Annex A. OECD EPIC Survey background

The EPIC Survey relies on a stated preference empirical approach to data collection. As opposed to revealed preference approaches, which make use of data on observed behaviours, stated preference approaches use data gathered by asking individuals to either report their actual behaviour, or report how they would behave in a given hypothetical situation. There are advantages and drawbacks to both revealed and stated preference approaches (OECD, 2018[1]). Although revealed preference approaches have high reliability and validity because they reflect the real-world constraints faced by individuals, this also constitutes a limitation insofar as analyses are limited to addressing only those choices and conditions that are available in real-world contexts. The main challenges of stated preference approaches, on the other hand, include response bias and sample representativeness.

Generally speaking, limitations of analyses based on survey data arise from the extent to which reported responses may differ from actual behaviours (i.e. hypothetical bias) as well as the extent to which the characteristics of survey respondents may diverge from those of the actual population. Hypothetical bias is a well-known issue in stated preference methods and a number of strategies have been employed to mitigate it, including informing respondents that their responses will be used to help develop public policies, and informing them about hypothetical bias and encouraging them to reflect on their choices carefully in light of this tendency. A number of ex-ante and ex-post strategies pertaining to survey design and statistical methods, respectively, can also be used to mitigate other biases (e.g. anchoring, order effects).

Despite the challenges identified above, stated preference approaches offer a number of significant advantages over revealed preference approaches when it comes to ex-ante policy evaluation (OECD, 2018[1]). Discrete choice experiments, for example, are well-suited to analysing choice in the context of relatively complex, multi-dimensional issues (Bateman et al., 2002[2]; OECD, 2018[1]). Flexibility to define decision scenarios allows for an evaluation of the impact of hypothetical policy interventions. Stated preference approaches also generate valuations of changes in health status and environmental quality that provide critical input into cost-benefit analyses.

Development of the survey was guided by a Steering Committee comprised of WPIEEP Delegates who provided input regarding policy issues of interest and relevant contextual considerations in their respective countries. A Scientific Advisory Committee of methodological and thematic area experts provided input regarding methodological best practice in survey design in light of the analytical objectives of the work. Finally an internal coordination group involving the IEA, ITF, and TAD also provided policy and technical feedback during the development of the survey instrument.

To start with, we want to learn a few things about you and your household.

1. What is your date of birth?

2. Do you have full or partial responsibility for any household purchases (e.g. utilities, groceries, vehicle purchases)?

  1. 1. Yes

  2. 2. No >> screen out

3. What is your biological sex?

  1. 1. Male

  2. 2. Female

  3. 3. Intersex

  4. 4. Prefer not to say

4. What gender do you identify as?

  1. 1. Man

  2. 2. Woman

  3. 3. Other

  4. 4. Prefer not to say

SCREEN:

In this survey, we often refer to households. Please note that we define a household as including one or several persons (family or non-family members) living in the same residence on a regular basis and sharing all or part of their living expenses (e.g. utilities, groceries).

Unless stated otherwise, please answer each question as it pertains to your current situation and behavior.

Remember that your answers to all questions in this survey are confidential.

5. Which of these ranges best reflects the approximate combined current monthly income of everyone in the household, after tax? Please include income from all sources, including wages, government pensions, benefits and investments.

  1. 1. Less than EUR 1 450

  2. 2. Between EUR 1 450 – 1 899

  3. 3. Between EUR 1 900 – 2 399

  4. 4. Between EUR 2 400 – 3 049

  5. 5. EUR 3 050 or more

  6. 6. Don’t know

  7. 7. Prefer not to answer

6. How would you best describe the area in which you live?

  1. 1. Major town/city

  2. 2. Suburban (fringes of a major town/city)

  3. 3. Small town or village

  4. 4. Isolated dwelling (not in a town or village)

  5. 5. Other

7. How would you define your status in your current primary residence?

  1. 1. Living in a residence owned by yourself or your household

  2. 2. Living in a residence rented by yourself or your household

  3. 3. Living in another type of accommodation, e.g. university dormitory, army base, retirement home

8. How would you describe your primary residence?

  1. 1. An apartment in a building with less than 12 apartments in total

  2. 2. An apartment in a building with 12 or more apartments

  3. 3. A detached house

  4. 4. A semi-detached/terraced house

  5. 5. Other

9. What is the size of your primary residence? (Please estimate)

  1. 1. Less than 25 m2 (Less than 270 ft2)

  2. 2. 25 m2 –50 m2 (270 ft2 - 540 ft2)

  3. 3. 51 m2–75 m2 (541 ft2 - 807 ft2)

  4. 4. 76 m2–100 m2 (808 ft2 - 1070 ft2)

  5. 5. 101 m2–150 m2 (1071 ft2 - 1610 ft2)

  6. 6. 151 m2–200 m2 (1611 ft2 - 2150 ft2)

  7. 7. More than 200 m2 (More than 2150 ft2)

  8. 8. Don’t know

10. Do you have access to a garden or outdoor space in your primary residence (can be private or shared)?

  1. 1. Yes

  2. 2. No

11. How would you define your current household situation?

  1. 1. Married or living as a couple (with or without children)

  2. 2. Living with parents or other relatives

  3. 3. Living alone

  4. 4. Living as a single parent

  5. 5. Sharing a house/flat with non-family members

  6. 6. Other

12. How many adults of 18 years old or more (including yourself) usually live in your household?

  1. 1. 1

  2. 2. 2

  3. 3. 3

  4. 4. 4

  5. 5. 5 or more

13. How many children/minors in the following age ranges usually live in your household?

14. What is the highest level of education that you have completed?

  1. 1. No formal education/Some primary school

  2. 2. High school diploma (including apprenticeship or technical diplomas)

  3. 3. Some post-secondary education

  4. 4. Bachelor’s degree (BA, BS)

  5. 5. Post graduate degree (Master, PhD or equivalent)

  6. 6. Other

15. What is your current employment status? Note: Temporary leave can refer to furlough, sick leave, or parental leave.

  1. 1. Self-employed

  2. 2. Full time employee (employed or on temporary leave)

  3. 3. Part time employee (employed or on temporary leave)

  4. 4. Retired

  5. 5. Homemaker – househusband/wife

  6. 6. Seeking a job/unemployed

  7. 7. Student

  8. 8. Unable to work, e.g. disability

  9. 9. Other

16. In what sector are you employed (or were you last employed)?

  1. 1. Administration/Government

  2. 2. Leisure and hospitality

  3. 3. Economics/Finance/Insurance

  4. 4. Agriculture, fisheries or forestry

  5. 5. Transportation

  6. 6. Manufacturing/Construction

  7. 7. Information technologies and communication

  8. 8. Education/Research

  9. 9. Health/Social services

  10. 10. Wholesale or retail trade

  11. 11. Justice

  12. 12. Other sector

  13. 13. Not applicable/I have never been employed

17. How often do you feel worried about not being able to live on your household’s current income?

  1. 1. Never

  2. 2. Once every few months

  3. 3. Once a month

  4. 4. Once a week

  5. 5. Every day

  6. 6. Prefer not to say

18. Have you or someone in your household experienced a significant change in income (+/- 20%) at any point in the past two years? Please consider income from all sources, including wages, government pensions and benefits and investments.

  1. 1. Yes, for reasons related to the Covid-19 pandemic

  2. 2. Yes, for reasons unrelated to the Covid-19 pandemic

  3. 3. No

  4. 4. I don’t know

  5. 5. Prefer not to say

[ IF Q19 == 1 OR Q19 == 2]

19. How much did your household’s income change? Please take into account any unemployment compensation or Covid-related support you may have received.

20. Please indicate approximately how often you telework for your current job. Teleworking refers to working from home while communicating with your office by phone, email, or using the internet.

21. How satisfied are you with your life at the moment?

22. Now please recall your life satisfaction prior to the Covid 19 pandemic. How has your life satisfaction changed as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic?

23. How important are each of the following issues to you personally?

[ IF any Q23 >= 2 ]

24. Which of the following environmental issues are you most concerned with? Please select your top three.

25. How do you expect climate change (e.g. rising average temperatures, changes in extreme weather events) or other environmental issues to impact the following?

26. How satisfied are you with the following aspects of your local environment?

27. Imagine you are looking for a new place to live. How important is it to you to live close to green space?

28. How has the importance of green space to you changed since the Covid-19 pandemic? It has become…

29. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements?

30. Please indicate the sources of information you trust the most when it comes to environmental issues. Please rank up to three top sources from 1 (most trustworthy source) to 3 (third most trustworthy source):

31. Do you have confidence in the national government in [country]?

  1. 1. Yes

  2. 2. No

  3. 3. Don’t know

This section contains general questions about energy consumption. In what follows, please consider each question as it pertains to your primary residence.

32. Which of the following energy sources do you use for space heating/cooling? Please select all that apply.

  1. 1. Electricity

  2. 2. Gas

  3. 3. Oil, coal or other fossil fuels

  4. 4. Wood or burning pellets

  5. 5. District heating or cooling

  6. 6. Heat pumps (ambient ground or air temperature is used to provide heating/cooling via a compressor)

  7. 7. Solar space heating

  8. 8. Other

  9. 9. Don´t know

33. Which of the following energy sources do you use for water heating? Please select all that apply.

  1. 1. Electricity

  2. 2. Gas

  3. 3. Oil, coal or other fossil fuels

  4. 4. Wood or burning pellets

  5. 5. District heating or cooling

  6. 6. Heat pumps (ambient ground or air temperature is used to provide heating/cooling via a compressor)

  7. 7. Solar thermal

  8. 8. Other

  9. 9. Don´t know

34. Which of the following energy sources do you use for cooking? Please select all that apply.

  1. 1. Electricity

  2. 2. Gas (bottled, main, etc.)

  3. 3. Biomass

  4. 4. Oil

  5. 5. Other

  6. 6. Don´t know

35. How is your electricity supplied?

  1. 1. Supplied from a provider through the standard grid.

  2. 2. Supplied from a local mini- or micro- grid. (These grids generate electricity on a small scale and distribute it to a limited number of people operating independently of national networks.)

  3. 3. Self-supplied by a system owned by one or more members of your household (for instance solar panels or a wind turbine).

  4. 4. Other

  5. 5. Don’t know

36. How much was the average monthly cost for the electricity used by your primary residence over the past year? Please provide an approximate estimate (+/- 10%) :

37. Have any of the following been proposed to you by your energy provider?

[ IF Q37c == “Yes and I have chosen this option” ]

38. Do you use the information collected by your smart meter?

  1. 1. I use the information from the smart meter and it has helped me to reduce my household’s electricity consumption

  2. 2. I look at the information from the smart meter but I have not used this information to reduce my electricity consumption

  3. 3. I don’t look at the information displayed from the smart meter

  4. 4. This information is not provided to me

39. Thinking about your energy use at home, what statement best describes your household?

  1. 1. I/we use as much electricity and fuel as I/we want

  2. 2. I/we cannot use as much as I/we need due to the high cost

  3. 3. I/we satisfy my/our needs but try to minimise use for financial reasons

  4. 4. I/we satisfy my/our needs but try to minimise use for environmental reasons

  5. 5. I/ we cannot use as much as I/we need due to unreliable/unavailable supply

  6. 6. Other

  7. 7. Don’t know

40. How often do you do the following in your daily life?

[For respondents that don’t always engage in all energy efficiency behaviours in Q40]

41. Your answers on the previous question indicate that you do not always try to reduce energy consumption in your household. Please help us understand the most important reasons why not: Please select all that apply:

  1. 1. I am willing to change my habits but I forget to do so

  2. 2. Environmental issues are important to me but it’s too difficult to change my habits

  3. 3. I don’t believe a serious environmental problem related to energy consumption exists

  4. 4. Others in my household would not cooperate or I would receive criticism from those around me

  5. 5. I feel like my other environmental actions already make enough of a difference

  6. 6. My behaviour changes will not make a difference

  7. 7. I won’t see any personal benefit from changing my behaviour

  8. 8. I don’t know how to decrease my energy consumption further

  9. 9. I feel confident that technological innovations will solve environmental problems

  10. 10. Other

42. Have you installed any of the following items over the past ten years in your current primary residence?

[Only show items for which the respondent answered Yes in Q42]

43. Has governmental financial support (e.g. grants, loans with below-market interest rates, tax exemptions) encouraged you to install any of the following items in your residence?

[Only show items for which the respondent answered No to in Q42]

44. Why haven’t you installed the following items?

45. How important would the following factors be in encouraging you to reduce your energy consumption?

46. To what extent do you support the following potential policy measures?

47. Do you think that low-income households should receive special government support (e.g. subsidies) to help them do this?

  1. 1. Yes

  2. 2. No

  3. 3. Don’t know

Example discrete choice experiment:

Please imagine that you have the opportunity to select a new electricity provider for your household if you wish. Below you will be presented with scenarios in which you can choose to switch to a new provider or to stay with your current provider. Please assume that, apart from the differences shown, the providers do not differ in any other way (e.g. regarding the reliability of the electricity supply, etc). Your current provider costs EUR XX/kWh and emits XXg CO2e/kWh, which are average for [insert country]. The average amount of greenhouse gas emissions emitted per kWh of electricity across all OECD countries is 384g CO2e/kWh.

Given the different options available in each of the following scenarios, please indicate which provider you would choose:

48. Do you or does anyone in your household regularly use any of the following (including company-provided equipment)? Please select all that apply.

[If respondents indicate that the household regularly uses a car in Q48]

49. How old is the newest car that you or other members of your household use?

  1. 1. 0-4 years old

  2. 2. 5-9 years old

  3. 3. 10-14 years old

  4. 4. 15 or more years old

  5. 5. Don’t know

50. Do you or does anyone in your household regularly use any of the following (including company-provided equipment)? Please select all that apply.

51. Please select which statement best describes the availability of charging stations for electric cars near you:

  1. 1. I can charge an electric car in my driveway or in my garage

  2. 2. I can charge an electric car at work

  3. 3. I can charge an electric car on the street or in the parking lot where I park

  4. 4. I can charge an electric car within 3 kilometres/2 miles from my home or my workplace

  5. 5. There are no charging stations in my area

  6. 6. Don’t know

[If respondents indicate that the household does not regularly use a car in Q48]

52. Please rank up to three top reasons from 1 (most important reason) to 3 (third most important reason) why your household does not use a car:

53. Thinking of your personal travel, how do you usually travel to each of the following activities? Please select your primary mode of transport.

54. In a typical year, how often do you make long distance trips (over 100 miles/200km one way) for work-related purposes?

55. In a typical year, how often do you make long distance trips (over 100 miles/200km one way) for leisure-related purposes?

56. Compared to before the Covid-19 pandemic, how often do you expect to use the following modes of transport once the pandemic is well under control?

57. To what extent would you support the following policies aiming to reduce environmental impacts from air travel?

58. What do you think about the following actions governments can take to reduce environmental impacts from cars?

[ If respondents indicate that the household regularly uses a car in Q48]

59. Would better public transport services (e.g. more frequent, more accessible, etc.) lead you to use a car less?

  1. 1. Yes

  2. 2. No

  3. 3. Don’t know

[ IF Q59 == 1 ]

60. You indicated that better public transport services would lead you to drive car less. Which aspects of public transport would be most important in changing your driving habits?

61. Do you intend to or could you imagine purchasing or leasing a new/used car in the near future (up to two years from now)?

  1. 1. Yes, purchasing

  2. 2. Yes, leasing

  3. 3. No

  4. 4. Don’t know

62. If you were to purchase or lease a new/used car, which type of car would you be most interested in?

  1. 1. Small car (city car or subcompact, Classes A and B)

  2. 2. Medium-sized car (compact or medium-sized car, Classes C and D)

  3. 3. Large car (Class E)

  4. 4. SUV

  5. 5. Pick-up truck

  6. 6. Van

  7. 7. Don´t know

63. If you were to purchase a new car, what do you expect the price range of the vehicle to be?

  1. 1. EUR 5-9K {or local currency equivalent}

  2. 2. EUR 10-14K {or local currency equivalent}

  3. 3. EUR 15-19K {or local currency equivalent}

  4. 4. EUR 20-24K {or local currency equivalent}

  5. 5. EUR 25-29K {or local currency equivalent}

  6. 6. EUR 30-34K {or local currency equivalent}

  7. 7. EUR 35-39K {or local currency equivalent}

  8. 8. EUR 40-44K {or local currency equivalent}

  9. 9. EUR 45-49K {or local currency equivalent}

  10. 10. EUR 50-59K {or local currency equivalent}

  11. 11. EUR 60-69K {or local currency equivalent}

  12. 12. EUR 70K or more {or local currency equivalent}

  13. 13. I don’t know

64. If you were to purchase or lease a new or used car, which fuel type would you be most interested in?

  1. 1. Gasoline

  2. 2. Diesel

  3. 3. Autogas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG)

  4. 4. Hybrid

  5. 5. Plug-in Hybrid

  6. 6. Battery electric

  7. 7. Hydrogen

  8. 8. Other

  9. 9. Don’t know

Example discrete choice experiment:

Please imagine that you are purchasing or leasing a new/used vehicle. Apart from the characteristics described below, the vehicles are the same in all other ways (e.g. comfort, safety, etc). Please choose which vehicle you would buy/lease:

In this section we will ask you about your waste disposal habits. Please note that by recyclable waste, we mean waste and materials that can be processed and used again, such as recyclable plastic bottles, paper, cardboard, glass and recyclable metal.

65. On average, how many of the following bags/bins of mixed waste (i.e. non-recyclable and non-compostable waste) does your household generate each week?

66. How do you dispose of your mixed (non-recyclable, non-compostable) waste? Please select your primary method of disposal:

  1. 1. Mixed waste is collected directly from my residence.

  2. 2. I dispose of my mixed waste in containers located in my building/neighbourhood.

  3. 3. I dispose of my mixed waste at a landfill, incinerator, or drop-off location.

  4. 4. Other

67. How is your household charged for the collection of mixed (non-recyclable, non-compostable) waste at your primary residence? Please select the most relevant option:

  1. 1. Flat fee (e.g. lump sum included in property taxes, charges or rent)

  2. 2. According to volume (e.g. per bag, per container, bag tags)

  3. 3. According to weight (e.g. per kg, pound)

  4. 4. According to frequency of collection (e.g. how often the waste is collected)

  5. 5. According to size of household or residence

  6. 6. Other form of charging

  7. 7. Not charged

  8. 8. Don’t know

68. On average, how many of the following bags/bins of recyclable waste does your household generate each week (not including compostable waste)?

69. What is the main waste collection service you use to dispose of the following?

70. Please indicate approximately what percentage of each the following items your household recycles or composts:

[If respondent indicates composting at least <10% of food waste in Q70]

71. Do you compost your food waste at home or in a collective facility?

  1. 1. At home

  2. 2. In a collective facility (e.g. it is brought to a composting site)

[ If Q69h == <10% OR If Q69h == 25% OR If Q69h == 50% ]

72. What are the main reasons you do not compost more? Please select all that apply:

  1. 1. I don’t have enough knowledge on the topic

  2. 2. There is not enough storage space at home

  3. 3. There are no available space in collective specialized facilities near my home

  4. 4. I don’t see the benefits of doing it

  5. 5. It requires too much organisation

  6. 6. It can be unpleasant (e.g. smells, attracts insects)

  7. 7. Compost collection services are too expensive

  8. 8. Other

  9. 9. Don’t know

73. Please rank up to three most important factors from 1 (most important) to 3 (third most important) that would encourage your household to recycle or compost more.

74. How often does your household do the following?

75. In general, how do you dispose of old or broken electronic and electric equipment? Please select all that apply:

  1. 1. Store at home/store indefinitely

  2. 2. Dispose of with mixed waste

  3. 3. Get old equipment taken away by the retailer when new replacement equipment is delivered

  4. 4. Return old equipment at the shop where I have bought new equipment

  5. 5. Use specialised disposal/collection service

  6. 6. Give to charity

  7. 7. They are collected with my recyclables

  8. 8. Resell for parts use or refurbishment

  9. 9. Other

76. Approximately how much did the volume of mixed (non-recyclable, non-compostable) waste your household produces change as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic?

77. Approximately how much did the volume of recyclable and compostable waste your household produces change as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic?

78. What type of food does your household usually throw away? Please exclude non-edible parts of food, e.g. peelings, apple cores, etc. Please select all that apply:

  1. 1. Fruits/vegetables

  2. 2. Bread

  3. 3. Meat/seafood

  4. 4. Dairy/eggs

  5. 5. Packaged foods meant to be stored outside the fridge (like cereal, cookies, canned vegetables, etc.)

  6. 6. Leftovers from homemade meals

  7. 7. My household never throws away food

[ Skip if Q78 == 7 ]

79. How often do you throw away (e.g., discard in the trash, garbage disposal, compost, etc.) food for the following reasons?

[ IF Q79b ≠ Never ]

80. You indicated that you throw food away because it spoils. What typically happens that leads your food to spoil? Please select all that apply:

  1. 1. Bought too much

  2. 2. Made too much

  3. 3. Lost track of in the fridge or cupboard

  4. 4. Too busy to prepare the food

  5. 5. Did not know what to do with or how to use

  6. 6. Other

[ Skip if respondent answered Q78 == 7]

81. What information, if any, would be helpful in reducing the amount of food your household throws away? Please select all that apply:

  1. 1. How to store specific items

  2. 2. How to interpret food date labels (use by, sell by, etc.)

  3. 3. What can be frozen and for how long

  4. 4. What foods are dangerous when spoiled versus simply unappealing

  5. 5. Recipes to help use up extra food

  6. 6. Planning shopping or portions (e.g. using specialized tools or apps)

  7. 7. Don’t know

Example discrete choice experiment:

Please imagine that you are purchasing laundry detergent. The detergent can be bought in either a non-recyclable container that you can dispose of after use, a recyclable container that you can recycle after use, or a refillable container that you can re-use. You pay a one-time deposit for the refillable container and for subsequent purchases you only pay for the detergent that you fill it with. Please keep in mind that using a refillable container requires bringing the empty container to the store and cleaning it after each use. Apart from the characteristics described below, the detergents are the same in all ways (e.g. effectiveness, ingredients, smell). The detergent can be either in liquid form or in solid form. Given the options below, please select which product you would buy:

82. Where does your food typically come from?

84. How often do you personally do the following?

85. How often do you personally do the following?

86. Compared to before the Covid-19 pandemic, how often do you expect to do the following once the Covid-19 pandemic is well under control?

87. What is most important to you when you are choosing which foods to buy? Please select up to five of the following:

88. What do you think of the following measures to improve the environmental sustainability of food systems?

[ If respondents eat meat as indicated by Q83 ]

89. If available in the future, would you be willing to substitute conventional meat with lab-grown meat? (Lab-grown meat is made from animal cells in a laboratory and not from a slaughtered animal).

  1. 1. Yes

  2. 2. No

  3. 3. Don’t know

[ If Q88 == 2 ]

90. Why would you be reluctant to eat lab-grown meat? Please select all that apply:

  1. 1. Too expensive

  2. 2. Inferior taste or nutritional value

  3. 3. Incompatible with my culture and/or values

  4. 4. I don’t think it would be available for me to buy

  5. 5. I am suspicious of lab-grown alternatives (e.g. health impacts)

  6. 6. Other

Example discrete choice experiment:

Please imagine that you wish to select a plate of food from several options as your typical meal. Each plate has one portion of vegetables, one portion of grains, and one portion of protein, as shown below. Apart from the differences described below, the quality of the ingredients in each of the meals is the same, and all of the meals contain the same number of calories. Given the following options, please choose which plate you would buy:

References

[2] Bateman, I. et al. (2002), “Economic valuation with stated preference techniques: a manual.”, Economic valuation with stated preference techniques: a manual..

[1] OECD (2018), Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment: Further Developments and Policy Use, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264085169-en.

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