Reader’s guide

The OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation involves a series of international comparative reports in Australia, Belgium (Flanders), Canada, Czech Republic, France, Ireland, Israel, Italy (Autonomous Province of Trento), Korea, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States (California and Michigan). The key stages of each review are summarised in Box 1.

Box 1. Project Methodology for the OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation
  • Analyse available data to understand the key labour market challenges facing the country in the context of the economic recovery and apply an OECD diagnostic tool which seeks to assess the balance between the supply and demand for skills at the local level.

  • Map the current policy framework for employment, skills and economic development policies.

  • Distribute an electronic questionnaire to local labour offices (İŞKUR regional employment offices,) across Turkey to gather information on how they work with other stakeholders to support local job creation policies.

  • Apply the local job creation dashboard in case study areas, developed by the OECD to measure the relative strengths and weaknesses of implementation practices in contributing to job creation.

  • Conduct an OECD study visit, where local and national roundtables with a diverse range of stakeholders are held to discuss the results and refine the findings and recommendations.

  • Contribute to policy development in the reviewed country by proposing policy options to overcome barriers, illustrated by selected good practice initiatives from other OECD countries.

While furthering the recovery from the economic crisis remains a focus for policy-makers, there is a need for both short-term and longer-term actions to ensure sustainable growth. In response to this issue, the OECD LEED Programme has developed a set of thematic areas on which local stakeholders and employment and training agencies can focus efforts. These include:

  1. Better aligning policies and programmes to local economic development challenges and opportunities: The benefits of better aligning employment, skills and economic development policies are increasingly apparent in the context of the knowledge economy. One of the key advantages that a locality or region can offer a business is the quality of its human capital. In recognition of this, local economic development officials can benefit significantly from working with employment offices and using workforce development as an instrument to attract new firms and stimulate local economic development.

  2. Adding value through skills by creating an adaptable and capable labour force, and supporting employment progression and skills upgrading;

  3. Targeting policy to local employment sectors and investing in quality jobs, including gearing education and training to emerging local growth sectors and responding to global trends, while working with employers on skills utilisation and productivity; and,

  4. Being inclusive to ensure that all actual and potential members of the labour force can contribute to future economic growth.

Local Job Creation Dashboard

Chapter 3 of this report provides a summary of the results of the Local Job Creation dashboard, which is a policy implementation capacity assessment tool developed by the OECD. As part of this international comparative project, the OECD has drawn on its previous research to develop a set of best practice priorities across four thematic areas. The dashboard is used to assess local practice and implementation capacities (see Box 2 for a list of the thematic areas and sub-indicators). A value between 1 (low) to 5 (high) is assigned to each of the indicators corresponding to the relative strengths and weaknesses of local policy approaches based on best practices in other OECD countries. These indicators are established by looking at a range of quantitative and qualitative data at the local level. The dashboard enables national and local policy-makers to gain a clearer overview of the strengths and weaknesses of current policies and programmes, so as to better prioritise future actions and resources.

Box 2. Local Job Creation Dashboard

Better aligning policies and programmes to local economic development

1.1. Flexibility in the delivery of employment and vocational training policies

1.2. Capacities within employment and vocational education and training (VET) sectors

1.3. Policy co-ordination, policy integration and co-operation with other sectors

1.4. Evidence based policy making

Adding value through skills

2.1. Flexible training open to all in a broad range of sectors

2.2. Working with employers on training

2.3. Matching people to jobs and facilitating progression

2.4. Joined-up approaches to skills

Targeting policy to local employment sectors and investing in quality jobs

3.1. Relevance of provision to important local employment sectors and global trends and challenges

3.2. Working with employers on skills utilisation and productivity

3.3. Promotion of skills for entrepreneurship

3.4. Promoting quality jobs through local economic development

Being inclusive

4.1. Employment and training programmes geared to local “at-risk” groups

4.2. Childcare and family friendly policies to support women’s participation in employment

4.3. Tackling youth unemployment

4.4. Openness to immigration

The approach for Turkey

This study has looked at the range of institutions and bodies involved in workforce and skills development in Turkey. In-depth analysis based on document reviews and interviews with key stakeholders was undertaken to look at local employment and economic development activities in two provinces:

  • Trabzon

  • Kocaeli

In each case study area, interviews were conducted with a wide set of stakeholders. An electronic questionnaire was also sent to managers of İŞKUR regional employment offices in Turkey, which requested information on their management capacities and activities. The questionnaire was administrated during the summer of 2015 and the results are based on 65 responses. In March 2016, local roundtables were held in each of the case study areas and at the national level to discuss the findings and recommendations. These meetings brought together a range of stakeholders, including relevant department officials in the fields of employment, economic development, and training; employers; and other local community and social development organisations.


Froy, F., S. Giguère and E. Travkina (2010), Local Job Creation: Project Methodology, OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED), OECD, Paris, Methodology_27%20February.pdf.