Chapter 1. The context for open government reforms in Argentina

The cultural, historical, political and socio-economic context that defines a country also inevitably influences the design, implementation and evaluation of open government strategies and initiatives. This chapter’s first section therefore contextualises the approach to open government by analysing a number of challenges and opportunities for open government in Argentina. In terms of socio-economic development, Argentina performs relatively well today, but the country continues to experience socio-economic challenges. Moreover, the perceived inability of policy makers to address these challenges, as well as apparent low levels of transparency and public sector integrity, can have a significant impact on citizens’ trust in government. It is against this backdrop that the current government has given new impetus to the country’s open government agenda. The second part of this chapter introduces the OECD’s approach to open government and explains the methodology used for the collection of data and the elaboration of the Review’s recommendations.

    

Introduction

Countries have begun to recognise the contribution of open government reforms to broader policy objectives.

Governments today face increasingly complex policy challenges, including widening inequality gaps, and rising economic and financial instability, as well as a resurgent wave of identity politics. At the same time, citizens around the world have become more vocal and demanding, not only in terms of the quality of public services they expect but also regarding the transparency, integrity and accountability of the entire public sector.

In response to these demands, more and more governments are rethinking the way that public policies and services are designed and delivered, acknowledging that the implementation of open government strategies and initiatives improves the quality of public services and makes the state more efficient and effective. At the same time, countries are starting to recognise that open government reforms have the potential to act as a catalyst for the attainment of broader policy goals such as improving democracy, fostering socio-economic development and increasing trust.

Open government is not an end in itself. While the open government principles of transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation certainly have intrinsic value, the implementation of open government strategies and initiatives can also serve as an important means to improve policies in areas such as education, environment, health and transport. Co-creating environmental policies with concerned stakeholders can, for instance, lead to policy results that impact positively peoples’ lives, while transparency in the health sector can result in lower prices and increased efficiency. Recognising this potential, the OECD has defined open government as “a culture of governance that promotes the principles of transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation in support of democracy and inclusive growth” (OECD, 2017a).

The current government has brought new dynamism to Argentina’s open government reform agenda.

Argentina has long implemented policies to promote open government principles. In 2012, the country was one of the first states in Latin America to become a member of the Open Government Partnership (OGP). The current government has prioritised open government, thereby giving new impetus to the agenda. The President has publicly declared that his government is working towards “a State that is accountable, that works for its citizens, with transparent institutions” (Macri, 2017). To this end, open government is counted among the 100 objectives of the Government of Argentina (GoA) and the goal of moving towards an open and modern state has been incorporated into many of the government’s initiatives.

Positioning Argentina as an international leader on open government has been one of the drivers of the country’s open government reform agenda. Argentina is once again actively engaging with international partners, reflected in the country’s presidency of the G20 and its organisation and hosting of the first G20 summit held in Latin America in 2018. The country’s focus on international comparison and analysis of Argentina in relation to others also reveal the outward looking stance of the current government. Intensified efforts since 2016 to become an OECD member country further exemplify Argentina’s renewed international orientation; and against this background, Argentina took over the role of co-chair of the OGP in October 2018.

This Open Government Review (OGR) examines open government reform themes that were jointly identified as priorities by Argentina and the OECD for bolstering the effectiveness of the country’s open government agenda. The following key considerations guide this OGR:

  • Institutionalising open government: The institutional size and the complexity of Argentina’s federal structure and the extensive restructuration of the administration that took place in 2018 pose particular challenges for the country’s open government agenda. In this context, the GoA aims to enhance institutionalisation in order to foster sustainability and continuity of the open government agenda beyond the mandate of a single government.

  • Moving towards an open state and improving the multi-level governance of open government: Due to the federal character of the Argentinian state, the implementation of open government strategies and initiatives relies upon a multitude of different governmental actors across all branches and at all levels of government. In this context, the government aims to find a collaborative approach to open government implementation that includes all stakeholders, but respects constitutional provisions and requirements.

  • Increasing impact: Argentina aims to move towards impact through more solid monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tools that support and promote performance, accountability and learning of open government strategies and initiatives.

The space for an open state in Argentina: Contextualisation of the current government’s approach to open government reforms

Contextual factors influence the implementation of open government strategies and initiatives.

The cultural, historical, political and socio-economic context that defines a country inevitably also influences the design, implementation and evaluation of open government strategies and initiatives. Elements such as voter turnout, political history, and more recently the digital divide have influenced the formation of policies to foster transparency and openness, increase participation and accountability, and fight corruption. This section contextualises the government’s approach to open government by analysing a number of challenges and opportunities for open government in Argentina.

An active democratic society is a key building block of open government reforms.

A historical analysis of Argentina’s turbulent 20th century shows that the country underwent a drawn-out crisis of liberal democracy with frequent coups d’état and political turmoil that culminated in a long and violent military dictatorship in 1976 (CONADEP, 1984). This traumatic experience entered the national historical memory and undoubtedly still forms a vivid part of people’s cultural identity. As a result, the country has to undergone a remarkable transformation during recent decades. Despite the political, social and economic turbulence that characterised Argentina’s passage to the 21st century, the country has experienced the consolidation of democracy – a process that began with the first peaceful transfer of power between democratically elected presidents in 1989.

High levels of human development can engender open government reforms.

In terms of socio-economic development, Argentina performs relatively well today. In 2016, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) assigned Argentina a Human Development Index value of 0.827 – ranking the country at 45 out of 188 states and territories in the very high human development category. Argentina has the second highest score in Latin America, well above the average of 0.751 for other Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries (UNDP, 2016). The country boasts, for instance, a very high adult literacy rate of 98.1% (CIA Factbook, 2017). OECD experience shows that high levels of human development can engender open government reforms as well-educated citizens engage, for example, more often in political life and are more likely to request information and to hold their government accountable (OECD Better Life Index). The OECD Trustlab’s findings further suggest that high levels of education and income are associated with higher levels of trust in government (OECD, 2018a), which is a prerequisite for stakeholder engagement.

While Argentina has made important socio-economic progress, the country continues to experience economic instability, significant youth unemployment and low social mobility. In addition, despite high levels of human development Argentina is still confronted with “extremely high” levels of relative poverty (OECD, 2017c). In total, one-third of the population can be considered to be poor, while one out of five citizens runs the risk of falling into poverty due to existing vulnerabilities, such as insufficient income from labour, low skills, informal employment and minimal access to quality public services (OECD, 2017c). Open government reforms can be an important tool for policy makers to design and implement public policies that better support the establishment of evidence-based development opportunities.

Societies with low levels of unemployment tend to be politically more stable and generally exhibit higher levels of citizen participation (OECD, 2016). According to the latest OECD Multi-dimensional Economic Survey of Argentina (2017), the country’s unemployment rate decreased from 8.5% in 2016 to 7.6% in 2018. However, the same OECD Survey also found that young people, low-skilled workers and women all experience particular difficulty in joining the labour market. More than half of those without employment have not completed secondary education, and the unemployment rate is four times higher for young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In general, 23.9% of young people – compared to 13% across the OECD – encounter difficulties in finding a job. Through participatory and consultative approaches, open government strategies and initiatives can serve as a tool for governments to create public policies that reflect the particular needs of disadvantaged groups of society and eventually support the inclusion of everyone into the workforce.

Open government reforms can be a means to address low levels of trust in public institutions.

The challenges that some socio-economic indicators represent, and the perceived inability of policy makers to address them, can have a significant impact on citizens’ trust and confidence in government. The 2017 poll of the Latinobarómetro found that only 32% of Argentinians trust the national government. It is noteworthy that these low trust levels apply to all institutions of the state: only 26% of the population trust the Congress and 25% have confidence in the judiciary (Latinobarómetro, 2017). The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018 found that in terms of public trust in politicians, Argentina ranks 118 out of 137 countries (WEF, 2017a).

OECD evidence shows that low levels of trust in government can be explained partly by perceived low levels of transparency and public sector integrity (OECD, 2016). With regard to the transparency of government policy making, Argentina ranks 102 out of 137 countries (WEF, 2017a). At the same time, Argentina has experienced an upward trajectory in the Transparency International Corruption Perception Index, continually improving its score from 34 in 2013 to 40 (0 being highly corrupt and 100 being very clean) in 2018, and currently ranks 85th worldwide (Transparency International, 2018) for perceived corruption levels. While this score corresponds to the average for the Latin American region (38), Argentina scores considerably worse than Cuba, Costa Rica, Chile and Uruguay, as well as the results achieved by OECD member countries (68) or the G20 (54) (Figure 1.1).

Figure ‎1.1. Argentina’s perceived level of corruption is close to the regional average, but significantly higher than the average of the G20 and the OECD
Figure ‎1.1. Argentina’s perceived level of corruption is close to the regional average, but significantly higher than the average of the G20 and the OECD

Note: The score of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) has been inverted to facilitate interpretation in terms of perceived levels of corruption.

Source: Transparency International (2017), Corruption Perception Index 2017, Berlin, www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2017 (accessed 17 December 2018).

In terms of favouritism of government officials and irregular payments and bribes, Argentina ranks 98th and is among the worst performing 30% of countries in the WEF’s Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018 (WEF, 2017a). The Executive Opinion Survey 2017 finds that the business community sees corruption as one of the six most problematic factors for doing business in Argentina (WEF, 2017b).

Many elements that form part of the open government reform agenda, including procurement transparency, access to information legislation, asset disclosure and open data are crucial for the fight against corruption. Open government and transparency can prevent and address corruption by clarifying and opening government processes as well as public spending procedures. With the availability of more public sector information, governments have a stronger incentive to show that policy decisions are taken in the public interest and that funds are used in an effective manner; moreover, citizens are also able to better analyse and understand governmental decision making for higher levels of public scrutiny.

In 2015, an OECD study found that 80% of OECD member countries and 54% of LAC countries are currently implementing or already have implemented integrity and anti-corruption initiatives as part of their open government reforms. Moreover, 77% of Latin American countries currently aim to prevent and fight against corruption by implementing open government initiatives. Open government reforms focusing on transparency and integrity could thus support Argentina’s efforts to increase trust and foster sustainable development.

Technology and an interconnected society are strategic enablers of open government reforms.

Digital technologies facilitate more direct interactions and two-way communication, providing new opportunities to rethink possibilities of collaboration between different actors of society. According to the latest State of Broadband Report (2018) of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 71% of Argentinians use the Internet (ITU, 2018). The World Economic Forum’s (WEF) 2016 Global Information Technology Report ranks Argentina 89th worldwide, followed closely by Peru (90th), but behind Chile (38th), Uruguay (43rd), Costa Rica (44th), Panama (55th), Colombia (68th), Brazil (72nd), Mexico (76th) and Ecuador (82nd). While the country has one of the highest mobile phone usage rates in the world (13th), with a strong individual adoption rate, and despite the fact that the government is “making good use of ICTs to provide services to the population (55th)”, the WEF finds that there is “much room for greater public-sector adoption of digital technologies”. In this regard, reforms to foster the use of digital technology and to increase connectedness can support public sector transparency and accountability, improve access to and quality of public information, as well as government services, and facilitate decision-making processes that are more inclusive, as will be discussed in more detail in the OECD Digital Government Review of Argentina (2019a).

The OECD approach to open government

Argentina is the first country worldwide to be assessed against the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government.

This OECD Open Government Review supports Argentina’s open government agenda through an in-depth analysis of the current state of open government policies and institutions at the national level, and an assessment of the vertical collaboration between national and provincial levels. It provides practical recommendations to the Government of Argentina in order to address the above-mentioned challenges and to make open government principles the operating system of the entire public sector.

The methodology used for the elaboration of the Review’s recommendations reflects the OECD’s longstanding work in the area of open government. The analysis is based on the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government (the “OECD Recommendation”) that Argentina adhered to in July 2018. Adopted in December 2017, the Recommendation represents the first international legal instrument on open government (Figure 1.2). While it is not legally binding, it has moral value.

Figure ‎1.2. The 2017 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government
Figure ‎1.2. The 2017 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government

Source: OECD (2017d), “Summary of the Recommendation of the Council on Open Government”, Paris, OECD, www.oecd.org/gov/oecd-recommendation-of-the-council-on-open-government-en.pdf.

The Recommendation defines a set of criteria for the design and implementation of successful open government agendas. It features ten provisions (Figure 1.3) corresponding to the following areas: provisions 1, 2, 3, 7 and 8 focus on the creation of an enabling environment, including the policy and legal framework; provisions 4, 5, 6 and 9 focus on the implementation framework, while provision 10 focuses on the way ahead. It is against these ten provisions that the OECD assesses Argentina’s current open government reform agenda.

The Review’s recommendations focus on the following six thematic areas:

  • Creating a sound policy framework for open government (‎Chapter 2. )

  • Towards a more solid legal framework for open government (‎Chapter 3. )

  • Fostering the effective implementation of open government strategies and initiatives (‎Chapter 4. )

  • Building a monitoring and evaluation framework for open government (‎Chapter 5.

  • Mainstreaming citizen and stakeholder participation in the policy cycle (‎Chapter 6.

  • Moving towards an open state (‎Chapter 7. ).

Figure ‎1.3. Clustering the provisions of the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government
Figure ‎1.3. Clustering the provisions of the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government

Source: OECD (2017a), Recommendation of the Council on Open Government, OECD, Paris, https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0438

The Recommendation defines a comprehensive set of criteria that provide guidance to adhering countries. They have been developed to help these countries design and implement successful open government agendas that have an impact on people’s lives. In particular, the Recommendation’s ten provisions aim to support countries in:

  • ensuring that open government principles are rooted in a public management culture

  • identifying an enabling environment that is conducive to efficient, effective and integrated governance of open government

  • promoting the alignment of open government strategies and initiatives with – and their contribution to – all relevant national and sectoral socio-economic policy objectives, at all levels of the administration

  • fostering monitoring and evaluation practices and data collection.

Box ‎1.1. The ten provisions of the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government, 2017
  1. 1. Take measures in all branches and at all levels of the government to develop and implement open government strategies and initiatives in collaboration with stakeholders, and to foster commitment from politicians, members of parliaments, senior public managers and public officials, to ensure successful implementation and to prevent or overcome obstacles related to resistance to change.

  2. 2. Ensure the existence and implementation of the necessary open government legal and regulatory framework, including through the provision of supporting documents such as guidelines and manuals, while establishing adequate oversight mechanisms to ensure compliance.

  3. 3. Ensure the successful operationalisation and take-up of open government strategies and initiatives by:

    (i) providing public officials with the mandate to design and implement successful open government strategies and initiatives, as well as the adequate human, financial and technical resources, while promoting a supportive organisational culture

    (ii) promoting open government literacy in the administration, at all levels of government, and among stakeholders.

  4. 4. Co-ordinate, through the necessary institutional mechanisms, open government strategies and initiatives – horizontally and vertically – across all levels of government to ensure that they are aligned with and contribute to all relevant socio-economic objectives.

  5. 5. Develop and implement monitoring, evaluation and learning mechanisms for open government strategies and initiatives by:

    (i) identifying institutional actors to be in charge of collecting and disseminating up-to-date and reliable information and data in an open format

    (ii) developing comparable indicators to measure processes, outputs, outcomes and impact in collaboration with stakeholders

    (iii) fostering a culture of monitoring, evaluation and learning among public officials by increasing their capacity to regularly conduct exercises for these purposes in collaboration with relevant stakeholders.

  6. 6. Actively communicate on open government strategies and initiatives, as well as on their outputs, outcomes and impacts, in order to ensure that they are well-known within and outside government, to favour their uptake and to stimulate stakeholder buy-in.

  7. 7. Proactively make available clear, complete, timely, reliable and relevant public sector data and information that is free of cost, available in an open and non-proprietary machine-readable format, easy to find, understand, use and reuse, and disseminated through a multi-channel approach, to be prioritised in consultation with stakeholders.

  8. 8. Grant all stakeholders equal and fair opportunities to be informed and consulted and actively engage them in all phases of the policy cycle, service design and delivery. This should be done with adequate time and at minimal cost, while avoiding duplication to minimise consultation fatigue. Further, specific efforts should be dedicated to reaching out to the most relevant, vulnerable, underrepresented or marginalised groups in society, while avoiding undue influence and policy capture.

  9. 9. Promote innovative ways to effectively engage with stakeholders to source ideas and co-create solutions, and seize the opportunities provided by digital government tools, including through the use of open government data, to support the achievement of the objectives of open government strategies and initiatives.

  10. 10. While recognising the roles, prerogatives and overall independence of all concerned parties, and according to their existing legal and institutional frameworks, explore the potential of moving from the concept of open government toward that of the open state.

Source: OECD (2017a), Recommendation of the Council on Open Government, OECD, Paris, https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0438.

Given that open government is critical to policy outcomes in diverse domains, the Recommendation also helps adherents improve efforts related to, for example, public sector integrity and anti-corruption, public sector modernisation, civic freedom, digital government, procurement, public sector innovation, public financial management and human resource management. The Recommendation also promotes the realisation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically SDG 16 on “Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions”. As such, its implementation helps adherents to strengthen public governance, democratic practices and inclusive growth, as well as to increase citizens’ trust in government.

The OECD Open Government Review of Argentina is based on solid evidence and extensive data collection.

In order to collect information and data on the Argentinian context and on existing open government strategies and initiatives, the OECD developed four comprehensive surveys. These surveys enabled the creation of a solid evidence base for the Review’s analysis. The four different questionnaires were sent out to:

  • the Directorate for Open Government inside the then Ministry of Modernisation

  • all line ministries of the national government

  • the judiciary, the legislature and independent state institutions

  • all 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.

Box ‎1.2. Data collection in the context of administrative changes in Argentina in 2018

The surveys were sent out prior to the administrative restructuring of the government, which took place in September 2018 and significantly reduced the number of ministries from 22 to 11. Since data collection terminated prior to this process, the information provided in this Review reflects the composition of the government during the second trimester of 2018. The Review therefore refers to all ministries and public institution by their old names.

The Ministry of Modernisation (Ministerio de Modernización), the main counterpart for this study, was moved to the Office of the Chief of Cabinet of Ministers (Jefatura de Gabinete de Ministros) in the context of the restructuring process. The Review therefore refers to the “then Ministry of Modernisation” when talking about initiatives that took place prior to September 2018. Recommendations are therefore directed to the newly established Government Secretariat of Modernisation (Secretaría de Gobierno de Modernización).

The Survey benefitted from the contributions of 23 line ministries and public institutions, namely the Anticorruption Office (Oficina Anticorrupción), the Chief of Cabinet of Ministers Office (Jefatura de Gabinete de Ministros), the Comprehensive Medical Attention Programme (INSSJP-PAMI – Programa de Asistencia Médica Integral), the General Office of the Comptroller (Sindicatura General), the Ministry of Agro-industry (Ministerio de Agroindustria), the Ministry of Culture (Ministerio de Cultura), the Ministry of Defense (Ministerio de Defensa), the Ministry of Education (Ministerio de Educación), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship (Ministerio Relaciones Exteriores y Culto), the Ministry of Health (Ministerio de Salud), the Ministry of Health and Social Development (Ministerio de Salud y Desarrollo Social), the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos), the Ministry of Production (Ministerio de Producción), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation (Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva), the Ministry of the Interior, Public Works and Housing (Ministerio del Interior, Obras Públicas y Vivienda), the Ministry of Tourism (Ministerio de Turismo), the Ministry of Transport (Ministerio de Transporte), the Ministry of Treasury and Public Finances (Ministerio de Hacienda y Finanzas Públicas), the Ministry of Work, Employment and Social Security (Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social), the National Institute for Women (INAM – Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres), the National Institute on Youth (INJUVE – Instituto Nacional de Juventud), the Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development (Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable) and the Secretariat of Mining Policy Coordination (Secretaria de Coordinación de Política Minera).

The Open State Survey benefitted from the contributions of seven institutions, namely the Auditor General (Auditoría General), the Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados), the Council of Magistrates (Consejo de Magistratura), the Ombudsman’s Office (Defensoría del Pueblo), the Penitentiary Prosecutor’s Office (Procuración Penitenciaria), the Senate (Senado) and the Supreme Court (Corte Suprema de Justicia).

The Provinces Survey benefitted from the contributions of 15 provinces, namely: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Mendoza, Neuquén, Río Negro, Salta and Santa Fe.

A distinctive element of OECD Reviews is the involvement of expert officials (peer reviewers) from national and sub-national public administrations in OECD member and partner countries. The present Open Government Review benefitted from the input of the following peer reviewers:

  • Canada: Ms Jaimie Boyd, Director of Open Government, Office of the Chief Information Officer, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, and Ms Sarah MacLeod, Senior Project Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Canada.

  • Colombia: Ms Alice Berggrun Comas, Advisor, Secretary of Transparency, Presidency of the Republic, Colombia.

  • France: Ms Amélie Banzet, Project Officer for Open Government, Inter-ministerial Directorate for Digitalisation, Information Systems and State Communication (DINSEC), Prime Minister’s Office

Data collection for this document was also based on OECD fact-finding missions, the purpose of which was to conduct extensive interviews with a wide variety of stakeholders:

  • Mission 1: This one-week visit of an OECD team to the capital consisted of interviews with government stakeholders (the then Ministry of Modernisation, Office of the Chief of Cabinet of Ministers, different line ministries), the other branches of power (legislature, judiciary), independent public institutions and civil society organisations.

  • Mission 2: This visit of an OECD team to the provinces of Santa Fe, Mendoza and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) consisted of interviews with key stakeholders from all branches of power, civil society and academia in these provinces/CABA. During this second mission, the OECD team also conducted additional interviews with representatives from the national government and other national stakeholders.

Box ‎1.3. Terminology and definitions included in the OECD Recommendation on Open Government and used throughout this document

Open government: a culture of governance that promotes the principles of transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation in support of democracy and inclusive growth.

Open state: a process whereby the executive, legislature, judiciary, independent public institutions and all levels of government – recognising their respective roles, prerogatives and overall independence, according to their existing legal and institutional frameworks – collaborate, exploit synergies, and share good practices and lessons learned among themselves and with other stakeholders to promote transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation in support of democracy and inclusive growth.

Open government strategy: a document that defines the open government agenda of the central government and/or any of its subnational levels, as well as that of a single public institution or thematic area, and that includes key open government initiatives together with short, medium and long-term goals and indicators.

Open government initiatives: actions undertaken by the government, or by a single public institution, to achieve specific objectives in the area of open government, ranging from the drafting of laws to the implementation of specific activities such as online consultations.

The policy cycle: a process that includes identifying policy priorities, drafting the actual policy document, policy implementation, and monitoring implementation and evaluation of the policy’s impacts.

Stakeholders: any interested and/or affected party including: individuals, regardless of their age, gender, sexual orientation, religious and political affiliations; and institutions and organisations, whether governmental or non-governmental, from civil society, academia, the media or the private sector.

Stakeholder participation: this consists of all the ways in which stakeholders can be involved in the policy cycle and in service design and delivery. These include:

  • Information: an initial level of participation characterised by a one-way relationship in which the government produces and delivers information to stakeholders. It covers both on-demand provision of information and “proactive” measures by the government to disseminate information.

  • Consultation: a more advanced level of participation that entails a two-way relationship in which stakeholders provide feedback to the government and vice-versa. It is based on the prior definition of the issue for which views are being sought and requires the provision of relevant information, in addition to feedback on the outcomes of the process.

  • Engagement: a process whereby stakeholders are given the opportunity and the necessary resources (e.g. information, data and digital tools) to collaborate during all phases of the policy cycle and in service design and delivery.

Open government literacy: the combination of awareness, knowledge and skills that public officials and stakeholders require to engage successfully in open government strategies and initiatives.

Levels of government: central and subnational levels of government.

Source: OECD (2017a), Recommendation of the Council on Open Government, OECD, Paris, https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0438.

This Open Government Review is an integral part of support provided by the OECD to the Government of Argentina in the area of public governance.

In addition to the Open Government Review of Argentina, the OECD Public Governance Directorate is collaborating with the Government of Argentina on three other Policy Reviews. The Digital Government Review of Argentina (2019a) analyses governance for digital government, public sector competence for digital policy implementation, openness, and public service delivery and data governance in Argentina. The assessment draws upon the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies (OECD, 2014), which provides a set of 12 strategic recommendations to help governments move from e-government towards digital government.

The OECD Integrity Review of Argentina (2019b) provides recommendations for building a coherent and co-ordinated public integrity system, including evidence-based integrity policies and supported by a culture of integrity in Argentina. This Review draws on the 2017 OECD Recommendation on Public Integrity, which sets out a vision for a coherent and comprehensive public integrity system (OECD, 2017b).

Finally, in order to strengthen the government’s capacity to manage regulatory policy, the OECD Regulatory Policy Review of Argentina (2019c) analyses the current situation of policies, institutions and tools employed by the Argentinian government to design, implement and enforce regulations of high quality. It includes policies targeting administrative simplification, ex ante and ex post evaluation of regulations, stakeholder engagement practices, and the governance of economic regulators, among others.

Together, these three interlinked Reviews of the OECD Public Governance Directorate constitute a framework for governance reform in Argentina.

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WEF (2016), Global Information Technology Report 2016, World Economic Forum, Geneva, www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-information-technology-report-2016.

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