education/integrity.

[7] State of Nuevo León (2016), Law for the Promotion of Values and a Culture of Legality in the State of Nuevo León, https://www.pjenl.gob.mx/CJ/Transparencia/01MJ/LPVCLENL.pdf.

Note

← 1. The State Institute for Youth is a decentralised entity with citizen participation in the government responsible for designing and implementing public policies for youth development in Nuevo León.

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