Acronyms and abbreviations

ACIM

Action against Counterfeit & Illicit Medicines

AED

Advance electronic data

AMR

Antimicrobial resistance

ASOP EU

Alliance for Safe Online Pharmacy in the EU

ASOP Global

Alliance for Safe Online Pharmacies - Global

ATD

Anti-tamper device

CBP

US Customs and Border Protection

DEA

Drug Enforcement Administration

DG TAXUD

European Commission’s Directorate-General for Taxation and Customs Union

EAASM

European Alliance for Access to Safe Medicines

EU

European Union

EUIPO

European Union Intellectual Property Office

FDA

Federal Drug Administration

FMD

Falsified Medicines Directive

FTZ

Free trade zone

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

ICC

International Chamber of Commerce

ICE

US Immigration and Customs Enforcement

IFPMA

International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations

IMF

International mail facility

INTERPOL

International Criminal Police Organization

IOM

Institute of Medicines of the National Academies

IP

Intellectual property

IPR

Intellectual property rights

IRACM

International Institute of Research against Counterfeit Medicines

MHRA

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

NAPB

National Association of Boards of Pharmacy

NMRA

National or regional Medicines Regulatory Authority

OCG

Organised crime groups

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OTC

Over-the-counter

PPC

Pay-per-click

PSI

Pharmaceutical Security Institute

R&D

Research and development

RCAP-e

Relative comparative advantage for production

RCAT-e

Relative comparative advantage for being a transit point

RPSGB

Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

TRIPS

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

UNICEF

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund

UNICRI

United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

VIPPS

Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites

WCO

World Customs Organization

WHO

World Health Organization

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organization

WTO

World Trade Organization

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