Chapter 7. Implementing the 2030 Agenda nationally

The 2030 Agenda presents national governments with both opportunities and challenges. This chapter provides an overview of 18 countries’ initial efforts to “nationalise” the agenda and adapt it to their own country context and priorities.1 It is based on responses to the following six questions:

  1. In what way is your country aligning its national strategies to the 2030 Agenda and setting national targets?

  2. What steps are being taken to integrate the SDGs into national policy frameworks, break out of policy silos and apply integrated and coherent policy approaches?

  3. How is your country updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms for improved coherence and effective SDG implementation?

  4. Is your country applying an intergenerational timeframe when designing policies for the implementation of the SDGs?

  5. How are current monitoring mechanisms being aligned with the new agenda in order to track progress in SDG implementation?

  6. Are efforts being made to involve multiple stakeholders, e.g. CSOs, NGOs, and the private sector in these processes?

  

Austria

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

By decision of the Austrian Council of Ministers of 12 January 2016, the Austrian Government has requested all Ministries to integrate the SDGs into their relevant programs and strategies and, in case the need arises, to develop new action plans and measures for coherent implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

As a first step, Ministries have been requested to perform a gap-analysis of existing policies and strategies in order to identify possible needs for further action.

The SDGs have already been fully incorporated into some new policies and programs, such as the Three-Year Programme guiding the Austrian development co-operation from 2016-18.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

Austria has launched SDG implementation with a Decision of the Austrian Council of Ministers of 12 January 2016, based upon a national stocktaking exercise. In line with the universal, integrated and interrelated nature of the 2030 Agenda, the Decision of the Council of Ministers emphasises a mainstreaming approach: setting the focus on aligning regular national policy frameworks on sectoral levels with the SDGs (like an SDG lens).

A working group chaired by the Federal Chancellery and the Ministry of Foreign affairs has been established – with particular involvement of the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection, the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management and the Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy as well as all the other Ministries which are affected by the implementation of the 2030 Agenda – to provide guidance on the drafting of national monitoring reports according to the reporting requirements and to initiate a priority setting process for the respective reporting period.

The inaugural meeting of the working group was held at a senior official level on 16 February 2016.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

Intergenerational time frames are, where applicable, being integrated into new national policies and strategies. In 2016, the Austrian Court of Auditors will focus its work on the overarching issue of “sustainable development and intergenerational justice”.

Monitoring SDG implementation

The Austrian Parliament and the Austrian Government have the overall oversight over tracking progress in the SDG implementation.

Specialised Agencies, such as the Auditor General and Statistik Austria – the national statistics office – contribute within their mandate to this task.

Involving multiple stakeholders

All relevant stakeholders, government entities as well as NGOs, the private sector, and academia, have been fully integrated into the process leading to the inter-governmental negotiations as well as to the endorsement of the Agenda 2030 by Heads of State/Heads of Government.

Numerous national policy frameworks (e.g. the national poverty reduction goal defined within the EU-2020 framework) rely on well-established multi-stakeholder advisory groups (e.g. Austrian Platform for the implementation of the EU 2020 poverty reduction goal). These existing multi-stakeholder groups will be utilised in mainstreaming the SDGs in their respective national policy framework.

Denmark

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

The Danish government is determined to follow up on the 2030 Agenda and has decided to formulate an action plan for Denmark’s follow-up. The action plan will focus on both the national and international dimensions of the agenda. At the same time the 2030 Agenda action plan will be reflected in new strategy for Denmark’s development co‐operation and humanitarian action, which is expected to be launched in the second part of 2016. Multiple stakeholders, including civil society organisations, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and academia, are involved in the preparation of the strategy. The action plan and the new strategy for Denmark’s development co-operation and humanitarian action will provide a solid foundation for facilitating PCD and an integrated approach to the integration of the 2030 Agenda.

Denmark’s action plan will both highlight the Danish positions of strength such as sustainable growth and employment, a strong welfare society and development assistance, as well as identify areas, where additional efforts are needed. Additionally, the Danish PCD Action Plan, “A Shared Agenda – Denmark’s Action Plan for Policy Coherence for Development”, which was launched in June 2014, will complement the follow-up on the 2030 Agenda. The objectives of the PCD Action Plan are to foster positive synergies between other policy areas and development policy, as well as to address possible negative effects of other policy areas on developing countries and sustainable development. The PCD Action Plan is primarily focused on the formulation of the development policies of the European Union, and Denmark will therefore work towards an ambitious implementation of the 2030 Agenda at the EU level.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

An inter-ministerial group consisting of all the Danish ministries and under the auspices of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has formulated the Danish position in the preparation of the 2030 Agenda and will continue to function as the core national co‐ordination mechanism. This set-up enables an integrated and coherent approach for effective SDG implementation, including a balanced approach to the integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental. The national bureau of statistics, Statistics Denmark, which has been actively involved in the formulation of indicators for the SDGs, is also involved in developing the monitoring mechanisms that will allow Denmark to track progress in the SDG implementation.

Estonia

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

The Estonian Sustainable Development Commission will launch a comparative analysis of the Estonian Sustainable Development Strategy “Sustainable Estonia 21”, which will show to what extent the Estonian strategy is in compliance with Agenda 2030.

The Government Office will initiate a gap-analysis of Estonian Government policies in the light of Agenda 2030. This will give an overview of how many sustainable development goals and targets are covered by the governments’ policy measures. An Inter-ministerial Working Group of Sustainable Development is going to be involved in the process.

During 2016, a review of Estonian Sustainable Development indicators will match our national indicators to the SDG indicators. This will involve the Working Group of Sustainable Development, the National Sustainable Development Commission and the Statistics Office of Estonia.

Estonia is among the first countries to present a voluntary national review at the UN 2016 High Level Political Forum about implementing Agenda 2030. Preparations for drafting the report are currently underway.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

Implementation and monitoring of sustainable development issues is co-ordinated by the Government Office Strategy Unit, which also co-ordinates the Estonian competitiveness strategy Estonia2020 and drafts and monitors the Government Action Plan. This helps to maintain the coherence between these horizontal strategies (https://riigikantselei.ee/en/sustainable-development).

Monitoring SDG implementation

Estonia plans to use the already functioning national co-ordination system for sustainable development issues (Sustainable Development Commission, Inter-Ministerial Working Group on Sustainable Development) also for co-ordinating the implementation of Agenda 2030.

Involving multiple stakeholders

In 1996, the Estonian Sustainable Development Commission was formed. It was chaired by prime minister.

In 2009 the Commission was reformed and now it consists of non-governmental umbrella organisations, which cover different fields of sustainable development (for example education, environmental protection, culture, children, health, academy, private companies, agriculture, etc).

Finland

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

For Finland, the universal and transformative Agenda 2030 and its Sustainable Development Goals and targets mean the need for a careful review of our development co‐operation policy and practices, but as importantly, also domestic policies and measures in various sectors. Finland needs to work on goals and targets of, for example, biological diversity, citizens’ wellbeing and equality, sustainable consumption and production, efficient energy use, renewable energy, and climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. On the other hand, eradicating poverty, ensuring global food security and promoting peaceful and inclusive societies are goals which Finland implements best by intensifying its development and foreign policies.

According to the Government Programme on 2015, a National Agenda 2030 Implementation Plan will be drawn up by the end of 2016. This Plan will outline (among other things) how Finland in various policy sectors and in international co-operation will carry out the principles, goals and targets of the Agenda 2030, and how the progress of the implementation will be monitored and reviewed. It identifies Finland’s strengths as well as major gaps and challenges and offers solutions and tools to improve the efficiency.

To guide the preparation of the National Agenda 2030 Implementation Plan, an external gap-analysis will be conducted to look into Finland’s readiness to implement the (global) Agenda 2030. The objective of the report is to draw a baseline for Finland’s implementation measures and, in particular, to point out those goals and targets where Finland needs most to catch up.

The most important policy instrument to outline Finland’s development co-operation is the Government Report to Parliament on development policy that was adopted in February 2016.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

The key measures to put the Agenda 2030 into practice are the integrated policies and measures taken in various Government sectors as part of the implementation of national and EU legislation, national sectoral or thematic strategies and action plans, as well as international agreements and commitments. To ensure the integrated approach (on the implementation), it was decided that from 1st January 2016, the Prime Minister’s Office is in charge of the national implementation.

The Prime Minister’s Office conducted a survey in February-March 2016, encompassing all Government Ministries in order to explore the existing and missing policy instruments for implementation in Finland. The Ministries were asked to identify which goals and targets they are covering and by which policies and measures. The measures can vary from national and EU legislation to sectoral or thematic strategies and action plans, as well as implementation of the international agreements and commitments. The survey compiles all relevant policies and measures, indicates the state of play and budgetary status, and analyses areas of insufficient action or potential for cross-sectoral co-operation.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

Finland gets ready for the implementation of Agenda 2030 in a comprehensive and inclusive manner. The Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) is in charge of the co-ordination of the national implementation. The PMO acts as the Coordination Secretariat and will include representatives from the PMO, Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the National Commission on Sustainable Development. The Secretariat, establishing an operational hub, works closely together with the Co-ordination Network, comprising all Government Ministries.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

Finland’s main tool to adapt the global goals and targets into national and local objectives and action is called Society’s Commitment to Sustainable Development “The Finland We Want 2050”, adopted in December 2013. It is Finland’s long-term inter-generational strategic sustainable development framework with a vision, principles and objectives in a transition to sustainable development. Compared to conventional national sustainability strategies, the Society’s Commitment also contains an implementation mechanism. The strategic part of the Society’s Commitment will be updated by May 2016 to meet the spirit and ambition of the Agenda 2030. Its time-frame is up to year 2050.

Monitoring SDG implementation

Finland is committed to providing a systematic, open, transparent, inclusive and participatory follow-up and review for implementing the Sustainable Development Goals and targets at all levels. Monitoring the progress and reviewing the achievements on a regular basis is essential for ensuring accountability to citizens and the global community.

The state and trends of sustainable development in Finland are monitored and reviewed by 39 national sustainable development indicators. They were identified in 2014 to measure progress of the eight strategic objectives of the Society’s Commitment. These indicators will be revised and updated to support the follow-up of Agenda 2030, thereby complementing the global sustainable development indicators. Indicator work will be part of the national monitoring and reviewing scheme of implementing Agenda 2030.

The Prime Minister-led multi-stakeholder National Commission on Sustainable Development will be one of the key bodies to oversee the national implementation process and assess the progress made. National, global and possibly regional indicators and assessment schemes will be key tools for the National Commission in this follow-up. Results of the assessments will be discussed and published widely. In addition, the Finnish Development Policy Committee follows the implementation of Agenda 2030 in Finland from the development policy point of view.

Involving multiple stakeholders

Finland has a long tradition of involving civil society in promoting sustainable development. There are two major multi-stakeholder committees in Finland to support and promote sustainable development policies:

The Development Policy Committee is a parliamentary body whose mission is to follow the implementation of the (global) sustainable development goals in Finland from the development policy perspective and to monitor the implementation of the Government Programme and the Government’s development policy guidelines.

The National Commission on Sustainable Development is a Prime Minister-led partnership forum that has operated in Finland for 23 years without interruption, with the aim to integrate sustainable development into Finnish policies, measures and everyday practices.

Both committees encompass a membership with a large variety of non-governmental stakeholders, private sector actors, interest groups and civil society organisations. In addition, a Sustainable Development Expert Panel, comprising eminent professors from different disciplines, challenges and boosts the work of the National Commission on Sustainable Development and adds a critical voice in the sustainability debate, when needed.

The secretariat of the Development Policy Committee is located in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Co-ordination of the National Commission on Sustainable Development was relocated from the Ministry of the Environment to the Prime Minister’s Office in January 2016, yet the Secretary General of the Commission continues to operate from the Environment Ministry. In order to improve policy coherence between these two committees, their collaboration will be intensified, for example through joint meetings, workshops and discussion papers.

One important voluntary means of implementation in Finland is “The Finland We Want 2050” commitment. This is Finland’s strategic framework for sustainable development but functions also as one of the key multi-stakeholder implementation tools for Agenda 2030. By the end of 2015, over 200 organisations from companies to ministries, schools, municipalities and CSOs, as well as individual citizens have already joined the Society’s Commitment by launching their own operational commitments and thereby contributing their part to the achievement of sustainable development (in Finland).

Germany

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

Germany has a National Sustainable Development Strategy in place since 2002, guided by the principles of international responsibility, intergenerational equity, quality of life and social cohesion. This is accompanied by a “sustainability architecture” and mechanisms for its monitoring and regular revisions. In line with our cabinet’s decision, this strategy provides the essential framework for the national implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Consequently, the Federal Chancellery is leading a process to revise this strategy in order to adapt it to the transformative 2030 Agenda by the end of 2016. All ministries, parliament, federal states and local level, civil society, private sector and academia are involved in this process. The new strategy will be structured along the 17 SDGs. Though the globally agreed targets and indicators serve as orientation for the national set of targets and indicators, the latter will be modified to match the German context. The revised strategy will also consider the global and planetary impacts of domestic actions and contribute to resolving global and transformative challenges.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

As sustainable development is a guiding principle of all policies of the German government, the responsibility for the National Sustainable Development Strategy does not lie with one of the ministries, but with the Federal Chancellery. The National Sustainable Development Strategy further formulates goals and measures for key policy fields. Its revision serves to adjust, strengthen and add sustainability relevant policies of all ministries. In addition and due to the nature of the German federal system, two thirds of the German federal states, the Bundesländer, have their own sustainable development strategies in place or are in the process of developing them. Based on these and the broad and intensive local-agenda-21-process as follow-up to the Rio-Summit of 1992, local communities are conceptualising ways to implement the strategies in their local contexts and to renew, strengthen and intensify their local sustainability policies.

With regards to international co-operation, the German Government is taking the 2030 Agenda as guideline and supports its implementation within its various bilateral co‐operations. This includes supporting partner countries in their efforts to adapt national policies to the implementation of the agenda, to strengthen their resource base through the Addis Tax Initiative, and to contribute to international monitoring and review. In this context, the German Government is committed to the broad range of Means of Implementation defined by the AAAA, including mobilisation of domestic and private resources as well as the provision of ODA to complement national efforts, especially in the poorest and most vulnerable countries.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

Within the framework of our National Sustainable Development Strategy, we have already set up the architecture with various institutions, mechanisms and instruments for its steering, monitoring and regular revisions. The central steering body is the State Secretaries’ Committee on Sustainable Development, chaired by the Head of the Federal Chancellery, which oversees the updating and monitoring of the Sustainable Development Strategy. The Parliamentary Advisory Council on Sustainable Development, composed of 17 Members of the Parliament, provides parliamentary advice, and evaluates the sustainability impact assessment of the Federal Government. The sustainability impact assessment of laws and decrees is a prerequisite for their consideration by the cabinet. The benchmarks for the impact assessment are the targets, indicators and so called management rules of the Sustainable Development Strategy.

In order to benefit from external expertise, the German government also put in place the German Council for Sustainable Development in 2001. The Sustainable Development Council advises the Federal Government on all matters relating to sustainable development. Around fifteen individuals from businesses, trade unions, churches, the media, and consumer and environmental associations meet regularly to discuss various aspects of sustainability. They are appointed for three years by the German Chancellor. The Council works independently and tables proposals on how the Strategy should move forward. The government’s high-level commitment to the principle of sustainability politically fosters all efforts undertaken to contribute to the Strategy’s goals and ensures an efficient cross-sectoral co-ordination of the whole government’s sustainability activities.

In 2009 and 2012, the German Federal Government invited an international Peer Group to review progress on sustainable development in Germany, and to make recommendations for strengthening transformation to a more sustainable society and economy.

For the German Federal Government, sustainability requires a holistic and integrated approach. It is only when interdependencies are detected, disclosed and taken into account that long-term, stable solutions to existing problems and conflicting objectives can be identified.

Figure 7.1. Sustainability goal triangle
picture

Economic performance, environmental protection and social responsibility should be combined in a way that enables sustainable decisions based on all three aspects to be considered in a global context. The absolute limit is reached when the Earth’s capacity to sustain life is involved. It is within this framework that the realisation of the various political goals should be optimised.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

Intergenerational time frames are applied in Germany’s main social, economic and environmental policy planning in order to achieve greater positive impacts for future generations. Examples are the “Energiewende” and the introduction of the minimum wage. With regard to SDG implementation Germany will also design intergenerational policy solutions given that the revised German Sustainable Development Strategy will be aligned to the fifteen-year time frame of the 2030 Agenda. In the context of its climate policy, Germany already committed itself to a long-term objective: At the 41st G7 summit at “Schloss Elmau” 2015 – under the German presidency – the G7 agreed “[…] that deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are required with a decarbonisation of the global economy over the course of this century”.

Monitoring SDG implementation

The Federal Government reports to the public once every four years on the progress made in the implementation of the National Sustainable Development Strategy. The Strategy includes a Management Concept whose rules, targets and indicators are currently also being revised to meet the principles of the 2030 Agenda. A set of sustainability indicators measures and discloses progress in sustainable development which makes the strategy transparent, tangible and assessable. The Federal Statistical Office publishes an independent report on the status of the sustainability indicators once every two years. In addition, departmental reports are presented to the State Secretaries’ Committee on Sustainable Development. They indicate the ministries’ approaches to sustainable development issues.

Involving multiple stakeholders

The German Federal Government has carried out regular consultations with a broad range of stakeholders since before the Rio+20 Conference. In particular, the German Federal Government organised five Dialogue conferences between October 2015 and February 2016 aiming at including civil society stakeholders, academia, the business sector and other experts in the revising process of the National Sustainable Development Strategy. The various stakeholders discussed necessary actions and means for a successful ambitious national implementation of the 2030 Agenda, including the challenge and potential of a closer and more effective multi-stakeholder-co-operation envisaged in the 2030 Agenda. Furthermore, the first draft of the revised National Sustainable Development Strategy will be open to public consultations. A regular Dialogue Forum on the 2030 Agenda will continue to be held during the implementation phase of the 2030 Agenda.

Greece

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

Overview of the Action Plan a) – f):

  1. Hellenic Aid is currently in the process of identifying the government body which will have the responsibility of co-ordinating our country’s participation in the global process of implementation of the SDGs, and the overall policy co-ordination that will be necessary to achieve this implementation. A starting point might be to map and review existing strategies or plans to identify the most appropriate instruments for national implementation of the SDGs. This will be the basis for taking stock of where the country, sector, region or city stands with regard to achieving the global goals and targets, identifying gaps and proposing areas for change within the national context and set national targets that are achievable.

  2. The co-ordination process will be guided by the following concrete targets:

    • The “alignment” of national policies and priorities with the SDGs.

    • The identification of possible institutional adaptations necessary for the successful implementation of the SDGs and the establishment and promotion of co-operation mechanisms among stakeholders at home and abroad to this end.

    • Coherent approach across sections (cross-departmental coherence, synergies and interlinkages).

    • The adoption of a mechanism for effectively monitoring and evaluating progress towards achieving the SDGs and for providing feedback for the fine tuning of policies and practices.

  3. Once established, the governmental co-ordinating body will, in the first instance, convene a broad meeting of representatives from different institutional stakeholders (including all relevant ministries, the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), local government, leading players from the private sector and civil society, academia etc.), with the aim of drafting a “National Strategy” for achieving the SDGs.

  4. Stakeholders will also contribute to the drafting of relevant “Sector Specific Programmes of Actions” for achieving the SDGs in the country and abroad, in their areas of competence. Parameters that shall be factored into the drafting of both National Strategy and “Sector Specific Programmes of Actions” include:

    • Existing policies, objectives, priorities and commitments of our country.

    • The means of achieving sustainable development strategy in accordance with the current policy priorities and existing conditions.

    • The need for policy coherence between the different stakeholders.

    • The impact on state budget.

    • The UN indicators.

  5. The above factors will be of primary importance in the formulation and establishment of national and sector specific strategies, given that the SDGs are universally applicable to all countries, but in the framework of different national circumstances, capacities and levels of development.

  6. A Special Group of Experts will be established, staffed by leading experts from all relevant ministries, ELSTAT, academics and institutional stakeholders. It will be tasked with compiling the final version of the National Strategy (overall design, implementation modalities, monitoring and evaluation tools) in line with the drafting process referred to above. The same group will be tasked with reviewing of the “Sector Specific Programmes of Action” to ensure coherence and harmonisation with the established “National Strategy”, with the aim of achieving the SDGs in Greece and abroad by 2030.

  7. Implementation of the National Strategy and the “Sector Specific Programmes of Action”, by Ministries and other relevant agencies/bodies, will be performed within a framework of perpetual monitoring and evaluation by the Special Group of Experts, who will provide feedback for the fine tuning and adaptation of implementation strategies.

  8. Regular progress reviews (tracking progress and reporting) will be conducted by the national co-ordinating institution (para.1), in co-operation with the Hellenic Statistical Authority (which will record statistical data towards achieving SDGs in accordance with UN indicators), with the support of the Special Group of Experts.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

The Greek Government has not finalised its approach yet. It is still at the process of drafting its strategy, which will be done in close collaboration and consultation with all stakeholders.

ELSTAT, as a member of European Statistical System (ESS) and of UNECE, has contributed with feedback to several rounds of comments on the measurability of Targets and Indicators.

  • The implementation of the SDGs is a country-led process.

  • The indicator selection to measure progress in achieving the SDGs should be done by the authorities and the entities responsible for policy planning and implementation in collaboration with the statistical authorities. The follow up and monitoring of progress of implementing the SDGs through selected indicators can be pursued by independent entities – such as the statistical offices. In this regard competent ministries will feed ELSTAT with data, via their certified statistical correspondents.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

The inter-ministerial committee will be responsible for strengthening coordination mechanisms for improved coherence and effective SDG coordination.

Furthermore, due to financial constraints, we will try to work with the existing budget by redistributing funds. The SDGs are considered as an opportunity. However, additional demand on data and indicators in a situation of limited resources could critically affect NSIs production and modernisation processes.

The existence of a legal basis on EU-level would empower the national statistical systems to obtain the additional resources and funding required to cope with expanded responsibilities. Moreover, according to the Commitment on Confidence (CoC) in statistics (signed by the Hellenic Government, Government Gazette 40/29.2.2012), the Hellenic Government has made the commitment to secure adequate and stable resources necessary to maintain and further improve the quality and coverage of Greek statistics.

Monitoring SDG implementation

National ownership in the reviewing process by MS as well as the involvement of National Statistical Systems are of key importance for the follow up of SDGs since information should be aggregated at sub-regional, regional and global levels.

The ongoing work conducted by Eurostat (ESS Big Data Action Plan and Roadmap), the UNECE (High-level Group for the Modernisation of Statistical Production and Services) and the Global Working Group on Big Data for Official Statistics is generally supported. The World Forum on Sustainable Development Data could also play an active role to bridge the gap between official statistics and data scientists.

Good governance, technical guidance and quality are necessary to ensure comparability of the data at different levels.

Furthermore, there must be a common reporting template, defined by the international statistical community, referring to the quality and comparability of SDGs indicators. Special attention should be given to the quality aspects of administrative data.

Reporting will need to be revisited after the overall review mechanism at global level has been designed and the discussion of how to set the Agenda of the HLPF has been concluded. For instance, we will need to prepare differently if every year all SDGs are being reviewed and differently if each year a cluster of only 4-5 SDGs are reviewed so that all 17 SDGs are reviewed in a 4 year period between two HLPFs at UNGA level.

Involving multiple stakeholders

Close collaboration with civil society, the private sector and local governments is envisaged through regular meetings and platforms for exchange of experiences and ideas. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is facilitating a process to engage ministries in a multi-stakeholder dialogue with non-state representatives of the private sector and businesses, in order to take in to account their priorities when prioritising targets and designing required actions to implement them.

Italy

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

Regarding national strategies for the domestic application of the 2030 Agenda and the setting of national targets, Italy will work on the basis of its National Strategy for Sustainable Development, resulting from the Johannesburg Summit, expanding beyond the environmental pillar to other key pillars of sustainable development. This process may also include the creation of new governance structures for its implementation and to assure policy coherence.

The Italian Government has already promoted reforms and other provisions (that have been adopted by the Italian Parliament), among others in the areas of poverty, employment and education, development co-operation that are very much consistent with the SDGs and is preparing a National Green Act that will thoroughly revisit our internal environmental regulation. Moreover, Italy has recently passed an act to review the already cited National Sustainable Development Strategy that will be a building block in the coming years for the implementation process at the national level.

At the same time, we are also gathering ideas and collecting information about what is being considered by other countries. Initial inter-ministerial and multi-stakeholder discussions have inevitably focused on what kind of governance structures may be needed for the Strategy’s updating, for its implementation and to assure policy coherence at all levels of decision-making. A necessary and preliminary element of this reflection is what decisions will be taken at the EU-level for the internal application of the Agenda.

As for the external application of the 2030 Agenda (development co-operation with partner countries), Italy has already begun to update its Triennial Policy Document for Development Co-operation (2016-19). Special focus will be dedicated on ways to incorporate both the integrated vision and the innovative sectors of the 2030 Agenda. We expect that the new Document will be adopted by the middle of this year.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

From the point of view of the “external dimension”, the 2014 Development Co‐operation Reform Law, establishes that the Triennial Policy Document for Development Co-operation (2016-19) is the result of a broad participatory process, led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Co-operation, that includes: the Inter-ministerial Committee for Development Co-operation (CICS – Comitato Interministeriale per la Co‐operazione allo Sviluppo), the National Council for Development Co-operation (CNCS – Consiglio Nazionale per la Co-operazione allo Sviluppo), a multi-stakeholder/multi-level public-private forum that includes a strong presence of civil society, NGOs, private sector and local government; Parliamentary and Regional review; and a final approval of the Triennial Policy Document by the Council of Ministers. As such, it is the main policy document for all levels of government and public-private organizations that receive public funds for development co-operation. At the same time, an annual Report to the Parliament on Development Co-operation, regarding activities of the previous year, is attached to said policy document and follows a similar process of vetting and approval.

Regarding the “domestic dimension”, as previously mentioned, the mechanisms and processes are still being considered. Among other important possibilities, the Chamber of Deputies of the Italian Parliament has established a 2030 Agenda Committee that will soon promote a survey on its implementation. The reformed Senate could have an effective role in evaluating the impact of legislation in the light of the Agenda.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

In terms of development co-operation, Italy’s 2014 Development Co-operation Law has set up a strong governance structure of the sector that includes the Inter-ministerial Committee for Development Co-operation (CICS – Comitato Interministeriale per la Co‐operazione allo Sviluppo), the multi-stakeholder National Council for Development Co‐operation (CNCS – Consiglio nazionale per la Co-operazione allo Sviluppo), Parliamentary oversight, local government involvement, and Council of Ministers approval processes. Moreover, a specific working group of the CNCS has been constituted on the topic of “2030 Agenda implementation, aid effectiveness, coherence and evaluation”.

This new governance structure will no doubt be closely considered also in relation to the institutional settings for the “internal dimension” of the 2030 Agenda, which are being evaluated at the moment. The final objective is to assure co-ordination and coherence between both institutional dimensions (internal/external).

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

On the external application, the issue has been taken into consideration throughout the process of elaborating the Triennial Policy Document for Development Co-operation (2016-19), which fully integrates the SDGs in its framework as well as all the key pillars of sustainable development. No specific policy recommendations have yet emerged on how to best treat this aspect in policy-design, but it remains an important element in policy-thinking.

Monitoring SDG implementation

Italy has been an active participant in the work of the UN Statistical Commission on SDG indicators. Italy also agrees with the recommendations made by the Independent Expert Advisory Group on the Data Revolution for Sustainable Development, appointed by the UN Secretary General, and has joined the Partnership for Sustainable Data. In the context of the European Union, Italy has followed the work on Results Based Management (RBM) and Frameworks (RBF). Nationally, the Italian Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) is already developing innovating approaches such as the elaboration of a “well-being indicator” and will remain a key institution in the monitoring process. On the development side, Italy has developed a systematic collaboration with both Academia and ISTAT, also in terms of strengthening mechanisms in partner countries for tracking impact and progress of development assistance programs.

The UNECE region already has a high degree of homogeneity and collaboration in the statistical and other sectors that are relevant for the follow-up and review of the Agenda 2030. UNECE might be of further help in the creation of standard guidelines and templates for national reports and elaboration of regional thematic reports, among other themes that have been in discussion following the publication of the Report of the UN Secretary-General on critical milestones towards coherent, efficient and inclusive follow-up and review of Agenda 2030.

Involving multiple stakeholders

CSOs, NGOs and the private sector are involved though the National Council for Development Co-operation (CNCS – Consiglio nazionale per la Co-operazione allo Sviluppo) from the point of view of the external application of the Agenda 2030. The CNCS has also the prerogative to establish specific working groups. So far, four specific groups have been created: i) Agenda 2030, aid effectiveness, coherence and evaluation; ii) Strategies of development co-operation; iii) Role of the private sector; and iv) Migration and development. From this initial experience, similar arrangements might be also considered for the internal application of the Agenda. There is no doubt that the 2030 Agenda will need to be adapted to national circumstances and level of development. Ideally, the Agenda deserves a further level of adaptation to guarantee local ownership. This can be achieved by mobilizing local authorities and other stakeholders at the local level.

Furthermore, around 80 Civil Society organizations, foundations and other non-governmental institutions have recently established a “National Alliance for Sustainable Development”, the goal of which is to spread knowledge about the SDGs, raise awareness at the citizen level – especially among youth and students – and stimulate Public Institutions’ action for the 2030 Agenda implementation.

Prestigious academic and research Institutions have lately formally launched the Italian hub of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network with the aim of suggesting to the government and the private sector technological solutions that will help to reach the SDGs.

Ireland

1. Overall planning

Ireland is actively considering the most appropriate institutional arrangements for implementation, monitoring and review of the 2030 Agenda at national, regional and global levels.

Given that effective implementation of the 2030 Agenda at national level will require a broad and integrated domestic policy response across the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable development, the national implementation framework will have to provide for the coordinated involvement of many different parts of government as well as outreach to a broad group of stakeholders.

Box 7.1. National Responses: the example of Education

The Department of Education and Science recently presented its strategy regarding “Education for Sustainable Development in Ireland” to a range of stakeholders across government and civil society whose key principles include a number of commitments relevant to the SDGs not least of which are the i) promotion of active democratic citizenship and inclusion as a means of empowering the individual and the community and ii) recognition that sustainability requires interdependence and interconnectedness across other sectors. The Irish Global coalition for Education has committed to develop a strategy and create an alliance around SDG 4 that would focus on advocacy for education in development aid policy, education for sustainable development and global citizenship, and lifelong learning and inclusive education.

The Central Statistics Office (CSO) will perform a key role as part of the implementation framework and will support the development of national objectives and indicators that best align with the 2030 Agenda.

2. Integration

Ireland set up an interdepartmental coordination mechanism to ensure coherent and comprehensive Irish positions in the negotiation process for the 2030 Agenda which involved a thorough consideration of national policies within the context of the new SDGs. In many respects, existing policies and strategies in Ireland already integrate many of the goals envisioned in the SDG’s e.g., our current national sustainable development plan, and our international development policy. Where this is not the case, it is envisaged that our national implementation framework will facilitate the necessary integrated approach to implementation, as well as further progress on alignment of the goals and targets with relevant national policies as required.

3. Governance

As part of its consideration of the most appropriate institutional framework for implementation of the Agenda, Ireland is examining the adequacy of the existing governance mechanisms based on the principles mentioned above.

The government framework for sustainable development in Ireland, Our Sustainable Future, is one example of where government departments and others come together through participation in a steering committee to work towards a national response to sustainable development and a sustainable future for Ireland’s citizens and our partner countries.

4. Intergenerational timeframe

This will be considered as part of the national implementation framework. Clearly given that today’s youth will be the generation that will experience the impact of the success or failure of the SDGs, consideration is being given to ensuring that SDG implementation will be inclusive and responsive to the needs of the youth.

5. Monitoring

Effective implementation of the 2030 Agenda at national level will require a broad and integrated domestic policy response across the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable development, as well as outreach. At the global level, Ireland’s implementation of the SDGs also requires ensuring that Ireland in its programming and policies, supports the delivery of the SDGs in developing countries. Keeping Ireland’s policy position under review at Government level will require close coordination across all Departments and a suitable mechanism is being actively considered to achieve this.

6. Stakeholder involvement

Policy making with strong stakeholder involvement, which is already well integrated into our national policy making, will also play an important role in implementation of Agenda 2030. As mentioned above Ireland is considering a national implementation framework that will facilitate outreach to a broad group of stakeholders.

An example of local stakeholder involvement is the Climate Finance working group under which the Dept. of Finance, Dept. of Public Expenditure, Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and Dept. of the Environment are working together to establish a plan for the scale-up of future climate finance flows as required under the Paris Agreement. Work includes research into potential contributions from the private sector and innovative sources to support developing countries.

Japan

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

The Government of Japan is now making the necessary arrangements to develop a national implementation system to lead full and effective implementation of the 2030 Agenda, including inter-ministerial co-ordination mechanisms to ensure integrated and coherent policy approaches.

National implementation plans, targets, policies and monitoring mechanisms will be discussed under the implementation system after its establishment.

In parallel, relevant ministries are now mapping out their policies and initiatives relating to the SDGs in order to analyze existing gaps on SDG implementation and to integrate the SDGs into their policy frameworks.

Involving multiple stakeholders

The Government of Japan has been putting much importance on the involvement of relevant stakeholders even before the intergovernmental negotiations on the 2030 Agenda started. For instance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has carried out regular consultations with NGOs and international organisations more than 10 times since March 2012 in addition to informal consultations on various occasions.

This principle applies to the ongoing co-ordination process to develop a national implementation system. Regular consultations will be continued throughout the process and the new system will be developed so as to include regular dialogue mechanisms with multiple stakeholders, including NGOs, CSOs, the private sector and academia.

Each ministry has also been involving a broad range of stakeholders to develop its own initiatives to achieve the SDGs. In this regard, the Ministry of the Environment hosted a national-level stakeholders’ meeting in March 2016, bringing together civil society, the private sector and academia to share lessons and advanced cases across the country.

Parliamentarians are also keen on the steady implementation of the 2030 Agenda. A non-partisan study group was established in March 2016 to provide necessary advice and support to the government.

Latvia

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

Latvia has a well-coordinated planning system. Its Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030 (Latvia 2030), with indicators, targets and measures underpins the highest level medium-term planning document, the Latvian National Development Plan 2014-20 (NDP2020). The NDP2020 has three levels of indicators and their targets – on a macro level, on a priority level and in twelve areas. The National Development Plan is supported by numerous policy framework documents and plans that elaborate on how the indicators are to be achieved. In addition, line ministries have their respective policy framework documents that cover areas not defined by the NDP2020. A subsequent medium-term national development plan will be created for the time period starting from 2021.

Any changes to the existing NDP as well as new targets, actions and measures for the next NDP will be introduced through mid-term reviews of the currently effective policy frameworks and plans. In Latvia, mid-term reviews include feedback from various stakeholders, involving the expertise of line ministries. It is during the mid-term reviews that new indicators and targets can be discussed, new actions considered and respective costs assessed. For the NDP2020 the mid-term review will take place in 2017.

A preliminary comparison of the 2030 Agenda sub-goals to targets and performance indicators in current Latvian policy documents reveals that Latvia already has many domestic level indicators with targets that match the 2030 Agenda goals and targets.

For the sake of analysis, the SDG targets are divided into three main groups: 1) those that could apply to Latvia’s positions on global issues; 2) those that could apply to Latvian development co-operation; 3) those that could apply domestically; 4) those that do not apply to Latvia and will not be tracked in Latvia. The MFA will have a decision making prerogative in the cases of 1) and 2).

Regarding 3) Latvia (the Central Statistical Bureau) is currently doing a full mapping of the 169 sub-goals that “could apply domestically” and their respective indicators to identify whether these or similar indicators are already included in Latvia’s planning documents. Ministries will afterwards be informed of these indicators and will further decide whether to consider them in their mid-term reviews of planning documents.

The remaining indicators will be examined based on several criteria: 1) what national issue/problem they resolve; 2) whether there are obstacles for development unless the specific targets are set at the national level; 3) whether there are stakeholders that perceive the specific issue as a priority.

Results will be included in the 2017 mid-term review of Latvia’s National Development Plan 2014-2020 in the form of options for the next development plan, and, if additional fiscal space can be allocated to the current NDP, some activities could still take place in the current period.

In regard to 2) “could apply to Latvian development co-operation”, Latvia will continue to put particular emphasis on fostering the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals:

Goal 5 “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”;

Goal 8 “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all”;

Goal 16 “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels”.

In line with the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, Latvian development co-operation puts an even higher focus on partner country capacity building and technical co-operation, stressing Multi stakeholder and triangular co-operation.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

The development of new planning tools or processes at the regional and local level has not been envisaged in the near future, since the existing ones are comprehensive, extensive and sufficient.

The Cross-Sectoral Coordination Centre has developed a national logframe, which assesses the 169 targets against the national policy planning documents. First, the SDGs are divided in the three main groups (see answers to question 1). Second, the responsible institution and, if applicable, institutions with shared responsibility are identified. The goals solely applicable to development co-operation (bilateral or multilateral) are mapped. Similarly, the goals applicable to state owned enterprises are mapped as well. Thirdly, the SDG indicators for each of the targets are mapped against the Latvia2030 and NDP2020 performance indicators. Fourthly, the responsible institution gives opinion regarding the need to include the non-existent or partially covered SDG indicators in NDP2020 or the next NDP. Lastly, possible discussion issues are noted.

As regards development co-operation policy, Latvia is in the final stages of developing its new mid-term policy planning document entitled “The Development Co-operation Policy Guidelines for the time period of 2016-2020”. Contribution to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, including the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, in the developing countries is recognized as the overarching goal in the document.

According to the Development Planning System Law, sustainable development strategies and development programs are also developed at regional and local levels. Development planning documents are elaborated taking into account the sustainable development principle. The development planning documents in Latvia’s planning regions and local governments are cross-sectoral and cover the planning functions and issues which are relevant for the development of the respective territory. Accordingly, actions intended at the regional and local levels contribute to the implementation of national sustainable development goals. The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development provides planning regions and local municipalities with the methodology of devising respective sustainable development strategies and development programs.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

The Cross Sectoral Coordination Centre is responsible for long-term and medium-term planning in the country. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for development co‐operation priorities, and Latvia’s positions on global issues are determined by the relevant ministries.

Latvia is not planning to develop new mechanisms to support the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. Instead, for example in development co-operation, there are plans to strengthen and/or expand the existing ones, and establish new working groups where necessary.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs implements and reviews the policy in close co-operation with the Consultative Council in Development Co-operation (established by the Minister of Foreign Affairs in 2005). The regular meetings of the Council constitute the main coordination mechanism for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The Council includes expert representatives from all line ministries, as well as The Latvian Platform for Development Co-operation (LAPAS), the Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments, the Latvian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Latvian Confederation of Employers, the Latvian Rectors’ Council, the European Affairs Committee of the Latvian Parliament, the State Chancellery, and the Latvian School of Public Administration.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

The Latvian Sustainable Development Strategy until 2030 (Latvia 2030) underpins the highest level medium-term planning document, the Latvian National Development Plan 2014-2020 (NDP2020). The National Development Plan is supported by numerous policy framework documents and plans that elaborate on how the indicators are to be achieved. In addition, line ministries have their respective policy framework documents that cover areas not defined by the NDP2020.

In order to ensure real, sustainable development gains, the NDP2020 structures its SDG human development priorities to strengthen human resilience (securitability).2 This approach takes into account both objective indicators and subjective perceptions, because both effect action. The NDP2020 sets the agenda to ensure the ability of people to be and feel secure and return to a sense of security (while doing no harm to others) and have agency, so people may develop themselves and promote sustainable development in an ever changing world.

Monitoring SDG implementation

Currently the Central Statistical Bureau is mapping the SDG indicators – which of the existing ones do not apply to Latvia, are similar indicators or already available. These data, both on existing and new indicators, will play a major role in monitoring the progress under the SDGs, and a strong co-ordination role of the Central Statistical Bureau will be essential. Demand for data must go hand in hand with the development of the statistical capacity.

Further new data requests will be evaluated in the frame of preparation of the Official Statistics Programme, where appropriate, in accordance with procedures as set out in the Statistics Law. While planning the Official Statistics Programme, new data needs will be assessed against the available resources and the need for additional financing will be indicated where necessary.

Both the localized SDG targets and the assessment thereof will be integrated into the medium term planning system. Every other year, the Prime Minister reports on progress toward the medium-term national development plan and the sustainable development strategy. The report includes indicators and an assessment (from -2 to +2) of achieving the targets. The body of the report includes policy assessments derived from academic studies, surveys, expert commentaries, media etc., line ministry assessment and other relevant information, as well as recommendations.

Involving multiple stakeholders

Latvia’s policy-making process is inclusive, and co-operation is ongoing at many different levels. When ministries begin work on policy documents, they usually inform the public via their web-sites; they also have working groups and standing committees on issues dealing with development. All policy documents are published on the Cabinet of Minister’s website before being accepted and are open to comments from interested stakeholders in an inclusive negotiation process. A monthly meeting takes place between the Prime Minister and the interested NGOs. Latvia’s plans of mainstreaming the SDGs in the planning process were presented and discussed at these meetings. The Cross- Sectoral Coordination Centre and line ministries respond to requests from NGOs, the UNESCO Latvian National Committee and other non-state actors about future plans. NGOs will be providing information on their roles in implementing the NDP2020, which already includes many targets in line with the SDGs. Data and analysis is shared by the academic sector. The Employers’ Confederation and the Confederation of Trade Unions participate regularly in policy discussions, and they are also members, together with representatives of the academia, in the National Development Council.

No formal partnerships will be signed, since this would rather exclude stakeholders than guarantee inclusivity.

With regard to development co-operation mechanisms, Latvia will strengthen the existing ones to broaden their scope, if necessary.

The Netherlands

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

The 2030 Agenda calls on countries to implement the agreements nationally, where necessary, through policy initiatives, consulting with stakeholders and producing progress reports. The Netherlands is expected to achieve many of the SDGs. Current Dutch and European policies will be analysed to see to what extent they are up to the task and where the goals present challenges for Dutch policy. An exploratory study by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) shows that many of the Netherlands’ existing policy goals to improve the living environment are sufficiently ambitious. The PBL advises the government to adjust or supplement policy on a number of components (nationally or at European level) so as to achieve the goals by 2030. Examples include sustainability education, raising awareness of climate mitigation and adaptation, and early warning on climate change.

The starting point in implementing the SDGs nationally is that it is a government-wide responsibility. The seventeen goals can only be achieved if they are addressed together in an integrated strategy. Ministries are responsible for implementing the goals that lie within their own policy areas. The Netherlands is in favour of a pragmatic approach towards implementation of the 2030 agenda. To avoid increasing the administrative burden, efforts to achieve the goals will tie in as far as possible with existing consultation fora, policy processes and reporting procedures.

The Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation has appointed a high level national co-ordinator for SDG implementation, to co-ordinate the efforts of the different social partners to implement the agenda. The co-ordinator is at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and has been asked to present an action plan in June 2016 and to advise on a permanent base for national co-ordination. The various ministries are therefore taking the next steps in the policy areas for which they are responsible, such as designating focal points and elaborating existing and proposed policies to meet the 169 targets. In essence, the national co-ordinator will:

  • oversee and drive the actions of the government and all relevant stakeholders in society on implementation and monitoring;

  • give advice on a permanent structure for co-ordination of the national implementation by summer 2016; and

  • analyse current policies and initiatives of ministries relevant for national implementation, and opportunities and ambitions for extra efforts in the future by executing a mapping exercise.

Each line ministry has a focal point that is in contact with the co-ordinator for national implementation.

The Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation will outline the Netherlands’ efforts on national implementation and monitoring to parliament in spring 2016. The focus of the Netherlands’ international implementation of the SDGs was communicated to parliament on 28 September 2015.3

Besides its efforts at national level, the Netherlands is also contributing to worldwide implementation of the 2030 Agenda through its policy on foreign trade and development co-operation, as presented in the policy document “A World to Gain”. This will be supplemented by implementing the Plan of Action for Inclusive Development and Growth, which introduces twenty measures to promote work for women and young people and a political dialogue to increase efforts to benefit the poorest and most vulnerable groups in developing countries. The government will report to parliament on the progress of the Plan of Action in the autumn of 2016. In addition, the Netherlands will aim to increase attention for deprived groups in current programmes. The stricter agenda for policy coherence for development also strengthens the conditions for achieving the SDGs worldwide. In this context, the Netherlands is focusing on seven policy areas: trade and investment, reducing the costs of remittances, food security, access to medicines, tax evasion, making value chains sustainable, and climate change. The government will report on progress in these areas in summer 2016.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

The Netherlands is currently in the process of executing a mapping exercise.

Monitoring SDG implementation

An analysis of the impact of the SDGs on Dutch environmental policies was requested by the ministries of Foreign Affairs, Economical Affairs and Infrastructure & Environment. It was carried out by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) and published in January 2016. In this report, a number of possible monitoring mechanisms has been analysed, including the long-standing Monitor Duurzaam Nederland (“Sustainability Monitor of the Netherlands”).4 As the monitor includes all three pillars of sustainable development, the Netherlands has initiated steps to integrate the 230 global indicators into this existing tool. An analysis of the extent in which the monitor covers all the SDGs is currently undertaken.

A consultation with all relevant stakeholders on the national SDG report will take place, and the extent to which implementation of the climate agreements reached in Paris and the 2030 Agenda can be jointly achieved will also be explored. The Netherlands is not seeking to set up new institutions and agree on new competences, but to strengthen networks that promote co-operation between governments, businesses, civil society organisations, philanthropists and knowledge institutions in implementing the agenda. One important measure is to set up an overarching internet platform, where all stakeholders can upload initiatives aimed at achieving the goals.

Furthermore, the National Statistical Bureau of the Netherlands (CBS) was very much involved in the process of formulating the SDG indicators, as a member of the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDGs. In that capacity the Netherlands will continue to contribute to the international work on refining the indicators, implementing the measurement framework and ensuring quality data in the upcoming year, as agreed in last March in the annual meeting of the statistical commission in New York. The Netherlands is currently exploring the different options of strengthening statistical capacities and is a member of the board of Paris21 (Partnership in Statistics for Development in the 21st Century).

Involving multiple stakeholders

In the Netherlands, many businesses, civil society organisations, philanthropists, knowledge institutions and government authorities are willing to help implement the SDGs using their knowledge and through innovation and investment:

  • At the UN Sustainable Development Summit last September, the Dutch prime minister called for businesses to play a major role in implementing the SDGs. Paul Polman, CEO of Unilever, was closely involved in developing the 2030 Agenda. A number of major Dutch companies (e.g. DSM, Unilever, Heineken, Akzo, KLMand Philips) and banks (ABN, Rabobank, ING and ASN) have signed an international Business Manifesto.

  • A number of social initiatives have been instigated. The Netherlands is proud to already have in place a broad coalition of over 75 different stakeholders referred to as the “Global Goals Charter NL”, from companies to banks to civil society organizations, which have signed a charter and will contribute to the implementation of the SDGs and to achieving the goals in areas like water, food, health and sustainable cities.5 Besides companies, the partners include many civil society groups with a good international reputation in a wide range of areas. Central, provincial and municipal governments and the water authorities are exploring how they can best contribute to implementing the new Agenda.

  • Dutch knowledge institutions have an important role to play. As a member of the UN Statistical Commission, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) is helping to develop indicators to monitor progress on achieving the new goals. The Commission will publish its advice in a report in March 2016. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) will initiate a research programme focusing on the SDGs, and several universities are involved in implementing the new agenda as well.

  • Moreover, Partos, the Foundation Max van der Stoel (FMS) and Woord en Daad initiated The Dutch Project “Ready for Change? Global Goals at home and abroad”, co-financed by the European Commission. In co-operation with a large number of Civil Society Organisations, knowledge institutions, environmental organisations and (social) entrepreneurs, they advocated during the Dutch EU presidency for a coherent and ambitious implementation of the SDGs in the Netherlands and in the EU. The implementation of the SDGs requires a common approach of governments, research institutions, the private sector and CSOs.

Poland

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

As far as national implementation of SDGs is concerned, the Polish Government is currently reflecting on how best to adapt global goals to national frameworks and how the co-ordination structure of SDGs implementation should be established to ensure the efficiency of this process at national level.

The bottom-up approach from a local implementation to a global level will be extremely important. The global SDGs should be translated into local language and change into practical activities.

In the context of international development co-operation Poland will use existing structures, mechanisms and tools to implement SDGs. The main tool for the external implementation of the 2030 Agenda by Poland will be the new Multiannual Development Co‐operation Programme for the period 2016-20. It was adopted last October and was designed to take the SDGs into account. This document will shape Polish development and humanitarian aid for the next 5 years. The goals of Polish development co-operation are in line with the SDGs. The annual development co-operation plans will aim to implement the SDGs through Polish aid programmes as well.

Our international development co-operation will focus primarily on good governance, democracy and human rights, human capital, entrepreneurship and the private sector, sustainable agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, all of which are covered by the new 2030 Agenda.

The introduction of SDG 16 is one of the major changes in comparison with MDGs. The issues of good governance, security and human rights are presented not only as goals themselves but also as means to implement other SDGs, for they create conditions for sustainable development. Therefore, Poland will put special emphasis on the implementation of SDG 16.

The goals and priorities for Polish development co-operation have been chosen on the basis of partner countries’ development priorities, in line with their national development strategies and in consultation with the representatives of respective countries. The Multiannual Programme as well as annual plans were also consulted with Polish diplomatic missions in partner countries and subject to the Development Co-operation Policy Council discussion.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

Poland is now considering several options of SDGs implementation but some steps concerning coherent policy approaches have been taken already. The principle of PCSD and a political commitment on PCSD were incorporated into the new Multiannual Development Co-operation Programme 2016-2020, which was adopted by the Council of Ministers on 6 October 2015. The document describes the crucial elements considered to be key to PCSD implementation such as: ensuring consistency with the global SDGs; support SDGs implementation during international negotiations, introducing sustainable development criteria/elements into public policies and change national policies with a view to fostering global development.

Moreover according to the Multiannual Programme, the relevant government administration bodies (ministries) are responsible for PCSD co-ordination within their competences and for ensuring that the sectoral policies being implemented are consistent with the SDG’s and contribute to global development.

There is also a commitment in the Multiannual Development Cooperation Programme 2016-20 regarding an impact assessment of domestic policies on the developing countries: “national policies’ impact on the potential of social – economic development in the priority countries of Poland’s development co-operation is evaluated in the framework of impact assessment and public consultations of the government legislative process”. A chapter concerning Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development and its implementation in Poland is also a part of the Annual Development Co-operation Plan for 2016

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

As far as coherence is concerned, to the Development Act from the year 2011 states that ”the minister responsible for foreign affairs shall coordinate development co-operation by, inter alia, providing opinions on government programmes and strategies with regard to their cohesion vis-a-vis development co-operation…”.

The minister of foreign affairs co-ordinates development co-operation by proxy of the National Coordination for International Development Co-operation who is appointed from among the group of Secretaries or Under-Secretaries of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The National Coordinator for International Development Co-operation is the Chair of the Development Co-operation Policy Council – a consultative and advisory body attached to the Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Council’s main responsibility is to define development co‐operation priorities but it also reviews draft government documents relating to development co-operation. In 2015, the Development Co-operation Policy Council was also established – a forum where PCSD issues, including suggestions on new priority areas and topics, will be discussed. The Development Co-operation Policy Council is composed of representatives of different ministries, parliamentarians, NGOs, employers’ organisations and academia, thereby offering the possibility of wide consultations.

Poland’s National Focal Point for PCD is placed at the Department of Development Co‐operation in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. An intra-governmental network of PCD focal points was established in September 2012, composed of experts representing different line ministries: finance, agriculture, internal affairs, defence, environment, development, labour and social affairs.

As mentioned above, according to the political commitment made in the Multiannual Development Co-operation Programme 2016-20, the relevant government administration bodies are responsible for PCD co-ordination within their competences and for ensuring that the sectoral policies being implemented are consistent with the SDGs, and contribute to global development. PCD contact points at the ministries are responsible for in-house co-ordination of PCD.

The Multiannual Co-operation Programme 2016-2020 identified a PCSD-priority area: fighting illicit financial flows in such thematic areas as combating tax avoidance and money laundering. Being a principal agency in this field, the Ministry of Finance will draft annual action plans for the PCSD priority area, following consultations with the ministries and central administration bodies whose competences overlap with the priority area, and in co-operation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The creation of a priority area for PCSD in Poland should strengthen the implementation of SDG target 16.4 and the related SDGs.

The annual action plans for the PCSD priority area for the year 2016 were a subject of consultation in the Development Co-operation Policy Council in November 2015 and were approved for implementation in 2016.

Formally, the annual action plans elaborated in the framework of a priority area for PCSD in Poland should include indicators which then should be taken into account by reporting on the implementation of the action plans.

Following the political commitment made in Multiannual Development Co-operation Programme 2016-2020 a report on the performance of annual action plans for the priority area will be presented at a Development Co-operation Policy Council meeting. Every new priority area for PCSD, if it will be established, should be implemented in the similar way.

PCSD is also promoted through Poland’s co-ordination system for to EU issues. Governmental instructions prepared before EU Council meetings have to be approved by the Committee for European Issues (composed of deputy ministers from different ministries). This allows the co-ordination of positions and ensures more coherence in Poland’s position towards EU legislative proposals.

In March 2015, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs introduced in the document “Guidelines for Regulatory Impact Assessment” a new question concerning an impact of a regulation on social and economic development of Poland’s priority countries (defined in the Multiannual Programme of Development Co-operation). This document was adopted by the Council of Ministers in May 2015. It creates the basis for evaluation of national policies’ impact on the potential of socio-economic development in the priority countries of Poland’s development co-operation conducted in the framework of impact assessment and public consultation of the government legislative process. The Ministry of Development and the Chancellery of The Prime Minister are responsible for co-ordination of this process.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

In the context of international development co-operation, the current time frame for the implementation of the SDGs is defined by the Multiannual Development Co-operation Program for the period 2016-20.

Monitoring SDG implementation

Similarly to the SDGs, Polish priority areas of development co-operation will be complemented by specific targets, enabling measurement of the effectiveness of the activities carried out within the framework of Polish aid.

Involving multiple stakeholders

The implementation of SDGs in development co-operation will involve civil society organisations (both Polish and from partner countries), academia, local authorities and business, as defined by the Multiannual Development Co-operation Program for the period 2016-20 and the Act on Development Co-operation.

NGO’s and private sector representatives are member of the Development Co-operation Policy Council managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Development Co-operation Department), which defines development co-operation priorities taking into account the SDGs.

Portugal

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in articulation with the Ministry of Planning and Infrastructures, will assume the overall co-ordination of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, taking into account the need for close articulation between its internal and external dimension.

In the framework of the Inter-ministerial Committee for Foreign Policy (CIPE), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs – led by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Co-operation – has put in place a structured dialogue process in order to set up an institutional framework for the implementation of the SDG.

This process will lead to the allocation of roles and responsibilities and the creation of consultation and reporting mechanisms, with the ultimate goal of ensuring the implementation of the SDGs in a consistent and integrated manner.

Discussions on the institutional model of implementation, monitoring and review of the 2030 Agenda will be followed by the establishment, in each ministry, of a framework for implementation and monitoring of its responsibilities regarding the implementation of the SDGs, and also the appointment of focal points for all issues related to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

There is a multiplicity of strategies in different sectors, which can be important baselines for the implementation of the SDG’s, for instance: Europa 2020; Portugal 2020; National Strategy for the Sea 2013-20; Climate Policy Strategic Framework (comprising a National Program on Climate Change 2020-30 and a National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change); the Portuguese Green Growth Commitment6; the National Program on Combating Desertification; the Strategy on Biodiversity 2020; the National Strategy on Security and Development; the Strategic Concept for Portuguese Co-operation for 2014-20, and others.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

Portugal expects to create an institutional framework that brings together the necessary political and operational tools to promote the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in a consistent and integrated manner, both at internal and external levels.

With this in mind, existing institutional structures will be mobilised, to assume the following roles and responsibilities:

  • The Inter-ministerial Committee for Foreign Policy (CIPE), chaired by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Co-operation, will be the main forum for inter-ministerial co-ordination of both the internal implementation of the SDG’s by line ministries, and the reporting that will feed the follow-up and monitoring processes at national, regional and global levels.

  • The Inter-ministerial Commission for Co-operation (CIC). Under the leadership of Camões IP, the CIC will lead, co-ordinate and monitor the integration of the SDGs in development co-operation, putting into practice the external dimension of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Camões IP also participates in the Inter-ministerial Committee for Foreign Policy and is the national focal point for PCD. Furthermore, the CIC was mandated, in 2014, to address Policy Coherence for Development.

The 2030 Agenda and this institutional setting therefore provide an important opportunity to further advance on policy coherence for development. Camões IP will work with the focal points of the different Ministries on a national PCD work plan based on the SDGs.

Currently, Portugal is using OECD analysis to establish a conceptual framework and tools supporting focal points of the different ministries in promoting and disseminating PCD in their own ministries, which can be extremely important.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

The implementation process and respective time frame is still being defined.

Monitoring SDG implementation

This is still being defined. Some of the national strategies mentioned in question 1 already have monitoring mechanisms that may have to be adapted, but a final decision can only be taken at a later stage.

Permanent co-ordination with the National Statistics Institute will be maintained in terms of monitoring and review processes. National Statistics Institute (INE) will be given due prominence in the provision and processing of data to evaluate the level of achievement of the SDGs according to the indicators that will be defined.

Involving multiple stakeholders

A public consultation, led by civil society, is already taking place and will continue during the whole first semester of 2016, aiming at the definition of a cross-sectoral national plan of action for civil society’s participation in the implementation of the 2030 agenda.

Also, the Global Compact Portuguese Network is currently working on the operationalisation of an “Alliance for SDGs”, gathering the business sector, and other relevant stakeholders, either from the private and civil society level, but also from the government side as well. The aim is to foster institutional collaboration and sharing of information and good practices among engaged actors.

Moreover, the Inter-ministerial Committee for Foreign Policy will also provide an institutional setting under which multiple stakeholders will be brought on board and given the opportunity to engage with ministerial representatives on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, thus strengthening consistency across sectors.

Slovak Republic

The Slovak Republic was actively contributing to the drafting of the SDGs and is now responsibly preparing for their implementation. It is aware of the importance of having an efficient institutional mechanism to co-ordinate preparation and integration of the goals into the national policy framework. Therefore, the Government of the Slovak Republic adopted on 2 March 2016 the Governmental Resolution on Implementation of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development. It stipulates that the responsibility for SDGs implementation is divided between the Government Office of the Slovak Republic at the national level in order to assure cross-ministerial coherence, monitoring and control, and the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic at the international level.

The Office of the Government is in charge of drafting the overarching strategy at the national level. It builds on the previously adopted and implemented Action Plan for Sustainable Development (2005-10) as a result of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Slovak Republic. The national strategy currently under preparation will be aligned with and reflect the Agenda 2030, as well as priorities of other important documents, namely EU 2020 Strategy. It is proposed that monitoring and reporting mechanisms supporting the SDGs implementation using SDGs indicators and possible complementary national indicators will be run by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic.

Spain

Preparing the PCD National Report

Policy coherence for development is part of the strategy of the Spanish Co-operation as it is specified in the Master Plan of the Spanish Co-operation 2013-16 and in the International Co-operation Law (1998).

The OECD states that coherence implies the “the systematic promotion of mutually reinforcing policy actions across government departments and agencies creating synergies towards achieving the agreed objectives”.

In the case of Spain, PCD aims to know and understand the impact of all the Spanish policies other than ODA on developing countries.

By law, the Secretary-General for Development Co-operation (SGCID) must inform every two years about the compliance of the PCD principles among all departments of the Spanish Government. Once the report is finished and approved by the Council of Co‐operation for Development it is sent to the Spanish Parliament.

The Policy for Coherence Unit of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the unit in charge of the Spanish PCD report 2015. Right now we are at the last stage of the PCD national report 2013-14 preparation process.

It is worth mentioning that during 2013 the PCD focal points network was re-launched. Each Ministry, including for the first time the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Co-operation, appointed a focal point with the rank of General Director to this network in order to assist the PCD unit (at the Ministry of Foreign affairs) to compile our biennial PCD report and spread the word within their own ministries.

In comparison with the 2013 Spanish national report on PCD, the 2015 PCD report entails a change of paradigm. Regarding the 2013 PCD report itself, as a general assessment, according to the PCD Committee of the Spanish Co-operation Council’s work plan, additional efforts were needed to dynamise PCD debates, and to analyse the information in order to produce conclusions on the state of PCD in Spain rather than to just collate a report mainly describing facts.

In 2015 the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducted the periodic review of the individual development co-operation efforts of the Kingdom of Spain. The peer review of Spain was prepared by a team consisting of representatives of the Secretariat and two examiners from Germany and United Kingdom. The document states the progress made on PCD by Spain through the IV Master Plan as it reaffirms the responsibility of the Spanish co-operation on this matter. Furthermore, the 2015 peer review highlights the improvements made regarding the flow of information between government departments. Finally, the report emphasises the Spanish commitment to global public goods in its external and domestic policies related to finance and environment.

In order to manage efficiently the Spanish efforts on PCD some needs have been identified:

  • To ensure development concerns are taken into account in both domestic and foreign policies, Spain should select priority issues, and analyse, monitor and report the effect of their related policies on developing countries.

  • Give the policy coherence and co-ordination bodies a mandate to address domestic policies.

  • The V Master Plan should establish clear priorities on PCD.

  • Reinforce Spanish capacities on policy analysis.

  • Conduct a PCD analysis less descriptive and more analytical.

For that reason, the 2015 PCD report’s new paradigm has required a change of methodology for its implementation. We have achieved this new way of working thanks to the close co-operation between the DAC Unit of the OEDC and the SGCID.

In previous reports, we used to send a form to the different units involved in the process and wait for their answers. It was a simple compilation of information but we did not go further in analysing our policy implications. With this report, we intend to get better and more valuable information. Since last July we have been doing a “Tour de Table” at every Ministry in order to explain the type of information we need to conclude the report. Most of our counterparts previously believed that the information they had to report was related to Official Development Assistance. We therefore had to insist that what we needed was not ODA information, which we already have, but rather information on every other action with impact in developing countries, both at national and international level.

It was our intention too to work on indicators. However, after contacting every unit we have realised that work needs to be carried out in order to raise awareness and carry out methodological work in order to prepare units for this mindset change. We envisage that the 2030 Agenda is the adequate background to build on this culture. Hence we have decided to start building the culture and assimilate the results in our next National Report (2017).

As PCD implies many cross-cutting issues concerning different bodies, we have had at least one meeting at every Ministry of the Spanish Government and some independent bodies of the Spanish general administration.

As a novelty, we have set up thematic focal points both at the SGCID and the administrative bodies in order to collect and screen the information before adding it to the report. We have tried to reach the largest number of units included in the organisation chart of the Spanish administration.

For that purpose we created a template in which every administrative body included its information according to a specific questionnaire. Once we received the information from the different bodies we had to homogenise it in order to make it match with the eight guidelines of the Master Plan of the Spanish Co-operation 2013-16. In this regard, we have gathered all the documents and analysed them through a standardised format in order to change a focus based on the structure of the administration to a cross-cutting approach.

The main purpose of the 2015 PCD National Report is to bring to light our strengths and weaknesses on the PCD issue in order to improve our impact in developing countries and make the Spanish Government resources in this area more efficient.

In order to achieve that goal we need a “whole-of-government” approach on the PCD policy and make sure that the National State Administration as a whole understands that every unit has a key role to play. We still believe that a higher political engagement is key to pursue this ambitious goal.

The report was presented to the Council of Co-operation for Development in May 2016. The next stage of the procedure will be to send it to the Spanish Parliament in order to inform the representatives of the citizens.

Sweden

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

The Swedish Government intends to appoint a committee/delegation to promote Swedish implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The first step in the process is to identify the areas where action and measures need to be taken.

A number of government agencies will be given the assignment to, within their respective field, contribute to the identification and analysis of how Sweden today relates to the goals and objectives of the 2030 Agenda, and to analyse the Swedish condition for implementation. The government intends to send a translation of the 2030 Agenda to a wide range of stakeholders in order to give them an opportunity to contribute to the work.

The committee/delegation will in March 2017 submit a proposal to government (also based on contributions from agencies and other stakeholders) for a comprehensive action plan for Sweden’s implementation of the Agenda. The intention is to build mainly on existing structures for national planning, review and follow-up.

The Swedish Government has re-launched Sweden’s Policy for Global Development in order to strengthen the government’s work on Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development (PCSD) in response to the universal Agenda 2030 and the new global goals (SDGs). PCSD work concerns coherent actions at both national and international level. All Government Ministries are tasked with developing action plans on PCSD in relation to the SDGs. These action plans will be finalised in March 2016 and will be revised every year. These action plans contain operational goals for each Ministry’s work on PCSD related to SDGs.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

The Swedish government functions through a well-established whole-of-government approach. The Swedish model of governance is based on decisions being taken by the government as a whole. This provides a good basis for coherent decision making in support of the implementation of the Agenda (see also above concerning the government’s re-launch of Sweden’s Policy for Global Development).

Sweden will also adopt a new aid policy framework where the starting point is the 2030 Agenda and PCSD.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

This will be further elaborated by the Government Offices and the committee/delegation in its work to establish a proposal for an action plan. The intention is to build mainly on existing structures for national planning, review and follow-up.

In general, the Swedish Government has a whole-of-government approach in response to the Agenda 2030 and the SDGs. All Ministers in Government are responsible for implementation of the Agenda in their respective field. Some Ministers have been given special tasks when it comes to the implementation. The Minister for Public Administration (at the Ministry of Finance) is co-ordinating the national implementation, the Minister for Strategic Development and Nordic Co-operation (at the Prime Minister’s Office) is responsible for analysis and future issues concerning the implementation, and the Minister for International Development Co-operation (at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs) is co-ordinating Swedish policy for the international implementation.

At the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the international implementation of Agenda 2030 together with Financing for Development (Addis Ababa Action Agenda) and the Government co-ordination of PCSD will be clustered in a co-ordination group.

Applying an intergenerational time frame to policy design

This will be further elaborated by the Government Offices and the committee/delegation. But the long term nature of the Agenda 2030 and the SDGs will require long term solutions that take into account an intergenerational time frame.

In the Swedish implementation of the Agenda 2030 and the SDGs, the Swedish environmental goals will play an important role. The Swedish Parliament (Riksdag) has set a number of environmental objectives to promote sustainable development. The overall goal is to hand over to the next generation a society in which the major environmental problems in Sweden have been solved, without increasing environmental and health problems outside Sweden’s borders.

Monitoring SDG implementation

The government intends to assign the task to elaborate a proposal for national indicators for follow-up to the government agency Statistics Sweden. Other stakeholders, such as authorities and civil society, will also be consulted in the process.

The committee/delegation’s proposal for a comprehensive action plan for Sweden’s implementation of 2030 Agenda will also contain proposals for effective forms of monitoring of the implementation at local, regional and national level in Sweden. These proposals shall, wherever possible, be based on existing statistics and established monitoring structures and forms of consultation.

Availability and accessibility to reliable information and data will be particularly challenging in many developing countries. Sweden has excellent and well documented expertise in working in the area of statistics in our development programs. Statistics Sweden has co-operated with the government agency for development co-operation, Sida, for many years. This work will continue with the aim of promoting better availability of statistics regarding the implementation of Agenda 2030, especially in LDCs.

The next PCSD report to Parliament (due in spring 2016) will contain operational goals in relation to PCSD and the SDGs. These goals will be reported on in the next PCSD report to Parliament in 2018.

Involving multiple stakeholders

Of great importance for the achievement of the objectives in the 2030 Agenda is that it is implemented at local and regional level, where municipalities, county councils, and government agencies operate and interact with the local business community, social partners and civil society. Sweden wants to build on good experiences and lessons-learnt from the Agenda 21 implementation.

An important task for the committee/delegation will be to include different stakeholders in the whole process of implementation.

In February and March 2015, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs organised a comprehensive consultation process on the 2030 Agenda. In total, about 200 people participated, which together represented about 130 different civil society organizations, business associations, trade unions, policy and research institutions and government agencies. The purpose of the consultations was to obtain expert knowledge of relevant Swedish actors, to share information on the process and the negotiations on the 2030 Agenda and to initiate broad support in Sweden for the 2030 agenda.

Concerning the Government’s PCSD work, there is continuous dialogue with representatives from civil society. For example, the government arranged a conference together with the NGO community (Concord) in spring 2015 when re-launching the Swedish Policy for Global Development. Three special PCSD topics were discussed: capital flight and tax evasion, sustainable business, and sustainable energy. The Ministers for Enterprise and Innovation, the Minister for Development Co-operation, the State Secretary at the Ministry of Finance, responsible for tax issues, were presenting the issues. More than 200 representatives from civil society were invited.

Switzerland

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

Switzerland is committed both internationally and nationally to implementing the 2030 Agenda and to attaining its Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. In a number of decisions between December 2015 and end of February 2016, the Swiss Government defined the next steps with regard to the implementation of the Agenda 2030. Major strategic documents include Switzerland’s Sustainable Development Strategy 2016-19, its Dispatch on Switzerland’s International Co-operation 2017-20, as well as a series of responses to individual interventions by the Parliament.

During a transitional phase in 2016 and 2017, certain policy issues and questions relating to institutional arrangements will be examined and modifications proposed where deemed necessary. The transitional phase will notably include the following activities:

  • Status analysis of the extent to which the 2030 Agenda is already implemented in sectoral policies in Switzerland (gap analysis), and identification of future action areas with regard to the SDG.

  • Strengthening of Agenda 2030-related perspectives within existing planning and reporting instruments of the Federal Council (4 Years Legislature Programme; Annual Work Plans, Annual Reports to the Parliament).

  • Review and modification of existing organizational structures of the Federal Administration as deemed necessary to implement the 2030 Agenda.

  • Strengthening existing statistical systems of indicators to ensure reporting to the UN and on the Sustainable Development Strategy.

This work will be managed by an inter-ministerial co-ordination group set up for a fixed period, based on a joint programme of work. At the end of the transitional phase, the Ministries involved will submit a report to the Federal Council on the status of implementation and on any action or amendments that may be required. They will also propose the way forward for Switzerland’s implementation of the 2030 Agenda. This report must be submitted by January 2018.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

In the context of the strategic decisions aforementioned, the Government also stressed its willingness to ensure a high level of policy coherence for sustainable development. Pragmatically, this stance is based on an understanding that Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development as a concept is not simply synonymous with the implementation of the Agenda 2030 as such. Rather, PCSD aims at the necessity to address distinct nexus issues between a limited number of specific sectoral policy areas – issues which will need to be further studied and addressed with particular policy measures and solutions. As critical policy areas for Switzerland, the government identified international financial flows and related tax issues; environment; international trade, investment and corporate responsibility; migration; and health.

The government’s commitment to implement also presents new challenges for the organisational structure and processes of the Federal Administration. Building on existing structures and processes, the aim is to arrive at an efficient process within the Confederation to implement the 2030 Agenda in domestic and foreign policy. The inter-ministerial co‐ordination group mandated to review existing structures and processes will include representatives of several Ministries and will be led by the Federal Office for Spatial Development (ARE) and by the Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC).

Monitoring SDG implementation

In implementing the 2030 Agenda, the Federal Council will also review and adapt, as deemed necessary, existing monitoring mechanisms at different levels. Notably, in view of further improving policy coherence of sustainable development, conceptual work is under way to develop a monitoring system, including relevant indicators. Moreover, the existing comprehensive sustainable development monitoring system – MONET – was already amended to include the Sustainable Development Goals and will be further developed to serve both national and international reporting.7

Based on enhanced evaluation and monitoring systems, the Swiss Government will report on its implementation efforts through various different channels. At international level, this includes reporting towards key indicators, which are set by the UN Statistical Commission. At national level, existing mechanisms and instruments will be used more systematically, among themselves in particular the Annual Foreign Policy Reports, the Annual Foreign Economic Reports, and the Government’s Annual Report – all reports to be submitted to Parliament. With regard to the Dispatch on Switzerland’s International Co-operation 2017-20, a mid-term review will allow the Swiss Parliament to be kept up to date with the results achieved during the 2017-20 period, and a final report on the implementation of the dispatch is published every four years. A similar reporting rhythm is currently being discussed for the Sustainable Development Strategy 2016-19.

Involving multiple stakeholders

Traditionally, non-governmental stakeholders from the private sector, the civil society and the academia, as well as the cantons and municipalities contribute to an important degree to the design and the implementation of Swiss public policies. This is also acknowledged by the Swiss Government for the implementation of the Agenda 2030. Already in the pre-Summit phase, the government established a dialogue platform at national level.

These organizations and institutions will continue to play an important role in the transitional phase. By 2018 the government will also decide on their role with regard to different reporting processes.

Turkey

Aligning national strategies to the 2030 Agenda

Turkey has made a preliminary analysis of the consistency between SDGs and the 10th National Development Plan. This analysis has shown that there is high consistency between the SDGs and the Plan. However, each SDG target does not have its place in the national agenda. Hence, there is a need to work on these targets and indicators in more detail to set Turkey’s national development priorities according to national circumstances and guided by the aspirational global SDGs. Consequently, there is also a need for a stocktaking analysis of SDG targets and their relevant indicators. That kind of analysis could be a good starting point to assess the progress on SDGs in the coming 15 years. That analysis will reveal the focus areas and indicate where to start.

Integrating the SDGs into national policy frameworks

In Turkey, national development plans are basic policy documents that are effective for the whole decision making system as they are adopted at the National Assembly. The National Plan is thus the basic instrument to insert the SDGs into the national context. A two-layered approach is foreseen to prioritise the SDGs according to the current 10th Development Plan, its annual programmes and the related strategy documents.

First, and as mentioned above, there is a need for a stocktaking analysis of SDG targets and its relevant indicators in Turkey. That kind of analysis could be a good starting point to assess the progress on SDGs in the coming 15 years. That analysis will reveal the focus areas and indicate where to start.

Second, a survey of relevant stakeholders for analysing the opinions on the priority targets and policies is planned to be made. A multi-stakeholder based analysis, covering government, CSOs and business is expected to be implemented. This survey will be supported through relevant stakeholder meetings.

The 2030 Agenda is expected to affect the development strategies of the 11th Development Plan.

Updating institutional settings and strengthening co-ordination mechanisms

Turkey has a National Sustainable Development Council (NSDC), under the leadership of the Ministry of Development. The Ministry of Development has been the main body for co-ordinating and convening the technical work in the SDG-OWG and post-2015 process. Although it was established to co-ordinate and monitor the work for sustainable development policies, it needs to be updated according to the SDGs. We are currently discussing its role and the members of the commission. We aim to extend its role and increase the number of members in order to have a better understanding of the drivers of SDG progress. We also aim to increase the level of the members, so that issues regarding policy conclusions would be at the decision making level. We have to reiterate that these are only initial thoughts and the process can change overtime. The 2030 Agenda is expected to put a more concrete agenda for Turkey. NSDC may have a role for the follow-up and review process of both the global SDGs and their respective national targets. In line with this experience, the Ministry of Development will continue to co-ordinate the follow-up for implementation of SDGs.

Monitoring SDG implementation

In terms of monitoring the SDGs at national level, Turkey has already a national sustainable development indicator set, composed of 132 indicators under 10 categories since 2000. We will further develop this monitoring framework in light of proposed SDGs global indicators according to our national priorities and capabilities.

Turkey will develop its current set by taking into account the results of UN Statistics work for a global common monitoring framework and the national priority list of SDGs that will be determined through a national prioritisation process. For strengthening capacity, Turkey will need to implement projects for new data collection and for field survey based assessments. However, this planning will be done according to the results of UN Stats work.

Involving multiple stakeholders

The SDGs provide an agenda that gives responsibility not only to government but also to business, citizens and CSOs. Participation for implementation should start from the decision making process during the formulation of prioritisation of national SDGs. Turkey aims at convening a participatory process in the planning, implementation and review process. As indicated above, the National Sustainable Development Council is planned to be strengthened to have a co-ordinating role especially for the implementation and assessment process.

Further, new communication methods are planned to be established with academia, CSOs and businesses to monitor their activities regarding SDGs.

Notes

← 1. Countries that have contributed to this overview by responding to six broad questions include: Austria; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Germany; Greece; Italy; Ireland; Japan; Latvia; The Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Slovak Republic; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; and Turkey.

← 2. The NDP2020 in English can be downloaded here: www.pkc.gov.lv/images/NAP2020%20dokumenti/NDP2020_English_Final__.pdf.

← 3. See: www.government.nl/government/contents/members-of-cabinet/lilianneploumen/documents/letters/2015/09/28/letter-by-ploumen-to-house-of-representatives.

← 4. The Sustainability Monitor is also referred to in the OECD document “National approaches to implementing the SDGs: Identifying successful practices from early experiences” [C(2016)5].

← 5. See: www.worldconnectors.nl/en/themes/post-2015-agenda.

← 6. The Portuguese Green Growth Commitment is an initiative launched by the Portuguese government in the area of sustainability, which is the result of a comprehensive process of public discussion,with the involvement of more than 90 organizations from the civil society. This Commitment is an ambitious long-term strategy that establishes goals and initiatives in all national sectors that contribute to green growth, such as water, energy, forest, sea, tourism, etc. The Green Growth Commitment sets 14 quantified goals for 2020 and 2030, designed to promote growth, efficiency and sustainability. There is a high relevance of some of the measures envisaged in this Commitment for the attaining of the Sustainable Development Goals.

← 7. For more information: Its 75 or so regularly updated indicators give an overall picture. This system takes a holistic approach which measures the quality of life of the present generation, as well as fairness of distribution geographically and over time. It observes whether – and in what areas – Switzerland is on the path to sustainable development. The indicators are not selected on the basis of political targets. Instead, they are founded on a consistent methodological concept comprising a reference framework and a systemic structure. This ensures MONET’s independence, transparency and completeness.